ABSTRACT: To evaluate the agreement of bone mineral density (BMD) between lumbar (L) and individual thoracic (T) vertebrae and identify a standard thoracic spine level for BMD assessment in cardiac computed tomography (CT) images.
Three hundred subjects who underwent simultaneous chest and abdomen CT scans for clinical indications were included. A calibration phantom that extended from the first thoracic spine (T(1)) to the fifth lumbar (L(5)) was employed. Vertebral BMD were measured by QCT 5000 and NVivo systems. The association between three consecutive lumbar (L1-L3) and thoracic BMD (3T, initiation site equivalent to left main coronary caudally) was evaluated.
There was a gradual decrease in BMD values from T(1) to L(3,) subsequently increasing in L(4) and L(5) in both genders. When stratified by gender, 3T BMD was significantly higher versus L(1-3) BMD (156.9 versus 141.9vmg/cm(3), P < .001) for women as well as for men (164.8 versus 151.0 mg/cm(3), P < .001). There is good correlation between 3T and L(1-3) BMD, the Pearson's correlation coefficients are 0.91 and 0.93 for women and men, respectively. We further analyzed the associations between L(1-3) and any individual spine of T(1)-L(5) and similar relationships were observed (r value, 0.62-0.98). The intraobserver, interobserver, and interscan variation measurement of thoracic quantitative CT was 2.5 (1.0, 95% CI 0.099-1.004); 2.6 (1.0, 95CI% 0.992-1.007), and 2.8% (1.0,95% 0.0994-1.008), respectively.
The 3T BMD was highly correlated with L(1-3) BMD. Thoracic BMD can be measured during cardiac and lung CT imaging without need for additional participant burden or radiation dose. This highly reproducible methodology is actively being applied to large cohort studies to evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis and track BMD over time.
Academic radiology 11/2011; 19(2):179-83. · 2.09 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Impaired aortic distensibility index (ADI) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. This study evaluates the relation of ADI measured by computed tomographic angiography (CTA) with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Two hundred and twenty-nine subjects,age 63 ± 9 years, 42% female, underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scanning and CTA, and their ADI and Framingham risk score (FRS) were measured. End-systolic and end-diastolic (ED) cross-sectional-area(CSA) of ascending-aorta (AAo) was measured 15-mm above the left-main coronary ostium. ADI was defined as: [(Δlumen-CSA)/(lumen-CSA in ED × systemic-pulse-pressure) × 10(3)]. ADI measured by 2D-trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) was compared with CTA-measured ADI in 26 subjects without CAC. CAC was defined as 0, 1-100, 101-400 and 400+. CAD was defined as luminal stenosis 0, 1-49% and 50%+. There was an excellent correlation between CTA- and TTE-measured ADI (r(2)=0.94, P=0.0001). ADI decreased from CAC 0 to CAC 400+; similarly from FRS 1-9% to FRS 20% + (P<0.05). After adjustment for risk factors, the relative risk for each standard deviation decrease in ADI was 1.66 for CAC 1-100, 2.26 for CAC 101-400 and 2.32 for CAC 400+ as compared to CAC 0; similarly, 2.36 for non-obstructive CAD and 2.67 for obstructive CAD as compared to normal coronaries. The area under the ROC-curve to predict significant CAD was 0.68 for FRS, 0.75 for ADI, 0.81 for CAC and 0.86 for the combination (P<0.05). Impaired aortic distensibility strongly correlates with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Addition of ADI to CAC and traditional risk factors provides incremental value to predict at-risk individuals.
The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 03/2011; 27(3):459-69. · 2.15 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To create standard thoracic bone mineral density (BMD) values for patients undergoing cardiac computed tomography (CT) by using thoracic quantitative CT and to compare these BMDs (in a subpopulation) with those obtained by using lumbar spine quantitative CT.
The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 9585 asymptomatic subjects (mean age, 56 years; age range, 30-90 years) who underwent coronary artery calcium scanning, including 4131 women, were examined. Patients with vertebral deformities or fractures were excluded. Six hundred forty-four subjects (322 of whom were female) also underwent lumbar quantitative CT. The mean thoracic vertebral BMDs for both sexes were reported separately in a subgroup of subjects aged 30 years and in 29 age-based subgroups in 2-year intervals from ages 30 to 90 years. The formulas used to calculate the female T score (T(f)) and the male T score (T(m)) on the basis of thoracic quantitative CT measurements were as follows: T(f) = (BMD(im) - 222)/36, and T(m) = (BMD(im) - 215)/33, where BMD(im) is the individual mean BMD. Comparisons between thoracic quantitative CT and lumbar quantitative CT measurements, as well as analyses of intraobserver, interobserver, and interscan variability, were performed.
The young-subgroup mean BMD was 221.9 mg/mL ± 36.2 (standard deviation) for the female subjects and 215.2 mg/mL ± 33.2 for the male subjects. The mean thoracic BMDs for the female and male subjects were found to be 20.7% higher and 17.0% higher, respectively, than the values measured with lumbar quantitative CT (P < .001 for both comparisons). A significant positive association between the thoracic and lumbar quantitative CT measurements (r > 0.85, P < .001) was found. Intraobserver, interobserver, and interscan variabilities in thoracic quantitative CT measurements were 2.5%, 2.6%, and 2.8%, respectively.
There was a significant association between the mean thoracic and lumbar BMDs. Therefore, standard derived measurements (young-subgroup BMD ± standard deviation) based on these data can be used with thoracic CT images to estimate the bone mineral status.
Radiology 11/2010; 257(2):434-40. · 5.73 Impact Factor