[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High mammographic density (MD) is used as a phenotype risk marker for developing breast cancer. During pregnancy and lactation the breast attains full development, with a cellular-proliferation followed by a lobular-differentiation stage. This study investigates the influence of obstetric factors on MD among pre- and post-menopausal women. We enrolled 3,574 women aged 45-68 years who were participating in breast cancer screening programmes in seven screening centers. To measure MD, blind anonymous readings were taken by an experienced radiologist, using craniocaudal mammography and Boyd's semiquantitative scale. Demographic and reproductive data were directly surveyed by purpose-trained staff at the date of screening. The association between MD and obstetric variables was quantified by ordinal logistic regression, with screening centre introduced as a random effect term. We adjusted for age, number of children and body mass index, and stratified by menopausal status. Parity was inversely associated with density, the probability of having high MD decreased by 16% for each new birth (P value < 0.001). Among parous women, a positive association was detected with duration of lactation [>9 months: odds ratio (OR) = 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.72] and weight of first child (>3,500 g: OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.12-1.54). Age at first birth showed a different effect in pre- and post-menopausal women (P value for interaction = 0.030). No association was found among pre-menopausal women. However, in post-menopausal women the probability of having high MD increased in women who had their first child after the age of 30 (OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.17-2.00). A higher risk associated with birth of twins was also mainly observed in post-menopausal women (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.18-3.46). Our study shows a greater prevalence of high MD in mothers of advanced age at first birth, those who had twins, those who have breastfed for longer periods, and mothers whose first child had an elevated birth weight. These results suggest the influence of hormones and growth factors over the proliferative activity of the mammary gland.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2012; 132(3):1137-46. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A healthy diet is especially important during menopause, a period which increases the risk of various health problems. We analyzed the diet of periand postmenopausal Spanish women and the degree of compliance with current recommendations.
We studied 3574 women 45-68 years old who attended breast cancer screening programmes in 7 centres (A Coruña, Barcelona, Burgos, Palma de Mallorca, Pamplona, Valencia and Zaragoza). Diet information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire validated for the Spanish population. For the assessment of compliance with current guidelines we used the recommendations by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition for food groups intake and by the Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Food and Dietetics for energy, vitamins and minerals intake.
The 29% of women were obese and 42% overweight. The average caloric intake was 2.053 kcal (SD 480). The general energy profile was: 43% of the energy from the carbohydrates, 36% from fats, and 20% from proteins. There was a low vitamin D intake in all centres of the study, with an overall mean intake of 2.14 mg/day. A deficit of vitamin E intake in A Coruña and Burgos was also detected. Intake of dairy products and vegetables was high in all the study centers. The consumption of fruits and vegetables was very heterogeneous, with high intakes observed in Mallorca and Valencia and low for both food groups in A Coruña. The olive oil intake was high in all centers except Burgos with 74.3% of the women studied below the recommended 3 servings per day.
A diet with less fat and protein and a higher consumption of vegetables, nuts and foods rich in carbohydrate might balance the energy intake and improve the quality of the diet correcting the low intakes of vitamins D and E. These recommendations are especially important in cities far from the Mediterranean coast where more breaches have been detected over the current recommendations with a lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet.
Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 08/2011; 26(4):863-73. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammographic density (MD), or the proportion of the breast with respect to its overall area that is composed of dense tissue,
is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Studies support a positive association of mammographic density and alcohol drinking.
This was a cross-sectional multicenter study based on 3584 women, aged 45–68years, recruited from seven screening centers
within the Spanish breast cancer screening program network. The association between MD, alcohol consumption and tobacco use
was evaluated by using ordinal logistic models with random center-specific intercepts. We found a weak positive association
between current alcohol intake and higher MD, with current alcohol consumption increasing the odds of high MD by 13% (OR=1.13;
95% CI 0.99–1.28) and high daily grams of alcohol being positively associated with increased MD (P for trend=0.045). There were no statistically significant differences in MD between smokers and non-smokers. Nevertheless,
increased number of daily cigarettes and increased number of accumulated lifetime cigarettes were negatively associated with
high MD (P for trend 0.017 and 0.021). The effect of alcohol on MD was modified by menopausal status and tobacco smoking: whereas,
alcohol consumption and daily grams of alcohol were positively associated with higher MD in postmenopausal women and in women
who were not currently smoking, alcohol consumption had no effect on MD in premenopausal women and current smokers. Our results
support an association between recent alcohol consumption and high MD, characterized by a modest increase in risk at low levels
of current consumption and a decrease in risk among heavier drinkers. Our study also shows how the effects of alcohol in the
breast can be modified by other factors, such as smoking.
KeywordsMammographic density–Alcohol–Smoking–Breast cancer–Ordinal logistic models
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2011; 129(1):135-147. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased mammographic breast density is a moderate risk factor for breast cancer. Different scales have been proposed for classifying mammographic density. This study sought to assess intra-rater agreement for the most widely used scales (Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd) and compare them in terms of classifying mammograms as high- or low-density.
The study covered 3572 mammograms drawn from women included in the DDM-Spain study, carried-out in seven Spanish Autonomous Regions. Each mammogram was read by an expert radiologist and classified using the Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd scales. In addition, 375 mammograms randomly selected were read a second time to estimate intra-rater agreement for each scale using the kappa statistic. Owing to the ordinal nature of the scales, weighted kappa was computed. The entire set of mammograms (3572) was used to calculate agreement among the different scales in classifying high/low-density patterns, with the kappa statistic being computed on a pair-wise basis. High density was defined as follows: percentage of dense tissue greater than 50% for the Boyd, "heterogeneously dense and extremely dense" categories for the BI-RADS, categories P2 and DY for the Wolfe, and categories IV and V for the Tabár scales.
There was good agreement between the first and second reading, with weighted kappa values of 0.84 for Wolfe, 0.71 for Tabár, 0.90 for BI-RADS, and 0.92 for Boyd scale. Furthermore, there was substantial agreement among the different scales in classifying high- versus low-density patterns. Agreement was almost perfect between the quantitative scales, Boyd and BI-RADS, and good for those based on the observed pattern, i.e., Tabár and Wolfe (kappa 0.81). Agreement was lower when comparing a pattern-based (Wolfe or Tabár) versus a quantitative-based (BI-RADS or Boyd) scale. Moreover, the Wolfe and Tabár scales classified more mammograms in the high-risk group, 46.61 and 37.32% respectively, while this percentage was lower for the quantitative scales (21.89% for BI-RADS and 21.86% for Boyd).
Visual scales of mammographic density show a high reproducibility when appropriate training is provided. Their ability to distinguish between high and low risk render them useful for routine use by breast cancer screening programs. Quantitative-based scales are more specific than pattern-based scales in classifying populations in the high-risk group.