Howard A Riina

CUNY Graduate Center, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (91)183.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The use of minimally porous endoluminal devices (MPEDs) such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has been described for the treatment of brain aneurysms. The benefit of using MPEDs to assist embolization of a direct high-flow carotid cavernous fistula resulting from a ruptured cavernous carotid artery aneurysm is not well documented. We describe our experience with deploying a tailored multidevice PED construct across the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) wall defect in combination with transarterial coil embolization using the "jailed microcatheter" technique. A 59-year-old woman presented with acute left-sided ophthalmoplegia. Diagnostic cerebral angiography demonstrated a ruptured giant cavernous carotid aneurysm with fistulous outflow via the ipsilateral left superior ophthalmic vein and into the pterygoid venous plexi bilaterally. Via the Marksman microcatheter, a total of three PEDs measuring 4.5 mm × 18 mm, 4.5 mm × 20 mm, and 4.75 mm × 16 mm were telescoped within the ICA across the aneurysm neck. Coiling of the aneurysm fundus and cavernous sinus via the "jailed" Rapidtransit microcatheter was subsequently achieved. A 2-year follow-up digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated stable obliteration of the aneurysm and the fistula, coincident with complete resolution of the patient's symptoms. Based on our long-term clinical and angiographic results, we advocate that the presented method be a valid treatment option for selected cases.
    Acta Neurochirurgica 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00701-015-2446-0 · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • World Neurosurgery 03/2015; 83(6). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2015.03.044 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment options for nonsaccular posterior cerebral artery aneurysms include a range of surgical and endovascular reconstructive and deconstructive methods. However, no truly satisfactory treatment option is available to date for lesions arising from the P1 and P2 segments. The purpose of the present case series is to investigate both the efficacy and safety of the Pipeline Embolization Device in treating these challenging aneurysms. We present a series of 6 consecutive patients who underwent endoluminal reconstruction with the Pipeline Embolization Device for nonsaccular P1 or P2 segment aneurysms between January 2009 and June 2013. Aneurysm location included the P1 segment in 2 patients and the P2 segment in 4 patients. Mean aneurysm diameter was 23 mm (range, 5-44 mm). Mean length of the arterial segment involved was 10 mm (range, 6-19 mm). Clinical presentation included mass effect in 4 patients and perforator stroke and subacute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in 1 patient each. Endovascular reconstruction was performed by using 1 Pipeline Embolization Device in 5 patients and 2 overlapping Pipeline Embolization Devices in the remaining patient. Angiographic aneurysm occlusion was immediate in 1 patient, within 6 months in 4 patients, and within 1 year in the remaining patient. Index symptoms resolved in 4 patients and stabilized in the remaining 2. No new permanent neurologic sequelae and no aneurysm recurrence were recorded during the mean follow-up period of 613 days (range, 540-725 days). Endovascular reconstruction with the Pipeline Embolization Device for nonsaccular aneurysms arising from the P1 and P2 segments compares favorably with historical treatment options in terms of occlusion rate, margin of safety, and neurologic outcome. © 2015 American Society of Neuroradiology.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 03/2015; DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A4261 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Treatment options for nonsaccular posterior cerebral artery aneurysms include a range of surgical and endovascular reconstructive and deconstructive methods. However, no truly satisfactory treatment option is available to date for lesions arising from the P1 and P2 segments. The purpose of the present case series is to investigate both the efficacy and safety of the Pipeline Embolization Device in treating these challenging aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a series of 6 consecutive patients who underwent endoluminal reconstruction with the Pipeline Embolization Device for nonsaccular P1 or P2 segment aneurysms between January 2009 and June 2013. RESULTS: Aneurysm location included the P1 segment in 2 patients and the P2 segment in 4 patients. Mean aneurysm diameter was 23 mm (range, 5-44 mm). Mean length of the arterial segment involved was 10 mm (range, 6-19 mm). Clinical presentation included mass effect in 4 patients and perforator stroke and subacute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in 1 patient each. Endovascular reconstruction was performed by using 1 Pipeline Embolization Device in 5 patients and 2 overlapping Pipeline Embolization Devices in the remaining patient. Angiographic aneurysm occlusion was immediate in 1 patient, within 6 months in 4 patients, and within 1 year in the remaining patient. Index symptoms resolved in 4 patients and stabilized in the remaining 2. No new permanent neurologic sequelae and no aneurysm recurrence were recorded during the mean follow-up period of 613 days (range, 540-725 days). CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular reconstruction with the Pipeline Embolization Device for nonsaccular aneurysms arising from the P1 and P2 segments compares favorably with historical treatment options in terms of occlusion rate, margin of safety, and neurologic outcome. © 2015 American Society of Neuroradiology.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 03/2015; · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endoluminal reconstruction with the Pipeline Embolization Device is an effective treatment option for select intracranial aneurysms. However, concerns for the patency of eloquent branch arteries covered by the Pipeline Embolization Device have been raised. We aimed to examine the patency of the anterior choroidal artery and clinical sequelae after ICA aneurysm treatment. We prospectively analyzed all patients among our first 157 patients with ICA aneurysms treated by the Pipeline Embolization Device who required placement of at least 1 device across the ostium of the anterior choroidal artery. The primary outcome measure was angiographic patency of the anterior choroidal artery at last follow-up. Age, sex, type of aneurysm, neurologic examination data, number of Pipeline Embolization Devices used, relationship of the anterior choroidal artery to the aneurysm, and completeness of aneurysm occlusion on follow-up angiograms were also analyzed. Twenty-nine aneurysms requiring placement of at least 1 Pipeline Embolization Device (median = 1, range = 1-3) across the anterior choroidal artery ostium were identified. At angiographic follow-up (mean = 15.1 months; range = 12-39 months), the anterior choroidal artery remained patent, with antegrade flow in 28/29 aneurysms (96.5%), while 24/29 (82.7%) of the target aneurysms were angiographically occluded by 1-year follow-up angiography. Anterior choroidal artery occlusion, with retrograde reconstitution of the vessel, was noted in a single case. A significant correlation between the origin of the anterior choroidal artery from the aneurysm dome and failure of the aneurysms to occlude following treatment was found. After placement of 36 Pipeline Embolization Devices across 29 anterior choroidal arteries (median = 1 device, range = 1-3 devices), 1 of 29 anterior choroidal arteries was found occluded on angiographic follow-up. The vessel occlusion did not result in persistent clinical sequelae. Coverage of the anterior choroidal artery origin with the Pipeline Embolization Device, hence, may be considered reasonably safe when deemed necessary for aneurysm treatment. © 2015 American Society of Neuroradiology.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 01/2015; 36(5). DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A4217 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present flow-based results from the early stage design cycle, based on computational modeling, of a prototype flow-diverter device, known as the 'Sphere', intended to treat bifurcation aneurysms of the cerebral vasculature. The device is available in a range of diameters and geometries and is constructed from a single loop of NITINOL(®) wire. The 'Sphere' reduces aneurysm inflow by means of a high-density, patterned, elliptical surface that partially occludes the aneurysm neck. The device is secured in the healthy parent vessel by two armatures in the shape of open loops, resulting in negligible disruption of parent or daughter vessel flow. The device is virtually deployed in six anatomically accurate bifurcation aneurysms: three located at the Basilar tip and three located at the terminus bifurcation of the Internal Carotid artery (at the meeting of the middle cerebral and anterior cerebral arteries). Both steady state and transient flow simulations reveal that the device presents with a range of aneurysm inflow reductions, with mean flow reductions falling in the range of 30.6-71.8% across the different geometries. A significant difference is noted between steady state and transient simulations in one geometry, where a zone of flow recirculation is not captured in the steady state simulation. Across all six aneurysms, the device reduces the WSS magnitude within the aneurysm sac, resulting in a hemodynamic environment closer to that of a healthy vessel. We conclude from extensive CFD analysis that the 'Sphere' device offers very significant levels of flow reduction in a number of anatomically accurate aneurysm sizes and locations, with many advantages compared to current clinical cylindrical flow-diverter designs. Analysis of the device's mechanical properties and deployability will follow in future publications.
    Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology 12/2014; 5(4):334-347. DOI:10.1007/s13239-014-0188-4 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endovascular embolization is typically reserved as an adjuvant therapy in the management of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), either for preoperative devascularization or preradiosurgical volume reduction. Curative embolization plays a limited role in AVM treatment but several studies have shown that it is possible, especially with later-generation liquid embolic agents. Given the complexity of AVM anatomy and the recent controversies over the role of any intervention in AVM management, it is critical that the cerebrovascular community better define the indications of each treatment modality to provide quality AVM management. In this review, the authors evaluate the role of curative AVM embolization. Important considerations in the feasibility of curative AVM embolization include whether it can be performed reliably and safely, and whether it is a durable cure. Studies over the past 20 years have begun to define the anatomical factors that are amenable to complete endovascular occlusion, including size, feeding artery anatomy, AVM morphology, and endovascular accessibility. More recent studies have shown that highly selected patients with AVMs can be treated with curative intent, leading to occlusion rates as high as 100% of such prospectively identified lesions with minimal morbidity. Advances in endovascular technology and techniques that support the efficacy and safety of curative embolization are discussed, as is the importance of superselective diagnostic angiography. Finally, the durability of curative embolization is analyzed. Overall, while still unproven, endovascular embolization has the potential to be a safe, effective, and durable curative treatment for select AVMs, broadening the armamentarium with which one can treat this disease.
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 09/2014; 37(3):E19. DOI:10.3171/2014.6.FOCUS14228 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent techniques of endoluminal reconstruction with flow-diverting stents have not been incorporated into treatment algorithms for cavernous carotid aneurysms. This study examines the authors’ institutional experience and a systematic review of the literature for outcomes and complications using the Pipeline Embolization Device in unruptured cavernous carotid aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search for cavernous carotid aneurysms from a prospectively collected data base of aneurysms treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device at our institution was performed. Baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory values; intrainterventional data; and data at all follow-up visits were collected. A systematic review of the literature for complication data was performed with inquiries sent when clarification of data was needed. RESULTS: Forty-three cavernous carotid aneurysms were included in the study. Our mean radiographic follow-up was 2.05 years. On last follow-up, 88.4% of the aneurysms treated had complete or near-complete occlusion. Aneurysm complete or near-complete occlusion rates at 6 months, 12 months, and 36 months were 81.4%, 89.7%, and 100%, respectively. Of patients with neuro-ophthalmologic deficits on presentation, 84.2% had improvement in their visual symptoms. Overall, we had a 0% mortality rate and a 2.3% major neurologic complication rate. Our systematic review of the literature yielded 227 cavernous carotid aneurysms treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device with mortality and morbidity rates of 0.4% and 3.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Endoluminal reconstruction with flow diversion for large unruptured cavernous carotid aneurysms can yield high efficacy with low complications. Further long-term data will be helpful in assessing the durability of the cure; however, we advocate a revisiting of current management paradigms for cavernous carotid aneurysms.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 08/2014; 35(12). DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A4081 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral aneurysms (CAs) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are both degenerative vascular pathologies that manifest as an abnormal dilation of the arterial wall. They arise with different morphologies in different types of blood vessels under different haemodynamic conditions. Although these aneurysms are treated as very different and separate pathologies, we sought to examine common pathways in the haemodynamic pathogenesis to further elucidate mechanisms of formation.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 07/2014; 6 Suppl 1(4):A45. DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2014-011343.83 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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  • Matthew B Potts, Howard A Riina
    World Neurosurgery 06/2014; 82(5). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2014.06.001 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Phillip Cezayirli, Omar Tanweer, Howard A. Riina
    World Neurosurgery 05/2014; 81(5-6). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2014.03.038 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : Arteriovenous malformations of the brain are a considerable source of morbidity and mortality for patients who harbor them. Although our understanding of this disease has improved, it remains in evolution. Advances in our ability to treat these malformations and the modes by which we address them have also improved substantially. However, the variety of patient clinical and disease scenarios often leads us into challenging and complex management algorithms as we balance the risks of treatment against the natural history of the disease. The goal of this article is to provide a focused review of the natural history of cerebral arteriovenous malformations, to examine the role of stereotactic radiosurgery, to discuss the role of endovascular therapy as it relates to stereotactic radiosurgery, and to look toward future advances. ARE, adverse radiation effectARUBA, A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous MalformationsAVF, arteriovenous fistulaAVM, arteriovenous malformationDAVF, dural arteriovenous fistulaMMP, matrix metalloproteinaseSRS, stereotactic radiosurgery.
    Neurosurgery 02/2014; 74 Suppl 1:S50-S59. DOI:10.1227/NEU.0000000000000219 · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Omar Tanweer, Taylor A Wilson, Howard A Riina
    World Neurosurgery 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2014.01.011 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass and intracranial stenting (ICS) are both revascularization procedures that have emerged as treatment options for intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). This study describes and compares recent trends in utilization and outcomes of intracranial revascularization procedures in the United States using a population-based cohort. It also investigates the association of ICS and EC-IC bypass with periprocedural morbidity and mortality, unfavorable discharge status, length of stay (LOS), and total hospital charges. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was queried for patients with ICAD who underwent EC-IC bypass or ICS during the years 2004-2010. Patient characteristics, demographics, perioperative complications, outcomes, and discharge data were collected. There were 627 patients who underwent ICS and 249 patients who underwent EC-IC bypass. Patients who underwent ICS were significantly older (P < 0.001) with more comorbidities (P = 0.027) than those who underwent EC-IC bypass. Patients who underwent EC-IC bypass experienced higher rates of postprocedure stroke (P = 0.014), but those who underwent ICS experienced higher rates of death (P = 0.006). Among asymptomatic patients, the rates of postprocedure stroke (P = 0.341) and death (P = 0.887) were similar between patients who underwent ICS and those who underwent EC-IC bypass. Among symptomatic patients, however, there was a higher rate of postprocedure stroke in patients who underwent EC-IC bypass (P < 0.001) and a higher rate of death among patients who underwent ICS (P = 0.015). The ideal management of patients with ICAD cannot yet be defined. Although much data from randomized and prospective trials on revascularization have been collected, many questions remain unanswered. There still remain cohorts of patients, specifically patients who have failed aggressive medical management, where not enough evidence is available to dictate decision-making. In order to further elucidate the safety and efficacy of these intracranial revascularization procedures, further clinical trials are needed.
    Surgical Neurology International 01/2014; 5:178. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.146831 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Embolization of cerebral and spinal neoplasms is performed for highly vascular tumors including hemangioblastomas, paragangliomas, juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, hemangiopericytomas, schwannomas, meningiomas, and selected metastases. While diagnostic angiography may contribute to clarify the tumoral arterial supply, superselective infusion of embolics may effectively obliterate the tumoral vascular bed. At present, determinants of safe and effective presurgical embolization remain under debate. Methods: We investigate and illustrate the endovascular technique, ideal timing, and effectiveness of presurgical embolization of cerebral and spinal tumors performed at the NYU Langone Medical Center. Results: Detailed diagnostic angiography is key to identify the arterial supply to the tumor, to consistently recognize dangerous external carotid-to-internal carotid anastomoses, and to detect the highly variable arterial supply to cranial nerves and neuronal structures. Meticulous technique is essential for performing safe and effective tumor embolization that causes tumor necrosis and facilitates subsequent resection by limiting intraoperative blood loss. Although general anesthesia precludes the use of provocative testing, it does improve patient comfort and enhances the accuracy of angiography by limiting motion artifact. Additionally, electrophysiology may provide an additional degree of safely when general anesthesia is used. Embolization may be best performed within a week prior to the scheduled surgery to allow for effective tumor necrosis while avoiding neovascularization. Embolic agents include a range of liquids, particulates, or coils. Selecting the most advantageous agent is performed in light of the desired degree of tumor penetration, the presence or possibility of a dangerous anastomosis, and the ability to navigate the microcatheter in a safe position for superselective infusion of embolics. Although the most effective embolization is obtained with small particles that penetrate the tumoral bed at the capillary level, these agents are also the most dangerous to use by putting cranial nerves and normal structures such as the retina and myelon at risk. Conclusion: In depth knowledge of anatomy, meticulous technique, and the proper choice of the embolic material determine the safety and effectiveness of preoperative tumor embolization that may contribute to surgical success.
    Central European neurosurgery 01/2014; · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angioplasty and intracranial stenting (ICS) are both endovascular revascularization procedures that have emerged as treatment options for intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). Some believe angioplasty alone is better, while others believe stenting is better. This study examines recent trends in utilization and outcomes of angioplasty alone and ICS in the United States using a population-based cohort. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was queried for patients with ICAD who underwent angioplasty or ICS from 2005 to 2010. There were 1115 patients (angioplasty: n=495, ICS: n=620) with ICAD who underwent endovascular revascularization. Over time, the number of endovascular revascularization procedures increased. The percentage of symptomatic patients (p=0.015) as well as in the number of comorbidities of patients treated (p<0.001) also increased. Combined post-procedure stroke and death rates were 16% and 28.9% for angioplasty and ICS, respectively (p<0.001). A larger percentage of angioplasty patients presented symptomatically compared to those who underwent ICS (p<0.001). Angioplasty appears to be associated with higher rates of peri-procedural complications; however, that may represent patient selection bias. Further studies are needed to identify patients who would benefit from revascularization and to clarify the roles of angioplasty and ICS.
    Clinical neurology and neurosurgery 11/2013; 116. DOI:10.1016/j.clineuro.2013.10.022 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of temporary Solitaire FR stent (Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA) scaffolding to reduce coil herniation during embolization of a large neck anterior communicating artery aneurysm. In contrast to classic stent-assisted coiling, the fully retrievable stent is recaptured prior to detachment of the last coil. The presented technical nuance hence does not require institution of prolonged antiplatelet coverage. But the door is left open for coil-repositioning in case of coil basket instability. Permanent stent redeployment remains a fall-back option if critical hardware conflict occurs. In comparison to classic balloon remodeling, the presented method may offer easier distal access, particularly in tortuous arterial anatomy. Temporary occlusion of the parent artery, side branches, and perforators is also avoided. Given its specific potential advantages, temporary stent scaffolding using the fully retrievable Solitaire FR device may find its niche as a bailout option, primarily in a very specific subset of distally located wide neck aneurysms.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 10/2013; 21(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2013.10.009 · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • Matthew B Potts, Howard A Riina
    World Neurosurgery 10/2013; 83(3). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2013.10.046 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Does the world need another ICA classification scheme? We believe so. The purpose of proposed angiography-driven classification is to optimize description of the carotid artery from the endovascular perspective. A review of existing, predominantly surgically-driven classifications is performed, and a new scheme, based on the study of NYU aneurysm angiographic and cross-sectional databases is proposed. Seven segments - cervical, petrous, cavernous, paraophthlamic, posterior communicating, choroidal, and terminus - are named. This nomenclature recognizes intrinsic uncertainty in precise angiographic and cross-sectional localization of aneurysms adjacent to the dural rings, regarding all lesions distal to the cavernous segment as potentially intradural. Rather than subdividing various transitional, ophthalmic, and hypophyseal aneurysm subtypes, as necessitated by their varied surgical approaches and risks, the proposed classification emphasizes their common endovascular treatment features, while recognizing that many complex, trans-segmental, and fusiform aneurysms not readily classifiable into presently available, saccular aneurysm-driven schemes, are being increasingly addressed by endovascular means. We believe this classification may find utility in standardizing nomenclature for outcome tracking, treatment trials and physician communication.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 08/2013; 35(2). DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A3666 · 3.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

851 Citations
183.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2015
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2011–2014
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • • Department of Neurological Surgery
      • • Department of Radiology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • • Department of Neurological Surgery
      • • Department of Radiology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2005–2010
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Neurological Surgery
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 2002
    • St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center (AZ, USA)
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States