[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A three year old male entire Staffordshire bull terrier was referred to University College Dublin Veterinary Hospital, with a two week history of fever, inflammation of the right hock, lameness on the right hindlimb, peripheral lymphadenopathy and gastrointestinal signs (vomiting and diarrhoea). For the preceding three months the dog had been treated for atopic dermatitis with oral ciclosporin (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 hours).
Cytological analysis of the affected lymph nodes demonstrated fungal-like organisms predominantly contained within macrophages. Subsequent fungal culture and microscopic identification confirmed the presence of a Byssochlamys sp. This fungus is a saprophytic organism which has been associated with mycotoxin production. It has not previously been identified as a cause of systemic infection in animals or humans.
Ciclosporin was discontinued, and a second generation triazole, voriconazole prescribed at a dose of 6 mg/kg for the first two doses, and continued at 3 mg/kg every 12 hours for six months. There was an excellent response. Follow-up examination five weeks after treatment was completed confirmed remission of the disease. The dog remains alive and well three years later.
The present case represents an unusual fungal infection in a dog secondary to immunosuppressive therapy with ciclosporin. Such a possibility should be considered in animals presenting with signs consistent with systemic infection when receiving immunosuppressive medication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used in veterinary practice to evaluate dogs with suspected brain disease, however contrast resolution limitations and artifacts may reduce visualization of clinically important anatomic features. The purpose of this study was to develop an optimized CT protocol for evaluating the canine brain. The head of a 5-year-old Springer Spaniel with no neurological signs was imaged immediately following euthanasia using a 4-slice CT scanner and 282 protocols. Each protocol used a fixed tube voltage of 120 kVp and 10 cm display field of view. Other acquisition and reconstruction parameters were varied. For each protocol, four selected images of the brain were reconstructed, anonymized and saved in DICOM format. Three board-certified veterinary radiologists independently reviewed each of the four images for each protocol and recorded a numerical quality score for each image. The protocol yielding the lowest total numerical score was defined as the optimal protocol. There was overall agreement that the optimal protocol was the one with the following parameters: sequential mode, 300 mAs, 1 mm slice thickness, 1 s tube rotation time, medium image reconstruction algorithm and applied beam hardening correction. Sequential imaging provided optimal image resolution. The thin-sliced images provided a small blur due to partial volume artifacts. A high tube current resulted in a relatively low noise level. Use of a medium frequency image reconstruction algorithm provided optimal contrast resolution for brain tissue. Use of a proprietary beam hardening correction filter (Posterior Fossa Optimization) markedly reduced beam-hardening artifact.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 15 year-old grey Thoroughbred gelding presented for investigation of chronic weight loss and recent onset of respiratory difficulty. Clinical examination confirmed tachypnoea with increased respiratory effort. Thoracic ultrasound examination detected pleural effusion. The dyspnoea was related to the large volume of pleural effusion and, following post-mortem examination, to the presence of a large mediastinal mass. Multiple pigmented masses, likely melanomas, were detected peri-anally. Thoracic radiography, cytological examination of the pleural fluid and a fine needle aspirate of a thoracic mass led to a presumptive diagnosis of malignant melanoma and this was confirmed at post mortem examination. Further metastatic spread to the central nervous system and right guttural pouch was also identified. In conclusion this case manifests the potential malignant behaviour of equine melanomas, and a review of proposed therapies for melanoma treatment highlights the therapeutic options and current areas of research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An immature gray seal was presented with lethargy, weight loss, vomiting and hematuria. Hepatic disease and urinary tract infection were suspected. Abdominal ultrasound showed hyperechoic structures with marked acoustic shadowing spread throughout both kidneys, but incomplete visualization of the liver. Abdominal CT showed mineral densities scattered throughout both kidneys and poor delineation of the liver. Due to the poor quality of life, the seal was euthanized. Postmortem examination showed ammonium urate nephroliths, pyelonephritis, and hepatic cirrhosis. This case report emphasizes the difficulty of characterizing liver disease with conventional 2D-ultrasound and CT in a deep-chested animal with minimal intra-abdominal fat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SummaryA gelding was referred for colic and inguinal wound evaluation. Abdominal ultrasound showed distended, oedematous and immotile small intestine abaxial to the spleen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed jejunal incarceration through a rent in the gastrosplenic ligament (GSL). The rent in the GSL was opened and surgical correction (resection and anastomosis of nonviable jejunum) performed. The GSL was left open. The horse recovered uneventfully and one year after surgery no further episodes of colic have been observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Greyhound nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis is an idiopathic breed-associated fatal meningoencephalitis with lesions usually occurring within the rostral cerebrum. This disorder can only be confirmed by postmortem examination, with a diagnosis based upon the unique topography of inflammatory lesions. Our purpose was to describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of this disease. Four Greyhounds with confirmed Greyhound nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis were evaluated by MR imaging. Lesions predominantly affected the olfactory lobes and bulbs, frontal, and frontotemporal cortical gray matter, and caudate nuclei bilaterally. Fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2 weighted spin-echo (T2W) sequences were most useful to assess the nature, severity, extension, and topographic pattern of lesions. Lesions were predominantly T2-hyperintense and T1-isointense with minimal or absent contrast enhancement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the value of thyroid scintigraphy to determine thyroid status in dogs with hypothyroidism and various non-thyroidal illnesses.
Thyroid hormone concentrations were measured and quantitative thyroid scintigraphy performed in 21 dogs with clinical and/or clinicopathological features consistent with hypothyroidism.
In 14 dogs with technetium thyroidal uptake values consistent with euthyroidism, further investigations supported non-thyroidal illness. In five dogs with technetium thyroidal uptake values within the hypothyroid range, primary hypothyroidism was confirmed as the only disease in four. The remaining dog had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Two dogs had technetium thyroidal uptake values in the non-diagnostic range. One dog had iodothyronine concentrations indicative of euthyroidism. In the other, a dog receiving glucocorticoid therapy, all iodothyronine concentrations were decreased. Markedly asymmetric technetium thyroidal uptake was present in two dogs. All iodothyronine concentrations were within reference interval but canine thyroid stimulating hormone concentration was elevated in one. Non-thyroidal illness was identified in both cases.
In dogs, technetium thyroidal uptake is a useful test to determine thyroid function. However, values may be non-diagnostic, asymmetric uptake can occur and excess glucocorticoids may variably suppress technetium thyroidal uptake and/or thyroid hormone concentrations. Further studies are necessary to evaluate quantitative thyroid scintigraphy as a gold standard method for determining canine thyroid function.
Journal of Small Animal Practice 05/2012; 53(5):278-85. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01205.x · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 9-year-old female Yorkshire terrier was presented for vomiting and diarrhea. Blood chemistry tests revealed hepatic dysfunction, cholestasis, and inflammation. Liver ultrasonography and liver biopsy were consistent with cholangiohepatitis. Fine-needle aspiration of the gallbladder revealed the presence of bacteria later identified as Clostridium spp. The cholangiohepatitis was successfully treated.
The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne 04/2012; 53(4):423-5. · 0.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A seven-month-old Cocker Spaniel had a cough, acute lethargy, decreased responsiveness, and episodes of hyperexcitability. There were bilateral generalized increased lung sounds, bilateral episcleral hemorrhage, and systemic hypertension. Prolonged buccal mucosal bleeding time and elevated D-dimer concentrations were detected. Radiographically, there was a generalized moderate unstructured interstitial pattern. In thoracic CT images, there was a diffuse moderate hyperattenuating appearance of the bronchial walls and interstitium and diffuse areas of moderate bronchiectasis. The brain CT images were characterized by marked hyperattenuating well-defined masses. In addition, there were smaller hyperattenuating and hypoattenuating masses scattered throughout the cerebral and cerebellar parenchyma. A zinc sulphate flotation test confirmed large numbers of Angiostrongylus vasorum L1 larvae. Despite therapy the dog continued to deteriorate and underwent euthanasia. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of multiple intracranial and extracranial hemorrhages. Angiostrongylosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in dogs presenting with neurologic signs consistent with acute intracranial haemorrhage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sequelae of aortic root dilation are the lethal consequences of Marfan syndrome. The root dilation is attributable to an imbalance between deposition of matrix elements and metalloproteinases in the aortic medial layer as a result of excessive transforming growth factor-beta signaling. This study examined the efficacy and mechanism of statins in attenuating aortic root dilation in Marfan syndrome and compared effects to the other main proposed preventative agent, losartan.
Marfan mice heterozygous for a mutant allele encoding a cysteine substitution in fibrillin-1 (C1039G) were treated daily from 6 weeks old with pravastatin 0.5 g/L or losartan 0.6 g/L. The end points of aortic root diameter (n=25), aortic thickness, and architecture (n=10), elastin volume (n=5), dp/dtmax (maximal rate of change of pressure) (cardiac catheter; n=20), and ultrastructural analysis with stereology (electron microscopy; n=5) were examined. The aortic root diameters of untreated Marfan mice were significantly increased in comparison to normal mice (0.161 ± 0.001 cm vs 0.252 ± 0.004 cm; P<0.01). Pravastatin (0.22 ± 0.003 cm; P<0.01) and losartan (0.221 ± 0.004 cm; P<0.01) produced a significant reduction in aortic root dilation. Both drugs also preserved elastin volume within the medial layer (pravastatin 0.23 ± 0.02 and losartan 0.29 ± 0.03 vs untreated Marfan 0.19 ± 0.02; P=0.01; normal mice 0.27 ± 0.02). Ultrastructural analysis showed a reduction of rough endoplasmic reticulum in smooth muscle cells with pravastatin (0.022 ± 0.004) and losartan (0.013 ± 0.001) compared to untreated Marfan mice (0.035 ± 0.004; P<0.01).
Statins are similar to losartan in attenuating aortic root dilation in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. They appear to act through reducing the excessive protein manufacture by vascular smooth muscle cells, which occurs in the Marfan aorta. As a drug that is relatively well-tolerated for long-term use, it may be useful clinically.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SummaryA comminuted fracture of the central tarsal bone, fragmentation of the fourth tarsal bone and associated joint instability was diagnosed in a 14-year-old Sport Horse mare who presented for investigation of acute nonweightbearing hindlimb lameness. The mare responded well to conservative management and, unlike previously reported cases of similar injuries, returned to a similar level of athletic activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A three-year-old male working border collie with an infected femoral nonunion fracture was managed in a two-stage procedure involving debridement and omentalisation, followed by stabilisation with a bone plate and an autogenous cancellous bone graft. Osseous union was documented radiographically 16 weeks after surgery. Telephone follow-up one year later revealed the dog had returned to full working function without evidence of lameness. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical case described in the veterinary literature using omentalisation as an adjunct to the management of an infected, biologically inactive nonunion fracture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work we investigated which mitral valve leaflet was most often involved in mitral valve prolapse with degenerative mitral valve disease and whether there was an association with breed, age, gender, or weight. Five hundred and thirty-seven dogs with mitral valve prolapse-degenerative mitral valve disease were assessed; the cross-breed dog was the most represented breed (248 dogs, 46.2%). Mitral valve prolapse was more common in male dogs, and the average age was 11.3±2.8 years. Prolapse of the anterior leaflet was present in 48.4% of dogs, prolapse of the the posterior leaflet in 7.1%, and bileaflet prolapse was present in 44.5%; this distribution is different than that typically found in humans. There was a significant correlation between severity of mitral regurgitation and severity of mitral valve prolapse or ISACHC class, and between severity of mitral valve prolapse and ISACHC class. There was no relationship between the particular affected leaflet(s) and severity of mitral regurgitation, severity of mitral valve prolapse, or ISACHC class. Our findings suggest that the susceptibility to the mitral valve prolapse-degenerative mitral valve disease is not confined to a specific breeds and that the specific leaflet prolapsing is different in dogs compared with humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The existence of hypothyroidism in greyhounds remains controversial and its investigation is complicated by the low circulating thyroid hormone concentrations typically found in healthy dogs of this breed. Quantitative measurement of thyroidal technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)TcO4-) uptake is known to be useful in assessing thyroid function in other breeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid scintigraphy as a method of assessing thyroid function in greyhounds suspected of primary hypothyroidism. Twenty greyhounds (eight females, 12 males) were studied. Thirteen had bald thigh syndrome and seven poor performance and low total T4. Total T4 concentrations were decreased in 18 (90%), and free T4 in two (10%) dogs. All canine thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were within the reference interval. Thyroidal (99m)TcO4- uptake values (mean +/- SD, 0.76 +/- 0.26%) were within the reference limits published for euthyroid dogs (0.39-1.86%) making hypothyroidism highly unlikely. There were no significant differences (P < 0.05) when comparing data between dogs with bald thigh syndrome (13 dogs) and the remaining dogs (seven dogs). Seventeen (85%) dogs had higher uptake in the left thyroid gland than in the right that might reflect an anatomic feature of the greyhound breed. Calculation of percent thyroidal uptake of (99m)TcO4- is more accurate than thyroid: salivary gland ratios because of high variability in salivary gland uptake. Percent thyroidal uptake of (99m)TcO4- should be used when assessing thyroid function scintigraphically in the greyhound breed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A seven-year-old male Jack Russell terrier was presented with a history of coughing, generalised weakness and lethargy 10 days after an abdominal coeliotomy to repair a large diaphragmatic rupture. Thoracic radiographs demonstrated a soft tissue mass in the midcaudal right thoracic cavity. Ultrasonographic studies, bronchoscopy and subsequent exploratory thoracotomy confirmed a diagnosis of a right cranial lung lobe torsion (LLT), with an anomalous caudodorsal displacement of the affected lobe. LLT should be considered as a differential diagnosis for respiratory tract disease following diaphragmatic rupture repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four horses and one pony, ranging in age from one to 11 years, were diagnosed with two different types of odontoid peg fractures. Their clinical signs included reluctance to move the neck and head, dullness, and abnormalities of gait. Radiography was essential for the diagnosis, and the method of treatment varied depending on the severity of the neurological signs, the intended use of the horse, and financial constraints. Optimal treatment requires a technique that allows decompression, anatomical alignment, and stabilisation of the odontoid fracture. If the clinical (neurological) signs are not too severe and the animal shows signs of feeling peripheral pain, conservative treatment can be applied, as is common practice in human surgery. All except the pony made a full recovery.
The Veterinary record 02/2008; 162(4):116-9. DOI:10.1136/vr.162.4.116 · 1.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty-five dogs were included in a randomised, double-blind, positive controlled, multi-centre trial to assess the efficacy of an orally-administered glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate (Glu/CS) combination for the treatment of confirmed osteoarthritis of hips or elbows. Carprofen was used as a positive control. Dogs were re-examined on days 14, 42 and 70 after initiation of treatment. Medication was then withdrawn and dogs were re-assessed on day 98. Response to treatment was based on subjective evaluation by participating veterinarians who recorded their findings at each visit. Dogs treated with Glu/CS showed statistically significant improvements in scores for pain, weight-bearing and severity of the condition by day 70 (P<0.001). Onset of significant response was slower for Glu/CS than for carprofen-treated dogs. The results show that Glu/CS has a positive clinical effect in dogs with osteoarthritis.
The Veterinary Journal 08/2007; 174(1):54-61. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.02.015 · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity, we administered doxorubicin (Dox) to mice with genetic disruption of COX-2 (COX-2-/-). After treatment with Dox, COX-2-/- mice had increased cardiac dysfunction and cardiac cell apoptosis compared with Dox-treated wild-type mice. The expression of the death-associated protein kinase-related apoptosis-inducing protein kinase-2 was also increased in Dox-treated COX-2-/- animals. The altered gene expression, cardiac injury, and dysfunction after Dox treatment in COX-2-/- mice was attenuated by a stable prostacyclin analog, iloprost. Wild-type mice treated with Dox developed cardiac fibrosis that was absent in COX-2-/- mice and unaffected by iloprost. These results suggest that genetic disruption of COX-2 increases the cardiac dysfunction after treatment with Dox by an increase in cardiac cell apoptosis. This Dox-induced cardiotoxicity in COX-2-/- mice was attenuated by a prostacyclin analog, suggesting a protective role for prostaglandins in this setting.