ABSTRACT: Intraoperative real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3D TEE) was used to examine the geometric changes that occur in the mitral annulus immediately after aortic valve replacement (AVR).
A total of 35 patients undergoing elective surgical AVR under cardiopulmonary bypass was enrolled in the study. Intraoperative RT-3D TEE was used prospectively to acquire volumetric echocardiographic datasets immediately before and after AVR. The 3D echocardiographic data were analyzed offline using TomTec Mitral Valve Assessment software to assess changes in specific mitral annular geometric parameters.
Datasets were successfully acquired and analyzed for all patients. A significant reduction was noted in the mitral annular area (-16.3%, p < 0.001), circumference (-8.9%, p < 0.001) and the anteroposterior (-6.3%, p = 0.019) and anterolateral-posteromedial (-10.5%, p < 0.001) diameters. A greater reduction was noted in the anterior annulus length compared to the posterior annulus length (10.5% versus 6.2%, p < 0.05) after AVR. No significant change was seen in the non-planarity angle, coaptation depth, and closure line length. During the period of data acquisition before and after AVR, no significant change was noted in the central venous pressure or left ventricular end-diastolic diameter.
The mitral annulus undergoes significant geometric changes immediately after AVR. Notably, a 16.3% reduction was observed in the mitral annular area. The anterior annulus underwent a greater reduction in length compared to the posterior annulus, which suggested the existence of a mechanical compression by the prosthetic valve.
The Journal of heart valve disease 11/2012; 21(6):696-701. · 0.81 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mitral valve (MV) annular dynamics have been well described in animal models of functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). Despite this, little if any data exist regarding the dynamic MV annular geometry in humans with FMR. In the current study we hypothesized that 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, in conjunction with commercially available software, could be used to quantify the dynamic changes in MV annular geometry associated with FMR. METHODS: Intraoperative 3D transesophageal echocardiographic data obtained from 34 patients with FMR and 15 controls undergoing cardiac operations were dynamically analyzed for differences in mitral annular geometry with TomTec 4D MV Assessment 2.0 software (TomTec Imaging Systems GmbH, Munich, Germany). RESULTS: In patients with FMR, the mean mitral annular area (14.6 cm(2) versus 9.6 cm(2)), circumference (14.1 cm versus 11.4 cm), anteroposterior (4.0 cm versus 3.0 cm) and anterolateral-posteromedial (4.3 cm versus 3.6 cm) diameters, tenting volume (6.2 mm(3) versus 3.5 mm(3)) and nonplanarity angle (NPA) (154 degrees ± 15 versus 136 degrees ± 11) were greater at all points during systole compared with controls (p < 0.01). Vertical mitral annular displacement (5.8 mm versus 8.3 mm) was reduced in FMR compared with controls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences in dynamic mitral annular geometry between patients with FMR and those without. We were able to analyze these changes in a clinically feasible fashion. Ready availability of this information has the potential to aid comprehensive quantification of mitral annular function and possibly assist in both clinical decision making and annuloplasty ring selection.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2012; · 3.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To compare two methods of mitral annular nonplanarity: the mathematically calculated annular height-to-commissural width ratio (AHCWR) and the echocardiographically derived nonplanarity angle.
Tertiary care university hospital.
Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.
Patients undergoing mitral valve surgery.
Using 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography, volumetric datasets were acquired from 22 patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. The intraoperative nonplanarity angle was calculated with Mitral Valve Assessment software (Tomtec GmbH, Munich, Germany). Furthermore, the datasets acquired during 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography were exported to Matlab software (MathWorks, Natick, MA), which was used to calculate the AHCWR. The nonplanarity angle was seen to correlate favorably with the AHCWR (r = 0.70).
A favorable correlation was found between the nonplanarity angle and the AHCWR. This suggests that the nonplanarity angle can be used to assess mitral annular nonplanarity in a clinically feasible fashion.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 11/2011; 26(2):186-90. · 1.06 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We present the case of a 78-year-old woman who presented with acute anterior myocardial infraction. An intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram revealed an akinetic apex with hyperkinesis of the basal segments causing systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. The patient was immediately placed on cardiopulmonary bypass. Her postoperative course was uneventful. We present transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiographic videos showing this unique complication and describing the challenge of managing a patient who required opposing therapies.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2011; 91(3):e39-40. · 3.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that simulator-based transesophageal echocardiographic training was a more effective method of training anesthesia residents with no prior experience in echocardiography as compared with conventional methods of training (books, articles, and web-based resources).
A prospective randomized study.
An academic medical center (teaching hospital).
The participants consisted of first-year anesthesia residents.
The study design was composed of 2 groups: a control group (group 1, conventional group) and a study group (group 2, simulator group). The residents belonging to group 2 (simulator group) received a 90-minute simulator-based teaching session moderated by a faculty experienced in transesophageal echocardiography. Residents belonging to group 1 (conventional group) were asked to review the guidelines of the comprehensive intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic examination published by the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. They also were encouraged to use other learning resources (eg, textbooks, electronic media, and web-based resources) to understand the underlying concepts of echocardiography. Written pre- and post-test was administered to both groups.
The groups were compared for the pretest scores by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Pre- and post-test scores were compared with a Wilcoxon paired test in the individual groups. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the scores of the 2 groups with better scores in the simulation group in the post-training test.
The simulator-based teaching model for transesophageal echocardiography is a better method of teaching the basic concepts of transesophageal echocardiography like anatomic correlation, structure identification, and image acquisition.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 10/2010; 25(2):212-5. · 1.06 Impact Factor