[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) preserves surfactant and keeps the lung open but is insufficient in severe surfactant deficiency. Traditional surfactant administration is related to short periods of positive pressure ventilation and implies the risk of lung injury. CPAP with surfactant but without any positive pressure ventilation may work synergistically. This randomized trial investigated a less invasive surfactant application protocol (LISA).
To test the hypothesis that LISA increases survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) at 36 weeks' gestational age in extremely preterm infants.
The Nonintubated Surfactant Application trial was a multicenter, randomized, clinical, parallel-group study conducted between April 15, 2009, and March 25, 2012, in 13 level III neonatal intensive care units in Germany. The final follow-up date was June 21, 2012. Participants included 211 of 558 eligible (37.8%) spontaneously breathing preterm infants born between 23.0 and 26.8 weeks' gestational age with signs of respiratory distress syndrome. In an intention-to-treat design, infants were randomly assigned to receive surfactant either via a thin endotracheal catheter during CPAP-assisted spontaneous breathing (intervention group) or after conventional endotracheal intubation during mechanical ventilation (control group). Analysis was conducted from September 6, 2012, to June 20, 2013.
LISA via a thin catheter.
Survival without BPD at 36 weeks' gestational age.
Of 211 infants who were randomized, 104 were randomized to the control group and 107 to the LISA group. Of the infants who received LISA, 72 (67.3%) survived without BPD compared with 61 (58.7%) of those in the control group. The reduction in absolute risk was 8.6% (95% CI, -5.0% to 21.9%; P = .20). Intervention group infants were less frequently intubated (80 infants [74.8%] vs 103 [99.0%]; P < .001) and required fewer days of mechanical ventilation. Significant reductions were seen in pneumothorax (5 of 105 intervention group infants [4.8%] vs 13 of 103 12.6%]; P = .04) and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (11 infants [10.3%] vs 23 [22.1%]; P = .02), and the combined survival without severe adverse events was increased in the intervention group (54 infants [50.5%] vs 37 [35.6%]; P = .02; absolute risk reduction, 14.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 28.2).
LISA did not increase survival without BPD but was associated with increased survival without major complications. Because major complications are related to lifelong disabilities, LISA may be a promising therapy for extremely preterm infants.
isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN64011614.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Short-acting opioids like remifentanil are suspected of an increased risk for tolerance, withdrawal and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). These potential adverse effects have never been investigated in neonates. Objectives: To compare remifentanil and fentanyl concerning the incidence of tolerance, withdrawal and OIH. Methods: 23 mechanically ventilated infants received up to 96 h either a remifentanil- or fentanyl-based analgesia and sedation regimen with low-dose midazolam. We compared the required opioid doses and the number of opioid dose adjustments. Following extubation, withdrawal symptoms were assessed by a modification of the Finnegan score. OIH was evaluated by the CHIPPS scale and by testing the threshold of the flexion withdrawal reflex with calibrated von Frey filaments. Results: Remifentanil had to be increased by 24% and fentanyl by 47% to keep the infants adequately sedated during mechanical ventilation. Following extubation, infants revealed no pronounced opioid withdrawal and low average Finnegan scores in both groups. Only 1 infant of the fentanyl group and 1 infant of the remifentanil group required methadone for treatment of withdrawal symptoms. Infants also revealed no signs of OIH and low CHIPPS scores in both groups. The median threshold of the flexion withdrawal reflex was 4.5 g (IQR = 2.3) in the fentanyl group and 2.7 g (IQR = 3.3) in the remifentanil group (p = 0.312), which is within the physiologic range of healthy infants. Conclusions: Remifentanil does not seem to be associated with an increased risk for tolerance, withdrawal or OIH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of this RCT was to evaluate whether the added use of a decision board (DB) during shared decision-making improves patients' knowledge as for different treatment options and overall satisfaction with the consultation.
Forty-nine undergraduate students were trained in shared decision-making (SDM) and evaluated by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). According to their test results, all participants were randomly allocated to either the test- (DB) or the control-group (Non-DB). Both groups performed SDM with patients showing a defect in a posterior tooth (Class-II defect). Prior to the interview, patients of the DB group were given the decision aid for review. In the Non-DB group, patients were consulted without additional aids. After treatment decision, a questionnaire was completed by all patients to measure knowledge (costs, survival rate, characteristics and treatment time) and overall satisfaction with the consultation. Fifty DB patients and 31 Non-DB patients completed the questionnaire.
DB patients (n = 50) demonstrated a statistically significant increase in knowledge compared to the Non-DB group (n = 31) (Mann-Whitney U-test; DB group = 10.04; Non-DB group = 4.16; P = 0.004). There was no significant difference between groups regarding satisfaction with the consultation (t-test; P > 0.05).
During the shared decision-making process, the use of a decision board yielding information about Class-II treatment options leads to a significantly higher patient knowledge compared to knowledge gained through consultation alone. It is therefore desirable to provide DBs for dental diagnoses with several treatment options to increase transparency for the patient.
European Journal Of Dental Education 02/2013; 17(1):19-25. DOI:10.1111/eje.12002 · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In dentistry, metallic alloys are used for dentures, restorative materials, and orthodontic devices. Electric voltages up to 950 mV may occur between different dental alloys in the oral cavity. This study aimed to investigate physiologic reactions of oral leukoplakia cells in vitro to electric fields.
A human leukoplakia cell line (MSK-LEUK1), cultivated in keratinocyte growth medium (KGM-2) supplemented with growth factors in 5% CO(2) humidified air at 37°C, was exposed to electric field strength of 1-20 V/m for 24 hours in a custom-made pulse chamber. The cells were then analyzed for proliferation with the use of BrdU assay and for apoptosis with the use of TUNEL assay. Findings were assessed with the use of fluorescent microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were studied by transmission electron microscopy.
Electric field strength of 1-10 V/m led to up-regulation of cell proliferation rate from 10.64% to 44.06% (P = .0001). The apoptotic index increased significantly (P = .0001) from 20.03% at 1 V/m to 46.56% at 10 V/m. Individual cell keratinization was seen in leukoplakia cells treated with 16 V/m.
Oral galvanism induces subcellular changes in oral precancer cells in vitro that closely simulate some of the morphologic features of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The idea that preterm and term infants are capable of experiencing pain is now widely accepted. However, there is still insufficient knowledge how pain perception develops throughout infancy. A promising approach to quantify the level of spinal excitability in infants is to measure cutaneous sensitivity by the flexion withdrawal reflex (WR). In our study we wanted to test how the threshold of the WR develops in healthy infants during the first year of life. Furthermore, we aimed to analyse the impact of the state of consciousness on the reflex threshold.
In 44 healthy infants we tested the threshold of the WR with calibrated von-Frey-Filaments at the age of 3 days as well as with 4, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. To analyse the influence of the state of consciousness on the reflex threshold, we documented at 12, 26 and 52 weeks whether the infants were quietly awake or lightly asleep during testing.
The median threshold of the WR increased during the first year of life from 1.2 g up to 4.6 g at the age of 1 year. At 12, 26 and 52 weeks we found significantly lower thresholds in sleeping infants compared to infants being awake (p=0.004, p<0.001 and p=0.086, respectively).
The threshold of the flexion withdrawal reflex increases during infancy, probably reflecting neuronal maturation processes in the first year of life. Besides postnatal age, the threshold of the WR also depends on the state of consciousness. Therefore, future studies about the WR should consider postnatal age as well as the state of consciousness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Common opioids for analgesia and sedation of mechanically ventilated infants may tend to accumulate and cause prolonged sedation with an unpredictable extubation time. Remifentanil is a promising option due to its unique pharmacokinetic properties, which seem to be valid in adults as well as in infants.
In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial mechanically ventilated neonates and young infants (<60 days) received either a remifentanil or fentanyl-based analgesia and sedation regimen with low dose midazolam. The primary endpoint of the trial was the extubation time following discontinuation of the opioid infusion. Secondary endpoints included efficacy and safety aspects.
Between November 2006 and March 2010, we screened 431 mechanically ventilated infants for eligibility. The intention to treat group included 23 infants who were assigned to receive either remifentanil (n = 11) or fentanyl (n = 12). Although this was designed as a pilot study, median extubation time was significantly shorter in the remifentanil group (80.0 min, IQR = 15.0-165.0) compared to the fentanyl group (782.5 min, IQR = 250.8-1,875.0) (p = 0.005). Remifentanil and fentanyl provided comparable efficacy with more than two-thirds of the measurements indicating optimal analgesia and sedation (66.4 and 70.2 %, respectively; p = 0.743). Overall, both groups had good hemodynamic stability and a comparably low incidence of adverse events.
As neonates and young infants have a decreased metabolism of common opioids like fentanyl and are more prone to respiratory depression, remifentanil could be the ideal opioid for analgesia and sedation of mechanically ventilated infants.
Intensive Care Medicine 03/2012; 38(6):1017-24. DOI:10.1007/s00134-012-2532-1 · 7.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antipsychotics, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and omega-3-fatty acids have been found superior to control conditions as regards prevention of psychosis in people at-risk of first-episode psychosis. However, no large-scale trial evaluating the differential efficacy of CBT and antipsychotics has been performed yet. In PREVENT, we evaluate CBT, aripiprazole, and clinical management (CM) as well as placebo and CM for the prevention of psychosis in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with regard to the antipsychotic intervention and a randomized controlled trial with regard to the CBT intervention with blinded ratings. The hypotheses are first that CBT and aripiprazole and CM are superior to placebo and CM and second that CBT is not inferior to aripiprazole and CM combined. The primary outcome is transition to psychosis. By November 2010, 156 patients were recruited into the trial. The subjects were substantially functionally compromised (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale mean score 52.5) and 78.3% presented with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition axis I comorbid diagnosis. Prior to randomization, 51.5% of the participants preferred to be randomized into the CBT arm, whereas only 12.9% preferred pharmacological treatment. First, assessments of audiotaped treatment sessions confirmed the application of CBT-specific skills in the CBT condition and the absence of those in CM. The overall quality rating of the CBT techniques applied in the CBT condition was good. When the final results of the trial are available, PREVENT will substantially expand the current limited evidence base for best clinical practice in people at-risk (prodromal) of first-episode psychosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the detection of microcalcifications on mammograms of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired by a direct digital flat-panel detector mammography system (FPM) versus a stereotactic breast biopsy system utilizing CCD (charge-coupled device) technology with either a 1024 or 512 acquisition matrix (1024 CCD and 512 CCD).
Randomly distributed silica beads (diameter 100-1400 μm) and anthropomorphic scatter bodies were applied to 48 transparent films. The test specimens were radiographed on a direct digital FPM and by the indirect 1024 CCD and 512 CCD techniques. Four radiologists rated the monitor-displayed images independently of each other in random order.
The rate of correct positive readings for the "number of detectable microcalcifications" for silica beads of 100-199 μm in diameter was 54.2%, 50.0% and 45.8% by FPM, 1024 CCD and 512 CCD, respectively. The inter-rater variability was most pronounced for silica beads of 100-199 μm in diameter. The greatest agreement with the gold standard was observed for beads >400 μm in diameter across all methods.
Stereotactic spot images taken by 1024 matrix CCD technique are diagnostically equivalent to direct digital flat-panel mammograms for visualizing simulated microcalcifications >400 μm in diameter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine in vitro whether an assessment of flow in normal and obstructed vessels is essentially possible using modern multislice CT-scanners. An experimental model allowed known stenoses to be perfused at defined flow rates. Aorta and coronary arteries were simulated by silicone tubes. A pulsatile pump was used to perfuse water through the system with intermittent injection of a bolus of radio-opaque contrast agent. CT-measurements were carried out with slice orientation perpendicular to the tubes. 50-90% concentric stenoses were examined 5 times at 4 different stenosis slice distances. A mathematical algorithm calculated the temporal density changes within a ROI in the tube cross-sections. Quantitative assessment of the data simultaneously acquired with the 16-slice system for the "coronary" and "aortal" time-density curves showed that the model allowed for exclusion of a ≥ 80% stenosis grade with a 99% probability when the slopes of the density increase quotient was > 0.79; a stenosis grade of ≥ 90% could be excluded when the slopes of the density increase quotient was > 0.52. A Quotient > 0.94 for "peak density" was associated with a 99% probability of a stenosis grade ≥ 70%. The 64-slice system allowed stenosis grades of ≥ 80% to be discriminated from lower grades. The general feasibility of the in vitro approach was verified in an in vivo model. The spatial, contrast and temporal resolution of CT scanners with at least 16 detector rows enables qualitative and semiquantitative assessment of stenotic changes in flow.
The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 10/2010; 27(6):795-804. DOI:10.1007/s10554-010-9728-7 · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the effect of recovery of idiopathic sudden hearing loss under placebo (first aim) and under medical therapy (second aim).
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
A total of 1,674 studies published between January 1974 and April 2009 were found following suggestions in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. After filtering by criteria of Cochrane Collaboration, four trials remained for continuous and two for dichotomous data.
Using Review Manager, weighted mean difference as well as standardized mean effect of hearing recovery were calculated and pooled. The values for weighted mean difference of hearing gain in dB were 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) (-2.04-3.61) and for standardized mean effect 0.06, 95% CI (-0.13-0.24), respectively, which computationally favors active treatment, but statistically is not significantly different from no effect (0 dB). This was in accordance to the comparison of descriptive means between recovery under placebo with 14.3 dB and active treatment with 15.8 dB hearing gain. Treatment effect of dichotomous data (hearing gain vs. no hearing gain) suggested a statistically significant better outcome for active treatment; the odds ratio (OR) [fixed] is 2.18 (1.06-4.46).
In five different statistical analysis methods used, treatment effect of medical therapy was slightly better than recovery under placebo in which spontaneous recovery could be assumed, but no significant effect was detected. Against the background of recovery under placebo of 14.3 dB vs. 15.8 dB hearing gain of active treatment as averages of all measured frequencies, recovery under placebo seems not to have worse outcome than recovery under medical therapy.
The Laryngoscope 09/2010; 120(9):1863-71. DOI:10.1002/lary.21011 · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When decompression of the lumbar spinal canal is performed, segmental stability might be affected. Exactly which anatomical structures can thereby be resected without interfering with stability, and when, respectively how, additional stabilization is essential, has not been adequately investigated so far. The present investigation describes kinetic changes in a surgically treated motion segment as well as in its adjacent segments.
Segmental biomechanical examination of nine human lumbar cadaver spines (L1 to L5) was performed without preload in a spine-testing apparatus by means of a precise, ultrasound-guided measuring system. Thus, samples consisting of four free motion segments were made available. Besides measurements in the native (untreated) spine specimen further measurements were done after progressive resection of dorsal elements like lig. flavum, hemilaminectomy, laminectomy and facetectomy. The segment was then stabilised by means of a rigid system (ART((R))) and by means of a dynamic, transpedicularly fixed system (Dynesys((R))).
For the analysis, range of motion (ROM) values and separately viewed data of the respective direction of motion were considered in equal measure. A very high reproducibility of the individual measurements could be verified. In the sagittal and frontal plane, flavectomy and hemilaminectomy did not achieve any relevant change in the ROM in both directions. This applies to the segment operated on as well as to the adjacent segments examined. Resection of the facet likewise does not lead to any distinct increase of mobility in the operated segment as far as flexion and right/left bending is concerned. In extension a striking increase in mobility of more than 1degree compared to the native value can be perceived in the operated segment. Stabilization with the rigid and dynamic system effect an almost equal reduction of flexion/extension and right/left bending. In the adjacent segments, a slightly higher mobility is to be noted for rigid stabilization than for dynamic stabilisation. A linear regression analysis shows that in flexion/extension monosegmental rigid stabilisation is compensated predominantly in the first cranial adjacent segment. In case of a dynamic stabilisation the compensation is distributed among the first and second cranial, and by 20% in the caudal adjacent segment.
Monosegmental decompression of the lumbar spinal canal does not essentially destabilise the motion segment during in vitro conditions. Regarding rigid or dynamic stabilisation, the ROM does not differ within the operated segment, but the distribution of the compensatory movement is different.
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 11/2009; 130(2):285-92. DOI:10.1007/s00402-009-1002-x · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasingly frequent applications of opioid analgesics in neonatal intensive care require the evaluation of efficacy and side effects.
Mechanically ventilated term neonates were consecutively enrolled.
In a double-blind randomized trial 20 newborns received a continuous intravenous infusion of fentanyl (n=10) or sufentanil (n=10) in an assumed equipotent dose of 7:1. The analgesic dose was individually adjusted according to sedation scores. The period between cessation of analgesic medication and successful extubation (weaning time), adverse drug effects and urinary cortisol concentrations were evaluated.
No significant difference of weaning time was seen between fentanyl and sufentanil group (mean weaning time (+/-SD) of fentanyl group 520+/-381 min, median 380 min; sufentanil group 585+/-531 min, median 405 min, p=0.78, 2-tailed U-Test, Mann and Whitney). The mean opioid dose resulted in a 10:1 ratio (fentanyl 4.11 microg/(kg x h) vs sufentanil 0.41 microg/(kg x h)). We found no marked differences in sedation levels, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygenation index, co-medication or urinary cortisol levels. In both groups similar adverse effects were assessed including respiratory depression, mild withdrawal symptoms or decrease of gastrointestinal motility.
In our study sufentanil did not reduce the weaning period in ventilated term neonates when compared to fentanyl. The equipotent dose ratio for fentanyl/sufentanil was 10:1. According to sedation scores both substances provided effective pain and stress protection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Karnofsky's performance status scale (KS) and Spitzer's quality of life index (QLI) were used to assess the quality of life of 1081 patients with histologically proven gastric cancer who entered the German multicentre observational field study for the validation of the TNM system for gastric cancer. Age and sex distribution and interscale correlation were examined to obtain information about the validity of the KS and the quality of life of gastric cancer patients. Age and sex distributions revealed two trends: men seemed to have better KS and QLI values than women, and old patients had worse QLI values than young patients. The interscale correlation gave a good -0.72 Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (p < 0.001). These results showed that KS and QLI had comparable age and sex distributions among gastric cancer patients. Together with the good interscale correlation this means a mutual confirmation of both concepts and of the first contributions for the validation of KS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By use of a formal staging system the examiner usually is forced to be more complete and more precise than he might be without such a system. A checklist is didactically helpful for a surgeon because it asks him to answer questions systematically, not forgetting any one item that might be of great influence in choosing adequate surgery for an individual patient or determining his prognosis. Every checklist needs special instructions for filling in the right information obtainable since all items are subjected to some form of interpretation. Instructions minimize interpretational defects. An excellent aid for understanding items are graphs and simple illustrations. A checklist should be comfortable and short. For staging of gastric cancer patients it should include the following items: date of classification, location, size, multiplicity, depth of penetration of primary tumor, lymph-node involvement, and metastasis in accordance with internationally used classifications, type of resection, and lymph-node removal, resection with curative intention, or for palliation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurogenic intermittent claudication, caused by lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), usually occurs after the age of 50 and is one of the most common degenerative spinal diseases in the elderly. Among patients over the age of 65 with LSS, open decompression is the most frequently performed spinal operation. The recently introduced interspinous spacers are a new alternative under discussion. In this retrospective study, we reviewed medical records and radiographs of patients with LSS and NIC treated from June 2003 to June 2007. All included patients (n = 129) were treated with interspinous implants (X Stop Wallis, or Diam). Evaluations of pain, using a visual analog scale (VAS), and radiographic signs, using two-plane X-rays of the lumbar spine, were performed preoperatively (preop), postoperatively (postop) and after discharge (FU 2-3). Gender ratio (m:w) was 1.1:1. Mean age of the patients was 60.8 +/- 16.3 years. Foraminal height, foraminal width, foraminal cross-sectional area, intervertebral angle, as well as anterior and posterior disc height changed significantly (P < 0.0001) after implantation of the interspinous device. Postoperatively, symptom relief (VAS) was significant (P < 0.0001). The X Stop implant improved (in some cases significantly) the radiographic parameters of foraminal height, width, and cross-sectional area, more than the Diam and Wallis implants; however, there was no significant difference among the three regarding symptom relief. FU 1 was on average 202.3 +/- 231.9 and FU 2 527.2 +/- 377.0 days postoperatively. During FU, the radiological improvements seemed to revert toward initial values. Pain (VAS) did not increase despite this "loss of correction." There was no correlation between age and symptom improvement. There was only very weak correlation between the magnitude of radiographic improvement and the extent of pain relief (VAS). The interspinous implant did not worsen low-grade spondylolisthesis. Provided there is a strict indication and fusion is not required, implantation of an interspinous spacer is a good alternative to treat LSS. The interspinous implant offers significant, longlasting symptom control, even if initially significant radiological changes seem to revert toward the initial values ("loss of correction").
European Spine Journal 07/2009; 18(10):1494-503. DOI:10.1007/s00586-009-1081-y · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrospective analysis of therapy results in patients with stage I-II and limited stage III nodal low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
The present retrospective study covers 65 patients treated between 1988 and 2006 at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Germany. 50 patients were treated with radiotherapy alone (EF [extended field]: n = 35, IF/REG [involved field/regional field]: n = 9, TNI/TLI [total nodal/total lymphatic]: n = 6), 15 patients additionally received chemotherapy. Median age was 58 years. 58 patients presented with centroblastic-centrocytic or follicular lymphomas, seven patients had centrocytic lymphomas. Apart from overall and relapse-free survival, relapse patterns were examined and the impacts of patient characteristics and therapy modalities were analyzed.
After a median follow-up of 9.1 years, overall 5-year and 10-year survival was 86% and 55%, relapse-free survival was 55% and 37%, respectively. Relapses occurred in 28 patients during the observation period. Overall survival was favorably influenced by low patient age (p = 0.037), centroblastic-centrocytic/follicular histology (p = 0.006), and early disease stage (p = 0.045). Favorable prognostic factors for relapse-free survival were low patient age (p = 0.035) and centroblastic-centrocytic/follicular histology (p = 0.001).
Radiotherapy of early-stage low-grade NHL is a curative therapy option, particularly in younger patients and patients with follicular histology. Relapse analysis confirmed the benefits of total nodal or total lymphatic irradiation, although the small number of patients needs to be considered.
Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 06/2009; 185(5):288-95. DOI:10.1007/s00066-009-1937-4 · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assess whether negative findings on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) may contribute to the decision-making process of elective neck dissection (eND) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity or the oropharynx (oSCC) staged cT1-T2 cN0 cM0.
We interpreted CT, MRI, and 18FDG-PET images separately, after combining the data of CT with those of 18FDG-PET and the data of MRI with those of 18FDG-PET. Each set of results was then compared with the histopathologic results of ipsilateral or bilateral eND in a prospective, blinded study.
The histopathologic examination of 594 lymph nodes revealed 4 metastases less than 4 mm in diameter and 3 micrometastases (less than 2 mm) in 6 of 17 patients. On CT, MRI, and 18FDG-PET, respectively, 5, 5, and 0 cases were true-malignant (true positives) and 4, 10, and 1 cases were false-malignant (false positives). The accuracy was not enhanced by fusing CT with 18FDG-PET or MRI with 18FDG-PET.
The detectability threshold of occult metastases appears to be below the spatial and contrast resolution of CT, MRI, and 18FDG-PET. The decision for eND in patients with cT1-T2 cN0 cM0 oSCC cannot be based upon cross-sectional imaging at the resolutions currently available.
The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology 12/2008; 117(11):854-63. DOI:10.1177/000348940811701111 · 1.09 Impact Factor