[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug resistance has always been one of the most important impediments to global malaria control. Artemisinin resistance has recently been confirmed in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and efforts for surveillance and containment are intensified. To determine potential mechanisms of artemisinin resistance and monitor the emergence and spread of resistance in other regions of the GMS, we investigated the in vitro sensitivity of 51 culture-adapted parasite isolates from the China-Myanmar border area to four drugs. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 s) of dihydroartemisinin, mefloquine and lumefantrine were clustered in a relatively narrow, 3-to 6-fold range, whereas the IC 50 range of artesunate was 12-fold. We assessed the polymorphisms of candidate resistance genes pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfATP6, pfmdr6 and pfMT (a putative metabolite/drug transporter). The K76T mutation in pfcrt reached fixation in the study parasite population, whereas point mutations in pfmdr1 and pfATP6 had low levels of prevalence. In addition, pfmdr1 gene amplification was not detected. None of the mutations in pfmdr1 and pfATP6 was associated significantly with in vitro sensitivity to artemisinin derivatives. The ABC transporter gene pfmdr6 harbored two point mutations, two indels, and number variations in three simple repeats. Only the length variation in a microsatellite repeat appeared associated with altered sensitivity to dihydroartemisinin. The PfMT gene had two point mutations and one codon deletion; the I30N and N496– both reached high levels of prevalence. However, none of the SNPs or haplotypes in PfMT were correlated significantly with resistance to the four tested drugs. Compared with other parasite populations from the GMS, our studies revealed drastically different genotype and drug sensitivity profiles in parasites from the China-Myanmar border area, where artemisinins have been deployed extensively for over 30 years., et al. (2012) In Vitro Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum from China-Myanmar Border Area to Major ACT Drugs and Polymorphisms in Potential Target Genes. PLoS ONE 7(5): e30927. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030927 Editor: Copyright: ß 2012 Wang et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: This study was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) international grant (1R01AI075429) to Z. Yang, National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 30960050), and U19AI089672 from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. (ZY) . These authors contributed equally to this work.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a molecular epidemiologic survey of mutations associated with drug-resistance genes in Plasmodium falciparum in northeastern Myanmar. In this region, 3 highly mutated drug-resistance haplotypes and 1 associated with decreased quinine susceptibility were prevalent, which suggests that parasites may be resistant to multiple commonly used antimalarial drugs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quinine resistance (QNR) in Plasmodium falciparum has been detected in many regions of the world where malaria is endemic. Genetic polymorphisms in at least four genes are implicated in QN susceptibility, and their significance often depends on the genetic background of the parasites. In this study, we have culture-adapted 60 P. falciparum clinical isolates from the China-Myanmar border and assessed their in vitro responses to QN. Our results showed that >50% of the parasite isolates displayed reduced sensitivity to QN, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) above 500 nM. Genotyping of pfcrt found that an overwhelming proportion of the parasite population had the chloroquine-resistant genotype, whereas pfmdr1 mutation genotypes and gene amplification were rare. Genotyping of the P. falciparum Na(+)/H(+) exchanger gene (pfnhe1) at the minisatellite ms4760 locus identified 10 haplotypes. Haplotype 7, which harbors three copies of the DNNND repeat, was the most predominant, accounting for nearly half of the parasite isolates. Correlation studies did not reveal significant associations of the polymorphisms in pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes with QN response. However, the ms4760 haplotypes were highly associated with in vitro QN responses. In particular, parasite isolates with an increased DNNND copy number tended to have significantly reduced QN susceptibility, whereas parasite isolates with a higher NHNDNHNNDDD copy number had increased QN susceptibility. This study provided further support for the importance of pfnhe1 polymorphisms in influencing QNR in P. falciparum.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2010; 54(10):4306-13. · 4.57 Impact Factor