Hyeong Ryul Kim

Seoul National University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (35)121.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Thoracoscopic wedge resection is generally accepted as a standard surgical procedure for primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Because of the relatively high recurrence rate after surgery, additional procedures such as mechanical pleurodesis or visceral pleural coverage are usually applied to minimize recurrence, although mechanical pleurodesis has some potential disadvantages. The aim of this study was to clarify whether an additional coverage procedure on the staple line after thoracoscopic bullectomy prevents postoperative recurrence compared with additional pleurodesis. A total of 1,414 patients in 11 hospitals with primary spontaneous pneumothorax undergoing thoracoscopic bullectomy were enrolled. After bullectomy with staplers, patients were randomly assigned to either the coverage group (n = 757) or the pleurodesis group (n = 657). In the coverage group, the staple line was covered with absorbable cellulose mesh and fibrin glue. The pleurodesis group underwent additional mechanical abrasion on the parietal pleura. The coverage group and the pleurodesis group showed comparable surgical outcomes. After a median follow-up of 19.5 months, the postoperative 1-year recurrence rate was 9.5% in the coverage group and 10.7% in the pleurodesis group. The 1-year recurrence rate requiring intervention was 5.8% in the coverage group and 7.8% in the pleurodesis group. The coverage group showed better recovery from pain. In terms of postoperative recurrence rate, visceral pleural coverage after thoracoscopic bullectomy was not inferior to mechanical pleurodesis. Visceral pleural coverage may potentially replace mechanical pleurodesis, which has potential disadvantages such as disturbed normal pleural physiology. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 12/2014; 98(6):2005-11. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some esophageal cancer patients may have residual nodal metastases following pathologic complete response (pCR) of the primary tumor after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). This study examines the prognosis according to lymph node metastases in pathologic T0 patients who received neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgery for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 10/2014; · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To better understand the complete genomic architecture of lung adenocarcinoma (LA). Experimental Design: We used array experiments to determine copy number variations and sequenced the complete exomes of the 247 LA tumor samples along with matched normal cells obtained from the same patients. Fully annotated clinical data were also available, providing an unprecedented opportunity to assess the impact of genomic alterations on clinical outcomes. Results: We discovered that genomic alternations in the RB pathway are associated with significantly shorter disease-free survival in early-stage LA patients. This association was also observed in our independent validation cohort. The current treatment guidelines for early-stage LA patients recommend follow-up without adjuvant therapy after complete resection, except for high-risk patients. However, our findings raise the interesting possibility that additional clinical interventions might provide medical benefits to early-stage LA patients with genomic alterations in the RB pathway. When examining the association between genomic mutation and histological subtype, we uncovered the characteristic genomic signatures of various histological subtypes. Notably, the solid and the micropapillary subtypes demonstrated great diversity in the mutated genes, while the mucinous subtype exhibited the most unique landscape. This suggests that a more tailored therapeutic approach should be used to treat LA patients. Conclusion: Our analysis of the genomic and clinical data for 247 LAs should help provide a more comprehensive genomic portrait of LA, define molecular signatures of LA subtypes, and lead to the discovery of useful prognostic markers that could be used in personalized treatments for early-stage LA patients.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2014; · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of non-surgical treatments (NS), such as chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy, for clinical T1N0M0 esophageal cancer (cT1N0M0 EC) has not been well delineated. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the feasibility and efficacy of NS and Surgical treatment (S) in cT1N0M0 EC patients.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 09/2014; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is no consensus on the management of bronchogenic cyst, most surgeons advocate early removal, even in asymptomatic patients. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) in the management of bronchogenic cysts and long-term follow-up, a retrospective analysis was performed.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 07/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background We aimed to investigate the value of routine flexible bronchoscopy (FB) for the preoperative assessment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) diagnosed using percutaneous core needle biopsy (PCNB). Methods We enrolled 688 NSCLC patients who were treated at our hospital between January 2003 and December 2012 and who met the following criteria: (1) early-stage lung cancer (stage I or II); (2) lung cancer had been diagnosed using PCNB; and (3) no evidence of endobronchial disease in the airways other than the primary cancer site on both chest computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT). All NSCLC patients were from the same tertiary referral center, where FB is routinely performed preoperatively for this disease, and their medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Results Of the 688 patients included in the study, 451 (65.6%) were male and the median age was 65 years. Pathology analysis revealed that adenocarcinoma was the most frequently observed cell type (516/688, 75.0%). The distribution of preoperative clinical staging for the 688 patients was (1) IA (54.5%, 375/688); (2) IB (22.1%, 152/688); (3) IIA (18.2%, 125/688); and (4) IIB (5.2%, 36/688). The majority of these patients (95.2%, 655/688) underwent surgical resection. Unsuspected malignant endobronchial lesion on FB was found in only two cases (0.3%), and the surgical strategy had to be modified for both of these patients. Conclusion Preoperative FB is not beneficial for screening the airways of almost any patient with early-stage NSCLC, provided that neither PET-CT nor CT reveal any evidence of endobronchial malignant involvement other than at the primary cancer site.
