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ABSTRACT: Several viral factors are associated with disease progression in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Compared with Taiwanese Han Chinese, Taiwanese aborigines have a higher prevalence of chronic HBV infection and a higher standardized mortality rate of chronic liver diseases but a lower standardized mortality rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate whether aboriginal Taiwanese HBV carriers have more favorable viral factors which reduce the risk for HCC than Han Chinese carriers. Blood samples from 3,488 HBV carriers (1,527 aborigines and 1,961 Han Chinese) were assayed for aminotransferases, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA, and HBV genotype. Aboriginal HBV carriers had a lower HBeAg-positive rate (5.3% vs. 10.2%, P < 0.0001) and a lower viral load of HBV DNA > 2,000 IU/ml (27.4% vs. 36.7%, P < 0.0001) but a higher rate of alcohol consumption (40.0% vs. 19.3%, P < 0.0001) than Han Chinese carriers. The prevalence of HBV genotype B in aboriginal carriers (92.7%) was significantly higher than that in Han Chinese carriers (72.7%) in all age groups (P < 0.05). In addition, patients with rare genotype D infections were clustered in a township in southern Taiwan. In conclusion, aboriginal Taiwanese HBV carriers have more favorable viral factors than Han Chinese carriers, which may be partly responsible for the lower standardized mortality rate of HCC in Taiwanese aborigines.
Journal of Medical Virology 08/2011; 83(8):1326-31. · 2.37 Impact Factor
Gastroenterology 10/2010; 139(6):1836, 2227. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is one of the main treatments for end-stage renal disease. To correct mechanical outflow obstruction after open surgical methods of catheter insertion, laparoscopic techniques are widely employed. ♢
Between January 2001 and December 2006, 228 open Tenckhoff catheter implantations were carried out by mini-laparotomy in 218 patients at our medical center. The procedures were all performed by an experienced surgeon, and the postoperative care, patient education, and long-term follow-up were all conducted by the same peritoneal dialysis team. ♢
Infection of the exit site or tunnel was the most common complication (27/228, 11.8%), followed by peritonitis (18/228, 7.9%) and refractory mechanical catheter obstruction (9/228, 3.9%). The main causes of catheter removal were successful renal transplantation (21/228, 9.2%), peritonitis (18/228, 7.9%), and infection of the exit site or tunnel (7/228, 3.1%). In the 9 cases of refractory mechanical catheter obstruction, laparoscopic surgery was performed to identify the pathology and to rescue the catheter at the same time. Omental wrapping was the major cause (8/9) of catheter obstruction, with blood clot in the lumen and tube migration occurring in the remaining case (1/9). Partial omentectomy was performed in 5 patients to prevent recurrent obstruction. Neither technique failure nor operation-related complications were noted in our laparoscopic rescue group. For 20 of the 25 patients with refractory infection of the exit site or tunnel, the salvage technique of partial re-plantation was performed, with an 85% (17/20) technique survival rate. ♢
With an experienced surgeon and a good postoperative care team, open paramedian placement is a simple, safe, and effective method for Tenckhoff catheter insertion, with a low complication rate. Laparoscopic surgery is effective as rescue for mechanical obstruction, and partial re-plantation is effective as salvage for exit-site or tunnel infection.
Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 02/2010; 30(5):513-8.