[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The assessment of the occupational electromagnetic field exposure of welders is of great importance, especially in shielded-arc welding, which uses relatively high electric currents of up to several hundred amperes. In the present study, we measured the magnetic field exposure level of welders in the course of working. A 3-axis Hall magnetometer was attached to a subject's wrist in order to place the sensor probe at the closest position to the magnetic source (a cable from the current source). Data was acquired every 5 s from the beginning of the work time. The maximum exposed field was 0.35-3.35 mT (Mean ± SD: 1.55 ± 0.93 mT, N=17) and the average value per day was 0.04-0.12 mT (Mean ± SD: 0.07 ± 0.02 mT, N=17). We also conducted a finite element method-based analysis of human hand tissue for the electromagnetic field dosimetry. In addition, the magnetic field associated with grinders, an air hammer, and a drill using electromagnetic anchorage were measured; however, the magnetic fields were much lower than those generated in the welding process. These results agreed well with the results of the electromagnetic field dosimetry (1.49 mT at the wrist position), and the calculated eddy current (4.28 mA/m(2)) was much lower than the well-known guideline thresholds for electrical nerve or muscular stimulation.
Industrial Health 01/2011; 49(3):274-9. · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visible light of short wavelength (blue light) may cause a photochemical injury to the retina, called photoretinitis or blue-light hazard. In this study, various light sources were evaluated for blue-light hazard. These sources include the sun, the arc associated with arc welding and plasma cutting, molten steel, iron and glass, the interior of furnaces, the arc or envelope of discharge lamps, the filament or envelope of incandescent lamps, the envelope of fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes. The spectral radiance of each light source was measured, and blue-light effective radiance and the corresponding permissible exposure time per day were calculated in accordance with the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) standard. The sun, arc welding, plasma cutting and the arc of discharge lamps were found to have extremely high effective radiances with corresponding permissible exposure times of only 0.6-40 s, suggesting that viewing these light sources is very hazardous to the retina. Other light sources were found to have low effective radiances under the study conditions and would pose no hazard, at least for short exposure times.