Haiyan Chu

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States

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Publications (9)63.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Glycolytic enzymes (GEs) have been shown to exist in multi-enzyme complexes on the inner surface of the human erythrocyte membrane. Since no protein other than band 3 has been found to interact with GEs, and because several GEs do not bind band 3, we decided to identify the additional membrane proteins that serve as docking sites for GE on the membrane. For this purpose, a method known as label transfer that employs a photoactivatable tri-functional cross-linking reagent to deliver a biotin from a derivatized GE to its binding partner on the membrane was used. Mass spectrometry analysis of membrane proteins that were biotinylated following rebinding and photoactivation of labeled glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) revealed not only the anticipated binding partner, band 3, but also the association of GEs with specific peptides in α- and β-spectrin, ankyrin, actin, p55, and protein 4.2. More importantly, the labeled GEs were also found to transfer biotin to other GEs in the complex, demonstrating for the first time that GEs also associate with each other in their membrane complexes. Surprisingly, a new GE binding site was repeatedly identified near the junction of the membrane-spanning and cytoplasmic domains of band 3, and this binding site was confirmed by direct binding studies. These results not only identify new components of the membrane-associated GE complexes, but also provide molecular details on the specific peptides that form the interfacial contacts within each interaction .
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The type of metabolic compartmentalization that occurs in red blood cells differs from the types that exist in most eukaryotic cells, such as intracellular organelles. In red blood cells (ghosts), ATP is sequestered within the cytoskeletal-membrane complex. These pools of ATP are known to directly fuel both the Na(+)/K(+) and Ca(2+) pumps. ATP can be entrapped within these pools either by incubation with bulk ATP or by operation of the phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase reactions to enzymatically generate ATP. When the pool is filled with nascent ATP, metabolic labeling of the Na(+)/K(+) or Ca(2+) pump phosphoproteins (E(Na)-P and E(Ca)-P, respectively) from bulk [γ-(32)P]-ATP is prevented until the pool is emptied by various means. Importantly, the pool also can be filled with the fluorescent ATP analog trinitrophenol ATP, as well as with a photoactivatable ATP analog, 8-azido-ATP (N(3)-ATP). Using the fluorescent ATP, we show that ATP accumulates and then disappears from the membrane as the ATP pools are filled and subsequently emptied, respectively. By loading N(3)-ATP into the membrane pool, we demonstrate that membrane proteins that contribute to the pool's architecture can be photolabeled. With the aid of an antibody to N(3)-ATP, we identify these labeled proteins by immunoblotting and characterize their derived peptides by mass spectrometry. These analyses show that the specific peptides that corral the entrapped ATP derive from sequences within β-spectrin, ankyrin, band 3, and GAPDH.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2012; 109(31):12794-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The partial pressure of oxygen constitutes an important factor in the regulation of human erythrocyte physiology, including control of cell volume, membrane structure, and glucose metabolism. Because band 3 is thought to be involved in all three processes and because binding of hemoglobin (Hb) to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3) is strongly oxygen-dependent, the possibility that the reversible association of deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb) with cdb3 might constitute an O(2)-dependent sensor that mediates O(2)-regulated changes in erythrocyte properties arises. While several lines of evidence support this hypothesis, a major opposing argument lies in the fact that the deoxyHb binding sequence on human cdb3 is not conserved. Moreover, no effect of O(2) pressure on Hb-band 3 interactions has ever been demonstrated in another species. To explore whether band 3-Hb interactions might be widely involved in O(2)-dependent regulation of erythrocyte physiology, we undertook characterization of the effect of O(2) on band 3-Hb interactions in the mouse. We report here that murine band 3 binds deoxyHb with significantly greater affinity than oxyHb, despite the lack of significant homology within the deoxyHb binding sequence. We further map the deoxyHb binding site on murine band 3 and show that deletion of the site eliminates deoxyHb binding. Finally, we identify mutations in murine cdb3 that either enhance or eliminate its affinity for murine deoxyHb. These data demonstrate that despite a lack of homology in the sequences of both murine band 3 and murine Hb, a strong oxygen-dependent association of the two proteins has been conserved.
    Biochemistry 03/2012; 51(15):3264-72. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have measured homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation rates of sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in the presence of a strongly binding deletion mutant of the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3), a membrane protein known to form dimers and to bind 2 HbS molecules to such a dimer, and we find that it accelerated both rates by a factor of 2. A weakly binding mutant, in contrast showed no impact on nucleation rates, contrary to naïve expectations of a slight enhancement based on the molecular crowding of the solution by the mutant. We find we can explain these phenomena by a model of HbS-cdb3 interaction in which the strong binding mutant, by stabilizing an HbS dimer, catalyzes the nucleation process, while the weak mutant binds only 1 HbS molecule, effectively inactivating it and thereby compensating for the crowding of the solution by the cdb3. The catalytic behavior we observe could play a role in intracellular processes.
    Biophysical chemistry 10/2009; 146(2-3):55-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The erythrocyte membrane skeleton is the best understood cytoskeleton. Because its protein components have homologs in virtually all other cells, the membrane serves as a fundamental model of biologic membranes. Modern textbooks portray the membrane as a 2-dimensional spectrin-based membrane skeleton attached to a lipid bilayer through 2 linkages: band 3-ankyrin-beta-spectrin and glycophorin C-protein 4.1-beta-spectrin.(1-7) Although evidence supports an essential role for the first bridge in regulating membrane cohesion, rupture of the glycophorin C-protein 4.1 interaction has little effect on membrane stability.(8) We demonstrate the existence of a novel band 3-adducin-spectrin bridge that connects the spectrin/actin/protein 4.1 junctional complex to the bilayer. As rupture of this bridge leads to spontaneous membrane fragmentation, we conclude that the band 3-adducin-spectrin bridge is important to membrane stability. The required relocation of part of the band 3 population to the spectrin/actin junctional complex and its formation of a new bridge with adducin necessitates a significant revision of accepted models of the erythrocyte membrane.
    Blood 07/2009; 114(9):1904-12. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that glycolytic enzymes (GEs) exist as multienzyme complexes on the inner surface of human erythrocyte membranes. Because GE binding sites have been mapped to sequences on the membrane protein, band 3, that are not conserved in other mammalian homologs, the question arose whether GEs can organize into complexes on other mammalian erythrocyte membranes. To address this, murine erythrocytes were stained with antibodies to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase and analyzed by confocal microscopy. GEs were found to localize to the membrane in oxygenated erythrocytes but redistributed to the cytoplasm upon deoxygenation, as seen in human erythrocytes. To identify membrane proteins involved in GE assembly, erythrocytes from mice lacking each of the major erythrocyte membrane proteins were examined for GE localization. GEs from band 3 knockout mice were not membrane associated but distributed throughout the cytoplasm, regardless of erythrocyte oxygenation state. In contrast, erythrocytes from mice lacking alpha-spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.2, protein 4.1, beta-adducin, or dematin headpiece exhibited GEs bound to the membrane. These data suggest that oxygenation-dependent assembly of GEs on the membrane could be a general phenomenon of mammalian erythrocytes and that stability of these interactions depends primarily on band 3.
    Blood 09/2008; 112(9):3900-6. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Band 3, the major protein of the human erythrocyte membrane, associates with multiple metabolic, ion transport, and structural proteins. Functional studies demonstrate that the oxygenation state of the erythrocyte regulates cellular properties performed by these and/or related proteins. Because deoxyhemoglobin, but not oxyhemoglobin, binds band 3 reversibly with high affinity, these observations raise the hypothesis that hemoglobin might regulate erythrocyte properties through its reversible, oxygenation-dependent association with band 3. To explore this hypothesis, we have characterized the binding site of deoxyHb on human erythrocyte band 3. We report that (1) deoxyHb binds to residues 12-23 of band 3; (2) mutation of residues on either side of this sequence greatly enhances affinity of deoxyHb for band 3, suggesting that evolution of a higher affinity interaction would have been possible had it been beneficial for survival; (3) Hb does not bind to 2 other sequences in band 3 despite their high sequence homology to residues 12-23, and (4) the Hb binding site on band 3 lies proximal to binding sites for glycolytic enzymes, band 4.1 and ankyrin, suggesting possible mechanisms through which multifarious erythrocyte properties might be regulated by the oxygenation state of the cell.
    Blood 02/2008; 111(2):932-8. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    Haiyan Chu, Philip S Low
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), aldolase, PFK (phosphofructokinase), PK (pyruvate kinase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assemble into a GE (glycolytic enzyme) complex on the inner surface of the human erythrocyte membrane. In an effort to define the molecular architecture of this complex, we have undertaken to localize the binding sites of these enzymes more accurately. We report that: (i) a major aldolase-binding site on the erythrocyte membrane is located within N-terminal residues 1-23 of band 3 and that both consensus sequences D6DYED10 and E19EYED23 are necessary to form a single enzyme-binding site; (ii) GAPDH has two tandem binding sites on band 3, located in residues 1-11 and residues 12-23 respectively; (iii) a PFK-binding site resides between residues 12 and 23 of band 3; (iv) no GEs bind to the third consensus sequence (residues D902EYDE906) at the C-terminus of band 3; and (v) the LDH- and PK-binding sites on the erythrocyte membrane do not reside on band 3. Taken together, these results argue that band 3 provides a nucleation site for the GE complex on the human erythrocyte membrane and that other components near band 3 must also participate in organizing the enzyme complex.
    Biochemical Journal 12/2006; 400(1):143-51. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the location of glycolytic enzymes (GEs) in intact human erythrocytes, freshly drawn blood was fixed and stained with Abs to GAPDH, aldolase, phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), carbonic anhydrase II, Hb, and band 3 (AE1). Confocal microscopy revealed that in cells where band 3 displays its expected membrane staining and Hb is evenly distributed across the cytoplasm, GEs are largely limited to the membrane. Biochemical studies confirmed that the membrane binding sites for GAPDH, aldolase, and PFK reside on band 3, but related analyses demonstrate that sites for PK and LDH do not. Four lines of evidence demonstrate that the GEs are at least partially assembled into multimeric complexes near the NH2 terminus of band 3. First, a mAb to residues 1-12 of band 3 displaces all of the above GEs from the membrane, including LDH and PK, which do not bind band 3. Second, tyrosine phosphorylation of the NH2 terminus of band 3 (Y8 and Y21) reversibly releases all of the GEs from the membrane, including LDH and PK. Third, deoxygenation of RBCs dislodges all GEs from the membrane, consistent with the established ability of deoxyHb but not oxyHb to bind the NH2 terminus of band 3. Fourth, a large increase in the accessibility of enzyme epitopes is observed upon dissociation of GEs from the membrane. We conclude, therefore, that GEs are organized into complexes on the membrane whose assembly is regulated by oxygenation and phosphorylation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2005; 102(7):2402-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor