[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Tanzanian Government started scaling up its antiretroviral treatment (ART) program from referral, regional and district hospitals to primary health care facilities in October 2004. In 2010, most ART clinics were decentralized to primary health facilities. ART coverage, i.e. people living with HIV (PLHIV) on combination treatment as a proportion of those in need of treatment, provides the basis for evaluating the efficiency of ART programs at national and district level. We aimed to evaluate adult ART and pre-ART care coverage by age and sex at CD4 < 200, < 350 and all PLHIV in the Rufiji district of Tanzania from 2006 to 2010.
The numbers of people on ART and pre-ART care were obtained from routinely aggregated, patient-level, cohort data from care and treatment centers in the district. We used ALPHA model to predict the number in need of pre-ART care and ART by age and sex at CD4 < 200 and < 350.
Adult ART coverage among PLHIV increased from 2.9% in 2006 to 17.6% in 2010. In 2010, coverage was 20% for women and 14.8% for men. ART coverage was 30.2% and 38.7% in 2010 with reference to CD4 criteria of 350 and 200 respectively. In 2010, ART coverage was 0 and 3.4% among young people aged 15-19 and 20-24 respectively. ART coverage among females aged 35-39 and 40-44 was 30.6 and 35% respectively in 2010. Adult pre-ART care coverage for PLHIV of CD4 < 350 increased from 5% in 2006 to 37.7% in 2010. The age-sex coverage patterns for pre-ART care were similar to ART coverage for both CD4 of 200 and 350 over the study period.
ART coverage in the Rufiji district is unevenly distributed and far from the universal coverage target of 80%, in particular among young men. The findings in 2010 are close to the most recent estimates of ART coverage in 2013. To strive for universal coverage, both the recruitment of new eligible individuals to pre-ART and ART and the successful retention of those already on ART in the program need to be prioritized.
BMC Public Health 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1460-8 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine levels, trends and correlates of childbearing in childhood (CiC) in the Rufiji district of Tanzania from 2002 to 2010. Methods Using longitudinal data collected in, and by, the Rufiji health and demographic surveillance system in Tanzania from 2002 to 2010, all women who initiated childbearing in this period (n = 5491) were selected for analysis. CiC was defined as childbearing initiation before age 18. Data analysis involved one-way tabulations of each variable-most of which were socio-demographic-to obtain frequency distributions, cross-tabulations of CiC and each of the independent variables with a Chi square test for associations, and multivariate analysis using multilevel logistic regression to examine covariates of CiC. Results CiC was 44 % and remained constant over the 2002-2010 period (P = 0.623). The relative odds of CiC was significantly reduced by 83 percent among women with secondary or higher educational attainment relative to CiC among uneducated women (OR = 0.17, CI 0.12-0.23). Moreover, the odds of CiC significantly declines monotonically as relative household wealth increases by quintile (OR = 0.70, CI 0.57-0.86). CiC also declines significantly with employment and marital status of the respondent. Conclusions CiC represents a challenging social and health problem. Forty-four percent of first time mothers in Rufiji district of Tanzania are of childhood age, and this has not changed over the past 9 years since 2002. Prioritizing girls' formal education-especially up to secondary level or higher-as well as devising some economic empowerment modalities, may be worthwhile measures towards curbing CiC in the study area.
Maternal and Child Health Journal 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10995-015-1842-7 · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Mainland Tanzania scaled up multiple malaria control interventions between 1999 and 2010. We evaluated whether, and to what extent, reductions in all-cause under-five child mortality (U5CM) tracked with malaria control intensification during this period.
Four nationally representative household surveys permitted trend analysis for malaria intervention coverage, severe anemia (hemoglobin <8 g/dL) prevalence (SAP) among children 6-59 months, and U5CM rates stratified by background characteristics, age, and malaria endemicity. Prevalence of contextual factors (e.g., vaccination, nutrition) likely to influence U5CM were also assessed. Population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) estimates for malaria interventions and contextual factors that changed over time were used to estimate magnitude of impact on U5CM.
Household ownership of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) rose from near zero in 1999 to 64% (95% CI, 61.7-65.2) in 2010. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy reached 26% (95% CI, 23.6-28.0) by 2010. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine replaced chloroquine in 2002 and artemisinin-based combination therapy was introduced in 2007. SAP among children 6-59 months declined 50% between 2005 (11.1%; 95% CI, 10.0-12.3%) and 2010 (5.5%; 95% CI, 4.7-6.4%) and U5CM declined by 45% between baseline (1995-9) and endpoint (2005-9), from 148 to 81 deaths/1000 live births, respectively. Mortality declined 55% among children 1-23 months of age in higher malaria endemicity areas. A large reduction in U5CM was attributable to ITNs (PAR% = 11) with other malaria interventions adding further gains. Multiple contextual factors also contributed to survival gains.
Marked declines in U5CM occurred in Tanzania between 1999 and 2010 with high impact from ITNs and ACTs. High-risk children (1-24 months of age in high malaria endemicity) experienced the greatest declines in mortality and SAP. Malaria control should remain a policy priority to sustain and further accelerate progress in child survival.
PLoS ONE 11/2015; 10(11):e0141112. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0141112 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Assessments of subnational progress and performance coverage within countries should be an integral part of health sector reviews, using recent data from multiple sources on health system strength and coverage.
As part of the midterm review of the national health sector strategic plan of Tanzania mainland, summary measures of health system strength and coverage of interventions were developed for all 21 regions, focusing on the priority indicators of the national plan. Household surveys, health facility data and administrative databases were used to compute the regional scores.
Regional Millennium Development Goal (MDG) intervention coverage, based on 19 indicators, ranged from 47% in Shinyanga in the northwest to 71% in Dar es Salaam region. Regions in the eastern half of the country have higher coverage than in the western half of mainland. The MDG coverage score is strongly positively correlated with health systems strength (r = 0.84). Controlling for socioeconomic status in a multivariate analysis has no impact on the association between the MDG coverage score and health system strength. During 1991-2010 intervention coverage improved considerably in all regions, but the absolute gap between the regions did not change during the past two decades, with a gap of 22% between the top and bottom three regions.
The assessment of regional progress and performance in 21 regions of mainland Tanzania showed considerable inequalities in coverage and health system strength and allowed the identification of high and low-performing regions. Using summary measures derived from administrative, health facility and survey data, a subnational picture of progress and performance can be obtained for use in regular health sector reviews.
PLoS ONE 11/2015; 10(11):e0142066. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0142066 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
A large literature has shown negative associations between stunting and child development; however, there is limited evidence for mild forms of linear growth faltering and determinants of malnutrition in developing countries.
The objective of this study was to assess the association between anthropometric growth indicators across their distribution and determinants of malnutrition with development of Tanzanian children.
We used the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III to assess a cohort of 1036 Tanzanian children between 18 and 36 mo of age who were previously enrolled in a neonatal vitamin A trial. Linear regression models were used to assess standardized mean differences in child development for anthropometry z scores, along with pregnancy, delivery, and early childhood factors.
Height-for-age z score (HAZ) was linearly associated with cognitive, communication, and motor development z scores across the observed range in this population (all P values for linear relation < 0.05). Each unit increase in HAZ was associated with +0.09 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.13), +0.10 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.14), and +0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.16) higher cognitive, communication, and motor development z scores, respectively. The relation of weight-for-height z score (WHZ) was nonlinear with only wasted children (WHZ <-2) experiencing deficits (P values for nonlinear relation < 0.05). Wasted children had -0.63 (95% CI: -0.97, -0.29), -0.32 (95% CI: -0.64, 0.01), and -0.54 (95% CI: -0.86, -0.23) z score deficits in cognitive, communication, and motor development z scores, respectively, relative to nonwasted children. Maternal stature and flush toilet use were associated with higher cognitive and motor z scores, whereas being born small for gestational age (SGA) was associated with a -0.16 (95% CI: -0.30, -0.01) z score deficit in cognition.
Mild to severe chronic malnutrition was associated with increasing developmental deficits in Tanzanian children, whereas only wasted children exhibited developmental delays during acute malnutrition. Interventions to reduce SGA, improve sanitation, and increase maternal stature may have positive effects on child development. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12610000636055.
Journal of Nutrition 10/2015; DOI:10.3945/jn.115.215996 · 3.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The full impact of a maternal death includes consequences faced by orphaned children. This analysis adds evidence to a literature on the magnitude of the association between a woman’s death during or shortly after childbirth, and survival outcomes for her children.
The Ifakara and Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites in rural Tanzania conduct longitudinal, frequent data collection of key demographic events at the household level. Using a subset of the data from these sites (1996–2012), this survival analysis compared outcomes for children who experienced a maternal death (42 and 365 days definitions) during or near birth to those children whose mothers survived.
There were 111 maternal deaths (or 229 late maternal deaths) during the study period, and 46.28 % of the index children also subsequently died (40.73 % of children in the late maternal death group) before their tenth birthday—a much higher prevalence of child mortality than in the population of children whose mothers survived (7.88 %, p value
Maternal and Child Health Journal 06/2015; 19(11). DOI:10.1007/s10995-015-1758-2 · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women's nutritional status during conception and early pregnancy can influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study examined the efficacy of pre-pregnancy supplementation with iron and multivitamins to reduce the prevalence of anemia during the periconceptional period among rural Tanzanian women and adolescent girls.
A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in which participants were individually randomized to receive daily oral supplements of folic acid alone, folic acid and iron, or folic acid, iron, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, and E at approximately single recommended dietary allowance (RDA) doses for six months.
Rural Rufiji District, Tanzania.
Non-pregnant women and adolescent girls aged 15-29 years (n = 802).
The study arms were comparable in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, food security, nutritional status, pregnancy history, and compliance with the regimen (p>0.05). In total, 561 participants (70%) completed the study and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels were not different across treatments (median: 11.1 g/dL, Q1-Q3: 10.0-12.4 g/dL, p = 0.65). However, compared with the folic acid arm (28%), there was a significant reduction in the risk of hypochromic microcytic anemia in the folic acid and iron arm (17%, RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.90, p = 0.01) and the folic acid, iron, and multivitamin arm (19%, RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.96, p = 0.03). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to adjust for potential selection bias due to loss to follow-up did not materially change these results. The effect of the regimens was not modified by frequency of household meat consumption, baseline underweight status, parity, breastfeeding status, or level of compliance (in all cases, p for interaction>0.2).
Daily oral supplementation with iron and folic acid among women and adolescents prior to pregnancy reduces risk of anemia. The potential benefits of supplementation on the risk of periconceptional anemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes warrant investigation in larger studies.
PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0121552. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121552 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the health sector, planning and resource allocation at country level are mainly guided by national plans. For each such plan, a midterm review of progress is important for policy-makers since the review can inform the second half of the plan's implementation and provide a situation analysis on which the subsequent plan can be based. The review should include a comprehensive analysis using recent data - from surveys, facility and administrative databases - and global health estimates. Any midterm analysis of progress is best conducted by a team comprising representatives of government agencies, independent national institutions and global health organizations. Here we present an example of such a review, done in 2013 in the United Republic of Tanzania. Compared to similar countries, the results of this midterm review showed good progress in all health indicators except skilled birth attendance.
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 04/2015; 93(4):271-278. DOI:10.2471/BLT.14.141069 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is a country case study for the Universal Health Coverage Collection, organized by WHO. Gemini Mtei and colleagues illustrate progress towards UHC and its monitoring and evaluation in Tanzania.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
PLoS Medicine 09/2014; 11(9):e1001698. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001698 · 14.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Epilepsy is common in developing countries, and it is often associated with parasitic infections. We investigated the relationship between exposure to parasitic infections, particularly multiple infections and active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), in five sites across sub-Saharan Africa.
Methods and Findings
A case-control design that matched on age and location was used. Blood samples were collected from 986 prevalent cases and 1,313 age-matched community controls and tested for presence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium and HIV. Exposure (seropositivity) to Onchocerca volvulus (OR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.52–2.58, p<0.001), Toxocara canis (OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.23–1.87, p<0.001), Toxoplasma gondii (OR = 1.28; 95%CI: 1.04–1.56, p = 0.018) and higher antibody levels (top tertile) to Toxocara canis (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.30–2.24, p<0.001) were associated with an increased prevalence of ACE. Exposure to multiple infections was common (73.8% of cases and 65.5% of controls had been exposed to two or more infections), and for T. gondii and O. volvulus co-infection, their combined effect on the prevalence of ACE, as determined by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), was more than additive (T. gondii and O. volvulus, RERI = 1.19). The prevalence of T. solium antibodies was low (2.8% of cases and 2.2% of controls) and was not associated with ACE in the study areas.
This study investigates how the degree of exposure to parasites and multiple parasitic infections are associated with ACE and may explain conflicting results obtained when only seropositivity is considered. The findings from this study should be further validated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background : Prior to the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), demographic surveillance cohort studies showed higher mortality among migrants than residents in many rural areas. Objectives : This study quantifies the overall and AIDS-specific mortality between migrants and residents prior to ART, during ART scale-up, and after widespread availability of ART in Rufiji district in Tanzania. Design : In Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), the follow-up of individuals aged 15-59 years was categorized into three periods: before ART (1998-2003), during ART scale-up (2004-2007), and after widespread availability of ART (2008-2011). Residents were those who never migrated within and beyond HDSS, internal migrants were those who moved within the HDSS, and external migrants were those who moved into the HDSS from outside. Mortality rates were estimated from deaths and person-years of observations calculated in each time period. Hazard ratios were estimated to compare mortality between migrants and residents. AIDS deaths were identified from verbal autopsy, and the odds ratio of dying from AIDS between migrants and residents was estimated using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results : Internal and external migrants experienced higher overall mortality than residents before the introduction of ART. After widespread availability of ART overall mortality were similar for internal and external migrants. These overall mortality experiences observed were similar for males and females. In the multivariate logistic regression model, adjusting for age, sex, education, and social economic status, internal migrants had similar likelihood of dying from AIDS as residents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-1.87) while external migrants were 70% more likely to die from AIDS compared to residents prior to the introduction of ART (AOR=1.70, 95% CI: 1.06-2.73). After widespread availability of ART with the same adjustment factors, the odds of dying from AIDS were similar for internal migrants and residents (AOR=1.56, 95% CI: 0.80-3.04) and external migrants and residents (AOR=1.42, 95% CI: 0.76-2.66). Conclusions : Availability of ART has reduced the number of HIV-infected migrants who would otherwise return home to die. This has reduced the burden on rural communities who had cared for the return external migrants.
Global Health Action 05/2014; 7:22956. DOI:10.3402/gha.v7.22956 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Under-five mortality has been declining rapidly in a number of sub-Saharan African settings. Malaria-related mortality is known to be a major component of childhood causes of death and malaria remains a major focus of health interventions. The paper explored the contribution of malaria relative to other specific causes of under-five deaths to these trends.
This paper uses longitudinal demographic surveillance data to examine trends and causes of death of under-five mortality in Rufiji, whose population has been followed for over nine years (1999–2007). Causes of death, determined by the verbal autopsy technique, are analysed with Arriaga’s decomposition method to assess the contribution of declining malaria-related mortality relative to other causes of death as explaining a rapid decline in overall childhood mortality.
Over the 1999–2007 period, under-five mortality rate in Rufiji declined by 54.3%, from 33.3 to 15.2 per 1,000 person-years. If this trend is sustained, Rufiji will be a locality that achieves MDG4 target. Although hypotrophy at birth remained the leading cause of death for neonates, malaria remains as the leading cause of death for post-neonates followed by pneumonia. However, declines in malaria death rates accounted for 49.9% of the observed under-five mortality decline while all perinatal causes accounted for only 19.9%.
To achieve MDG 4 in malaria endemic settings, health programmes should continue efforts to reduce malaria mortality and more efforts are also needed to improve newborn survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The precise nature of the relationship between malaria mortality and levels of transmission is unclear. Due to methodological limitations, earlier efforts to assess the linkage have lead to inconclusive results. The malaria transmission intensity and mortality burden across Africa (MTIMBA) project initiated by the INDEPTH Network collected longitudinally entomological data within a number of sites in sub-Saharan Africa to study this relationship. This work linked the MTIMBA entomology database with the routinely collected vital events within the Rufiji Demographic Surveillance System to analyse the transmission-mortality relation in the region.
Bayesian Bernoulli spatio-temporal Cox proportional hazards models with village clustering, adjusted for age and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), were fitted to assess the relation between mortality and malaria transmission measured by entomology inoculation rate (EIR). EIR was predicted at household locations using transmission models and it was incorporated in the model as a covariate with measure of uncertainty. Effects of covariates estimated by the model are reported as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% Bayesian confidence interval (BCI) and spatial and temporal parameters are presented.
Separate analysis was carried out for neonates, infants and children 1-4 years of age. No significant relation between all-cause mortality and intensity of malaria transmission was indicated at any age in childhood. However, a strong age effect was shown. Comparing effects of ITN and EIR on mortality at different age categories, a decrease in protective efficacy of ITN was observed (i.e. neonates: HR = 0.65; 95% BCI: 0.39-1.05; infants: HR = 0.72; 95% BCI:0.48-1.07; children 1-4 years: HR = 0.88; 95% BCI: 0.62-1.23) and reduction on the effect of malaria transmission exposure was detected (i.e. neonates: HR = 1.15; 95% BCI:0.95-1.36; infants: HR = 1.13; 95% BCI:0.98-1.25; children 1-4 years: HR = 1.04; 95% BCI:0.89-1.18). A very strong spatial correlation was also observed.
These results imply that assessing the malaria transmission-mortality relation involves more than the knowledge on the performance of interventions and control measures. This relation depends on the levels of malaria endemicity and transmission intensity, which varies significantly between different settings. Thus, sub-regions analyses are necessary to validate and assess reproducibility of findings.