    The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 07/2014; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to assess the incidence, survival, and risk factors associated with unsuspected pathologic N2 disease in patients with resectable clinical N0-1 non-small cell lung cancer. Between January 2002 and December 2010, 1,821 patients with clinical N0-1 non-small cell lung cancer underwent pulmonary resection and mediastinal lymph node dissection. Clinical outcomes and risk factors for pathologic N2 disease were retrospectively analyzed for this cohort. Unsuspected pathologic N2 disease was identified in 196 patients (10.8%). The most common type of resection was lobectomy (81.6%). Adjuvant therapy was administered in 177 patients (90.3%). The median follow-up time was 28 months (range, 1 to 101 months). N2 involvement was single-station in 121 (66.8%) and multiple-station in 65 (33.2%). The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 56.1% and 35.0%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates of single-station and multiple-station N2 were 66.6% and 36.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). Adenocarcinoma, clinical N1, tumor size (>3 cm), and a right middle lobe tumor were identified as independent risk factors for unsuspected multiple-station N2 disease by multivariate analysis. Incidence of unsuspected multiple-station N2 disease in low-risk classes (aggregate score, 0 to ≤2) was only 5.5%. The incidence of unsuspected N2 disease in our cohort was similar to that of previous reports. Survival outcomes were favorable for unsuspected single-station N2 disease but were poor for unsuspected multiple-station N2 disease. Clinical N0-1 non-small cell lung cancer patients with risk class of low score for unsuspected multiple-station N2 disease can be exempted from aggressive mediastinal staging.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 04/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    Won-Young Lee, Choi Se Hoon, Hyeong Ryul Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary and/or bronchial aneurysm with systemic thrombophlebitis can be seen in the case of both Behcet's disease and Hughes-Stovin syndrome. These two diseases may be indistinguishable since the clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings are similar in both cases. In particular, from the perspective of pulmonary involvement, hemoptysis is the leading cause of death in both conditions and is followed by aneurysmal rupture. Here, we report a case in which surgical resection was performed for a patient presenting recurrent hemoptysis as an atypical presentation of Behcet's disease.
    The Korean journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 04/2014; 47(2):178-180.
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    Ho Jin Kim, Soyeon An, Hyeong Ryul Kim
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    ABSTRACT: We report a rare case of granular cell tumor arising in the left lower lobe (LLL) bronchus with secondary obstructive change in a 60-year-old male. The patient was found to have a nodule in the LLL on a computed tomography scan, three months prior to his presentation to the Asan Medical Center. Bronchoscopic biopsies revealed a granular cell tumor. After undergoing LLL lobectomy with bronchoplasty, the patient has not experienced any tumor recurrence.
    The Korean journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 04/2014; 47(2):193-196.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify perioperative risk factors for postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery. A retrospective analysis of the prospectively collected medical data. A tertiary care university hospital. All consecutive adult patients (n = 595) who underwent elective esophageal surgery for cancer between January 2005 and April 2012. None. AKI was defined by the AKI Network criteria based on serum creatinine changes within the first 48 hours after esophageal cancer surgery. The relationship between perioperative variables and AKI was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Postoperative AKI developed in 210 (35.3%) patients. Risk factors for AKI were body mass index (odds ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.14), preoperative serum albumin level (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.33-0.84), use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.05-1.75), colloid infusion during surgery (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.06-1.18), and postoperative 2-day C-reactive protein (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09). Postoperative AKI was associated with prolonged length of hospital stay. Postoperative AKI is common in patients undergoing esophageal surgery for cancer. Closer evaluation and monitoring in patients with risk factors for AKI may be warranted.
    Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 03/2014; · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma that involves the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract is rare and studies relating to endoscopic and pathologic findings with clinical outcomes are lacking. We reviewed the gross and microscopic patterns of the upper GI tract in primary and metastatic melanoma, and examined their association with clinical outcomes. Twenty-nine cases of primary esophageal (n = 19) and metastatic gastric and/or duodenal melanoma (n = 10) that were detected during upper GI endoscopy between 1995 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Three types of gross patterns were recognized-nodular pattern in 7 cases, mass-forming pattern in 18 cases, and flat pigmented pattern in 4 cases. In primary esophageal melanoma, 13 patients (68.4 %) underwent surgery and 9 received palliative therapy. Of all cases, 22 patients (75.9 %) died of disease progression; the median overall survival period was 12 months (interquartile range [IQR] 4.5-24.5 months), and from recognition of upper GI tract melanoma the median overall survival period was 9 months (IQR 3.5-17.0 months). In primary esophageal cases, skin melanoma stage better discriminated the patients with good prognosis than the esophageal cancer stage. The flat pigmented gross pattern proved to be a good prognostic factor in primary and metastatic GI tract melanomas (p = 0.016 and p = 0.046, respectively). Melanoma of the GI tract is a highly aggressive disease with a poor prognosis, both in primary and metastatic cases. However, in primary esophageal melanoma, careful inspection of the mucosa during endoscopic examination followed by surgical resection may result in extended survival.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2014; · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With recent advances in radiology, the detection of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) has become increasingly common. However, there still is no consensus on management, especially on the need for systemic lymph node (LN) dissection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes on the basis of the extent of resection of the primary lesion and mediastinal LN dissection and to carefully suggest appropriate treatment strategies in the patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma presenting as pure ground-glass opacities. From January 2006 to December 2010, 1267 patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma, including adenocarcinoma in situ, underwent curative-intent surgical resection. Among these patients, pure GGNs were confirmed in 48 patients on preoperative chest computed tomography (CT) by an experienced radiologist, and 42 underwent systemic LN dissection or sampling. We retrospectively reviewed the perioperative data and postoperative outcomes. The median age of the patients was 56 (range, 35-78) years, and 26 (54.2%) patients were male. The median size of the nodules was 12 (5-30) mm, and 8 (16.7%) had multiple lesions at the time of operation. The median duration between the initial diagnosis and operation was 4 (0-45) months. Preoperative positron emission tomography/CT was taken in 36 (75.0%) patients, which showed no significant metabolic uptake. For curative resection, lobectomy was performed in 32 (66.7%) patients, segmentectomy in 4, and wedge resection in 12. Clear resection margins were reported in all patients. Forty-two patients underwent systemic mediastinal LN dissection or sampling, and the median number of dissected LNs was 23 (7-53). No LN was reported as positive for malignancy. The median follow-up duration after the first operation was 39 (23-77) months, and there were no cases of late mortality, local recurrence or nodal recurrence. Recurrent GGNs have been developed in 6 (12.5%) patients. For pure GGNs, limited resection can be performed when complete resection is obtained, as it was sufficient for cure and especially because there is high probability of multiple lesions. We were unable to demonstrate any additional therapeutic benefit with mediastinal LN dissection in patients with pure GGNs.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 02/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most cases of Ewing's sarcoma are reported in the bone, and extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma is an extremely rare disease. Here, we report a rare case of primary pulmonary Ewing's sarcoma in a patient with hemoptysis. The patient underwent right upper lung lobe lobectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy and has been free of recurrent disease for 4 years.
    The Korean journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 02/2014; 47(1):47-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Chylothorax associated with pulmonary resection for lung cancer, although rare, must be considered as a potential complication during thoracic surgery. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of a conservative approach (diet or pleurodesis) to the management of chylothorax. Between January 2000 and December 2010, 3,120 consecutive patients underwent pulmonary resection and mediastinal lymph node dissection at our institution. Among them, 67 patients with confirmed chylothorax were retrospectively reviewed. Right-sided chylothorax was more common than left-sided chylothorax (p = 0.033). All patients were initially treated with nil per os (NPO; n = 46) or a low long-chain triglyceride (LCT) diet (n = 21). In the NPO group, 24 patients were successfully treated with diet alone and 20 underwent pleurodesis. In the LCT group, 10 patients were successfully treated with diet alone; of the 11 remaining patients, 4 patients improved after NPO. The 7 patients who did not improve with NPO underwent pleurodesis. No significant differences in chest tube output before and after initial treatment, length of stay, or success rate were observed between patients initially treated with NPO and those receiving low LCT. All 32 pleurodeses performed in 27 patients were successful. Two patients underwent surgery without pleurodesis after dietary treatment failure. Postoperative air leakage or drainage for 5 days greater than 21.6 mL/kg were independent risk factors for dietary treatment failure. Conservative treatment, including pleurodesis, should be the first choice of treatment for chylothorax complicating pulmonary resection.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 12/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most patients treated with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) eventually develop acquired resistance. Loss of expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has been suggested as a possible mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKIs in the A431 and HN11 cell lines. Here, we investigated IGFBP-3 expression in two EGFR mutant lung cancer cell lines with resistance to EGFR-TKIs and examined the value of serum IGFBP-3 level as a marker of resistance. The effect of the induction or suppression of IGFBP-3 expression on resistance was also evaluated. HCC827 sublines with resistance to gefitinib (HCC827/GR) and erlotinib (HCC827/ER) were established. Loss of IGFBP-3 expression was detected by Western blotting in both cell lines without changes in transcriptional activity, and ELISA showed significantly lower amounts of secreted IGFBP-3 in the culture media of the mutant cell lines than in that of the parental line. Despite the loss of IGFBP-3 expression, IGFR signalling activity remained unchanged. Forced expression of IGFBP-3 by adenovirus-mediated transfection or recombinant IGFBP-3 slightly increased the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects of EGFR-TKIs, whereas suppression of IGFBP-3 did not affect sensitivity to EGFR-TKI. Serum IGFBP-3 levels measured by ELISA before and after the development of EGFR-TKI resistance in 20 patients showed no significant changes (1815.3±94.6 ng/mL before treatment vs. 1778.9±87.8 ng/mL after EGFR-TKI resistance). In summary, although IGFBP-3 downregulation is associated with the acquisition of resistance to EGFR-TKIs regardless of the mechanism, its effect on resistance was not significant, indicating that IGFBP-3 may not play an important role in resistance to EGFR-TKIs and serum IGFBP-3 level is not a reliable indicator of resistance.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81393. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the role of surgery in complete responders on FDG-PET after CRT and the prognostic significance of metabolic response in locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 154 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer with increased uptake on FDG-PET. Eighty-one patients received definitive CRT and 73 received trimodality therapy. We defined metabolic complete remission (PET-CR) when FDG uptake of the primary tumor and lymph nodes were decreased and was indistinguishable from surrounding normal tissue. Oncologic outcomes were compared between trimodality group, definitive CRT group, and PET-CR subgroup of definitive CRT. Thirty-one (38.3%) of the definitive CRT patients and 39 (53.4%) of the trimodality therapy patients achieved PET-CR after CRT. The 2-year OS of the trimodality group was higher than that of the definitive CRT group, but equivalent to that of the PET-CR subgroup of definitive CRT. The 2-year LRFS and DFS of the trimodality group were higher than that of the PET-CR subgroup or the entire of definitive CRT group. The addition of surgery showed higher DFS and LRFS rates than those of the PET-CR subgroup of definitive CRT. Despite achieving PET-CR, surgery still seems to improve local tumor control. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 12/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    Joo Yeon Kim, Soyeon An, Se Jin Jang, Hyeong Ryul Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Extrauterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumors constitute an extremely rare gestational trophoblastic disease. We report the case of an extrauterine trophoblastic tumor that was incidentally detected in the left lung. Squamous cell carcinoma was suspected after microscopically examining the specimen obtained upon preoperative needle biopsy. After surgery, the tumor was confirmed by microscopic findings and immunohistochemical features.
    The Korean journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 12/2013; 46(6):471-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric conduit cancer (GCC), which is a carcinoma that arises in the gastric conduit after oesophagectomy, often negatively affects long-term survivors of oesophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical implications of GCC. We reviewed data for 863 patients who underwent an oesophagectomy and a reconstruction of the gastric conduit from 1993 to 2011 for oesophageal cancer. A total of 18 cases of GCC in 18 patients were identified. Cumulative incidence rates of GCC were 2.4% at 5 years and 5.7% at 10 years. The median interval between oesophagectomy and detection of gastric tube cancer was 5.0 years (range, 1-16 years). Ten patients were incidentally diagnosed with GCC under periodic endoscopy. All cases of gastric tube cancer were adenocarcinoma and 12 cases were located at the antrum of the gastric conduit. For GCC treatment, endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed in 6 patients, total gastric conduit gastrectomy with colon interposition in 3 patients and chemotherapy in 6 patients. Five patients received conservative treatment alone. The 5-year survival rate of all patients was 22.2%. The 3-year survival rates of the patients who underwent endoscopic resection, total gastrectomy with colon interposition or chemotherapy or conservative treatment were 100, 50, and 9.1%, respectively (P = 0.003). Patients had a constant risk of GCC occurrence after oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer. Endoscopic or surgical resection for early GCC showed favourable outcomes compared with chemotherapy or conservative treatment for advanced GCC. A regular and long-term follow-up, including detailed endoscopy, is essential for the early detection of GCC in patients who underwent oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 10/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with reduced sensitivity to many chemotherapeutic drugs, including EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we investigated if this reduced sensitivity also contributes to resistance to crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor of lung cancer that exhibits the EML4-ALK translocation. We established a crizotinib-resistant subline (H2228/CR), which was derived from the parental H2228 cell line by long-term exposure to increasing concentrations of crizotinib. Characteristics associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT marker proteins, and cellular mobility, were analyzed. Compared with H2228 cells, the growth of H2228/CR cells was independent of EML4-ALK, and H2228/CR cells showed cross-resistance to TAE-684 (a second-generation ALK inhibitor). Phenotypic changes to the spindle-cell shape were noted in H2228/CR cells, which were accompanied by a decrease in E-cadherin and increase in vimentin and AXL. In addition, H2228/CR cells showed increased secretion and expression of TGF-β1. Invasion and migration capabilities were dramatically increased in H2228/CR cells. Applying TGF-β1 treatment to parental H2228 cells for 72 h induced reversible EMT, leading to crizotinib resistance, but this was reversed by the removal of TGF-β1. Suppression of vimentin in H2228/CR cells by siRNA treatment restored sensitivity to crizotinib. Furthermore, these resistant cells remained highly sensitive to the Hsp90 inhibitors, similar to the parental H2228 cells. In conclusion, we suggest EMT is possibly involved in acquired resistance to crizotinib, and that HSP90 inhibitors could be a promising option for the treatment of EMT.
    Molecular oncology 08/2013; · 6.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of multiple primary cancers (MPCs) in patients with esophageal cancer often presents physicians with a difficult therapeutic decision, because little is known about the appropriate treatment and long-term survival. The purpose of this study was to evaluate appropriate surgical approaches and long-term survival after surgery for esophageal cancer associated with MPCs. Data from 622 patients who underwent surgery for primary esophageal cancer between 1989 and 2008 were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of MPCs. A total of 96 MPCs were identified in 90 (14.5 %) patients. The three leading MPCs were stomach cancer (n = 36, 37.5 %), head and neck cancer (n = 18, 18.8 %), and lung cancer (n = 18, 18.8 %). The rate of curative resections for both esophageal cancer and MPCs was 87.5 % (28/32) in patients with stomach cancer, 47.1 % (8/17) in head and neck cancer, and 52.9 % (9/17) in lung cancer (P = 0.006). The 5-year survival rates after surgery for esophageal cancer in patients associated with stomach, lung, and head and neck cancer were 52.7, 27.0, and 9.2 %, respectively (P = 0.011). A range of surgical approaches for esophageal cancer is available in patients associated with MPCs. However, curative resections for primary esophageal cancer associated with MPCs are feasible in highly selected patients. Therefore, a multidisciplinary team management approach is essential for customized treatment strategies in patients with esophageal cancer associated with MPCs.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 08/2013; · 3.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

253 Citations
121.26 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • Asan Medical Center
      • • Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
      • • Department of Oncology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2014
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Gangneung Asan Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      • Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea