[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is an increasingly popular technique used to stimulate new bone formation to treat orthopedic disorders resulting from bone defects and deficits. Because of various possible complications that can occur during the long consolidation period, the development of procedures to accelerate regenerated ossification is clearly desirable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of single insertions of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), delivered by tri-calcium phosphate (TCP)/hydroxyapatite (HA), administered at osteotomy sites, on the rate of new bone formation during DO in a rat model.
Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 12 weeks and weighing a mean (± standard deviation) of 401 ± 14 g, were used in this study. The animals were randomized into three groups of 12 rats each. Group I served as a control, group II was treated with only TCP/HA, and group III was treated with recombinant human (rh) BMP-2-coated TCP/HA. Materials were inserted into the medullary canal at the femoral osteotomy site at the end of the lengthening period. After a 7-day latent phase, distraction was commenced on day 0 at a rate of 0.50 mm every 6 h for 5 days (2 mm daily), resulting in a total of 10 mm of lengthening by day 5. At two different time-points [at 4 weeks (day 33) and 8 weeks (day 61) after cessation of distraction], the progress of bone formation was determined with microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), histology and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mean and standard deviation of the values obtained from the experiment were computed and statistical analyses performed using anova. Statistical significance was established at P < 0.05. Results. Radiographically, all group III rat femurs exhibited bridging callus formation 8 weeks after cessation of distraction, whereas group II rat femurs demonstrated non-bridging callus formation. None of the group I rat femurs showed callus in the central zone of the distraction gap. For micro-CT, bone formation and remodeling of the distraction regeneration with beta-TCP/HA coated with rhBMP-2 had greater values than the control sides at all time-points. Two-dimensional quantitative analysis of the distraction regeneration showed that the bone volume of group III had higher values than groups I and II at 4 weeks (P < 0.05). This difference was also evident at 8 weeks. With hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, the control group (group I) did not show any bone tissue at the distraction site. In group II at 4 weeks, abundant fibrous tissue surrounding the particles was visible with some areas of woven bone. At 8 weeks, the woven bone covered the particles but not the whole circumference. In group III at 4 weeks, much of the woven bone surrounded the particle with some fibrocartilagenous materials. At 8 weeks, woven bone covering the whole circumference of the particles was visible.
Application of rhBMP-2, at the end of the rather rapid distraction period, as a single bolus significantly increased the osteogenic process, while beta-TCP/HA behaved effectively as a sustained delivery system for this osteoinductive protein.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stromal vascular fractions (SVF) from adipose tissue have heterogeneous cell populations, and include multipotent adipose-derived stem cells. The advantages of using of SVF include the avoidance of an additional culture period, a reduced risk of extensive cell contamination, and cost-effectiveness.
Unilateral 20-mm mid-diaphyseal segmental defects in rabbit ulna were treated with one of the following: polylactic glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold alone (group 1, control), a PLGA scaffold with undifferentiated SVF cells (group 2), or a PLGA scaffold with osteogenically differentiated SVF cells (group 3). At 8 weeks after implantation, five rabbits in each treatment group were killed to assess bone defect healing by plain radiography, quantitative microcomputed tomography and histology.
The SVF cells were well grown on PLGA scaffolds and expressed type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The intensity of ALP and OPN gene expressions in osteogenic medium culture were increased from 14 days to 28 days. In vivo evaluations at 8 weeks showed that treatment of SVF cells with or without osteogenic differentiation resulted in more bone formation in the critically sized segmental defects than PLGA scaffold alone. Osteogenically differentiated SVF cells significantly enhanced bone healing compared with undifferentiated SVF cells.
Adipose-derived stromal SVF showed osteogenic potential in vitro. Accordingly, SVF could provide a cell source for bone tissue engineering. However, treatment with uncultured SVF cells on bone healing was not satisfactory in the in vivo animal model.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The choice of an appropriate carrier and its microarchitectural design is integral in directing bone ingrowth into the defect site and determining its subsequent rate of bone formation and remodeling. We have selected a three-dimensional polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold with an interconnected honeycomb-like porous structure to provide a conduit for vasculature ingrowth as well as an osteoconductive pathway to guide recruited cells responding to a unique triphasic release of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) from these PCL scaffolds. We hypothesize that the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2)-PCL constructs promotes rapid union and bone regeneration of a large defect. Results of our pilot study on a unilateral 15 mm mid-diaphyseal segmental rabbit ulna defect demonstrated enhanced bone healing with greater amount of bone formation and bridging under plain radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging when compared with an empty PCL and untreated group after 8 weeks postimplantation. Quantitative measurements showed significantly higher bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness, with lower trabecular separation in the rhBMP2-treated groups. Histology evaluation also revealed greater mature bone formation spanning across the entire scaffold region compared with other groups, which showed no bone regeneration within the central defect zone. We highlight that it is the uniqueness of the scaffold having a highly porous network of channels that promoted vascular integration and allowed for cellular infiltration, leading to a discontinuous triphasic BMP2 release profile that mimicked the release profile during natural repair mechanisms in vivo. This study serves as preclinical evidence demonstrating the potential of combining osteoinductive rhBMP2 with our PCL constructs for the repair of large defects in a large animal model.
Tissue Engineering Part A 06/2011; 17(19-20):2389-97. · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microfracture of cartilage induces migration of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. However, this treatment often results in fibrocartilage regeneration. Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induce the differentiation of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, which can be used for hyaline cartilage regeneration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long-term delivery of BMP-2 to cartilage defects subjected to microfracture results in regeneration of high-quality hyaline-like cartilage, as opposed to short-term delivery of BMP-2 or no BMP-2 delivery. Heparin-conjugated fibrin (HCF) and normal fibrin were used as carriers for the long- and short-term delivery of BMP-2, respectively. Rabbit articular cartilage defects were treated with microfracture combined with one of the following: no treatment, fibrin, short-term delivery of BMP-2, HCF, or long-term delivery of BMP-2. Eight weeks after treatment, histological analysis revealed that the long-term delivery of BMP-2 group (microfracture + HCF + BMP-2) showed the most staining with alcian blue. A biochemical assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and Western blot analysis all revealed that the long-term delivery of BMP-2 group had the highest glucosaminoglycan content as well as the highest expression level of collagen type II. Taken together, the long-term delivery of BMP-2 to cartilage defects subjected to microfracture resulted in regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage, as opposed to short-term delivery or no BMP-2 delivery. Therefore, this method could be more convenient for hyaline cartilage regeneration than autologous chondrocyte implantation due to its less invasive nature and lack of cell implantation.
Tissue Engineering Part A 03/2011; 17(13-14):1809-18. · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hueter-Volkmann's law regarding growth modulation suggests that increased pressure on the end plate of bone retards the growth (Hueter) and conversely, reduced pressure accelerates the growth (Volkmann). Literature described the same principle in Rat-tail model. Human spine and its deformity i.e. scoliosis has also same kind of pattern during the growth period which causes wedging in disc or vertebral body.
This cross sectional study in 150 patients of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was done to evaluate vertebral body and disc wedging in scoliosis and to compare the extent of differential wedging of body and disc, in thoracic and lumbar area. We measured wedging of vertebral bodies and discs, along with two adjacent vertebrae and disc, above and below the apex and evaluated them according to severity of curve (curve < 30 degrees and curve > 30 degrees ) to find the relationship of vertebral body or disc wedging with scoliosis in thoracic and lumbar spine. We also compared the wedging and rotations of vertebrae.
In both thoracic and lumbar curves, we found that greater the degree of scoliosis, greater the wedging in both disc and body and the degree of wedging was more at apex supporting the theory of growth retardation in stress concentration area. However, the degree of wedging in vertebral body is more than the disc in thoracic spine while the wedging was more in disc than body in lumbar spine. On comparing the wedging with the rotation, we did not find any significant relationship suggesting that it has no relation with rotation.
From our study, we can conclude that wedging in disc and body are increasing with progression on scoliosis and maximum at apex; however there is differential wedging of body and disc, in thoracic and lumbar area, that is vertebral body wedging is more profound in thoracic area while disc wedging is more profound in lumbar area which possibly form 'vicious cycle' by asymmetric loading to spine for the progression of curve.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone-tendon junction injuries have poor healing potential. This study evaluated the role of TGF-beta and BMP-2 in a fibrin glue carrier in healing of injuries at bone-tendon junction. Seventy-two skeletally mature male rabbits were divided into 4 groups. The tendo-Achilles was surgically transected at its insertion and reattached with a pullout suture. Group 1 served as a control. In groups 2, 3, and 4, fibrin glue, a mixture of TGF-beta and fibrin glue, and a mixture of BMP-2 and fibrin glue were injected into the bone-tendon junction. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after surgical procedure. The addition of TGF-beta to fibrin glue did not significantly improve the biomechanical properties of repair tissue. BMP-2 in combination with fibrin glue accelerates healing in a bone-tendon injury and also improves the histological and biomechanical properties of the repair tissue so formed.
Connective tissue research 02/2007; 48(6):309-15. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of orthopedic and dental tissue engineering is to generate synthetic bone-graft tissue substitutes. It is generally comprised through the combination of viable cells, a scaffolding material, and sometimes the inclusion of bone morphogenic proteins. The object of this study is to develop novel bone-grafting scaffolds that enhance osteoblast activity. We were fabricated the chitosan scaffolds with channel-shaped and spherically shaped pore morphologies. Also, Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) was sequentially immobilized to the heparinized-chitosan (Hep-chitosan) scaffolds. Osteoblast activities of all chitosan scaffolds were investigated by a cell proliferation assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and the expression of osteogenic markers. The results showed that BMP-2-immobilizing heparinized-chitosan (BMP-2/Hep-chitosan) scaffolds significantly enhanced ALP activity and calcium deposition of the osteoblast cells when compared with chitosan scaffolds only. Also, mRNA expressions of osteocalcin and osteopontin of osteoblast cells cultured on BMP-2 (100 ng)/Hep-chitosan scaffolds were increased versus chitosan scaffolds only. Taken together, BMP-2 (100 ng)/Hep-chitosan scaffolds could achieve the functions of excellent osteoblast promotion. Therefore, osteoinductive protein-functionalizing scaffold substrates such as BMP-2/Hepchitosan scaffolds are a promising material for the enhanced osteoblast activity in orthopedic and dental fields.
Fetal ovine model for in-situ esophagus tissue engineering. 10(3). · 3.16 Impact Factor