ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to compare 2 interventions promoting condoms and vaginal microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted disease (STD).
Women (N = 427) attending an STD clinic were randomly assigned to 2 clinician-delivered interventions and followed up monthly to assess condom/microbicide use and incidence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis.
During follow up, condom use rates were 69% (enhanced) and 49% (basic) and microbicide use rates were 44% and 29%, respectively. STD rates did not significantly differ between intervention groups. Perfect condom use (regardless of intervention arm) was associated with a 3-fold decrease in STD rates (relative risk [RR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-0.8). Using a vaginal microbicide during > or =50% of the acts of intercourse was associated with reduced STD rates (RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0) across intervention groups and condom use categories.
The enhanced intervention increased use of condoms and vaginal microbicide; however, STD rates did not decrease because a protective effect was seen only among perfect barrier users, and the enhanced intervention only modestly increased perfect use.
Sex Transm Dis 12/2005; 32(11):672-9. · 2.87 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free supplies of female and male condoms. Designed for women ages 18 to 34 attending public STD clinics, the intervention is developed using a systematic process of formative evaluation influenced by principles of social marketing and drawing on the social cognitive theory. The effect of the intervention on female and male condom use is evaluated using a pretest-posttest design with 1,159 women. Most elements of the intervention could be replicated in settings other than STD clinics and delivered by persons other than nurse clinicians.
Behavior Modification 04/2005; 29(2):318-69. · 1.70 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to study the frequency and determinants of breakage and slippage during female and male condom use.
The goal of this study was to determine condom breakage and slippage rate.
We conducted a 6-month prospective follow-up study of women attending 2 sexually transmitted disease clinics. Breakage and slippage rates were computed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate baseline characteristics and time-dependent behaviors.
A total of 869 women used condoms in 20,148 acts of intercourse. Breakage was less common for female condoms (0.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.21) than for male condoms (3.1%; 95% CI, 2.80-3.42). Slippage was more common for female condoms (5.6%; 95% CI, 5.10-6.13) than for male condoms (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.90-1.28). Rates significantly decreased with use and increased with number of previous failures. From first use to >15 uses, combined failure rate fell from 20% to 1.2% for female condoms (P < 0.0001) and 9% to 2.3% for male condoms (P < 0.01).
Both condoms may provide good protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Experience determines success with either condom.
Sex Transm Dis 02/2005; 32(1):35-43. · 2.87 Impact Factor