H McAllister

University College Dublin, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland

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Publications (41)83.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used in veterinary practice to evaluate dogs with suspected brain disease, however contrast resolution limitations and artifacts may reduce visualization of clinically important anatomic features. The purpose of this study was to develop an optimized CT protocol for evaluating the canine brain. The head of a 5-year-old Springer Spaniel with no neurological signs was imaged immediately following euthanasia using a 4-slice CT scanner and 282 protocols. Each protocol used a fixed tube voltage of 120 kVp and 10 cm display field of view. Other acquisition and reconstruction parameters were varied. For each protocol, four selected images of the brain were reconstructed, anonymized and saved in DICOM format. Three board-certified veterinary radiologists independently reviewed each of the four images for each protocol and recorded a numerical quality score for each image. The protocol yielding the lowest total numerical score was defined as the optimal protocol. There was overall agreement that the optimal protocol was the one with the following parameters: sequential mode, 300 mAs, 1 mm slice thickness, 1 s tube rotation time, medium image reconstruction algorithm and applied beam hardening correction. Sequential imaging provided optimal image resolution. The thin-sliced images provided a small blur due to partial volume artifacts. A high tube current resulted in a relatively low noise level. Use of a medium frequency image reconstruction algorithm provided optimal contrast resolution for brain tissue. Use of a proprietary beam hardening correction filter (Posterior Fossa Optimization) markedly reduced beam-hardening artifact.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 02/2014; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 15 year-old grey Thoroughbred gelding presented for investigation of chronic weight loss and recent onset of respiratory difficulty. Clinical examination confirmed tachypnoea with increased respiratory effort. Thoracic ultrasound examination detected pleural effusion. The dyspnoea was related to the large volume of pleural effusion and, following post-mortem examination, to the presence of a large mediastinal mass. Multiple pigmented masses, likely melanomas, were detected peri-anally. Thoracic radiography, cytological examination of the pleural fluid and a fine needle aspirate of a thoracic mass led to a presumptive diagnosis of malignant melanoma and this was confirmed at post mortem examination. Further metastatic spread to the central nervous system and right guttural pouch was also identified. In conclusion this case manifests the potential malignant behaviour of equine melanomas, and a review of proposed therapies for melanoma treatment highlights the therapeutic options and current areas of research.
    Irish veterinary journal 11/2013; 66(1):22. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An immature gray seal was presented with lethargy, weight loss, vomiting and hematuria. Hepatic disease and urinary tract infection were suspected. Abdominal ultrasound showed hyperechoic structures with marked acoustic shadowing spread throughout both kidneys, but incomplete visualization of the liver. Abdominal CT showed mineral densities scattered throughout both kidneys and poor delineation of the liver. Due to the poor quality of life, the seal was euthanized. Postmortem examination showed ammonium urate nephroliths, pyelonephritis, and hepatic cirrhosis. This case report emphasizes the difficulty of characterizing liver disease with conventional 2D-ultrasound and CT in a deep-chested animal with minimal intra-abdominal fat.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 04/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Greyhound nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis is an idiopathic breed-associated fatal meningoencephalitis with lesions usually occurring within the rostral cerebrum. This disorder can only be confirmed by postmortem examination, with a diagnosis based upon the unique topography of inflammatory lesions. Our purpose was to describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of this disease. Four Greyhounds with confirmed Greyhound nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis were evaluated by MR imaging. Lesions predominantly affected the olfactory lobes and bulbs, frontal, and frontotemporal cortical gray matter, and caudate nuclei bilaterally. Fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2 weighted spin-echo (T2W) sequences were most useful to assess the nature, severity, extension, and topographic pattern of lesions. Lesions were predominantly T2-hyperintense and T1-isointense with minimal or absent contrast enhancement.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 06/2012; · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • R E Shiel, M Pinilla, H McAllister, C T Mooney
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the value of thyroid scintigraphy to determine thyroid status in dogs with hypothyroidism and various non-thyroidal illnesses. Thyroid hormone concentrations were measured and quantitative thyroid scintigraphy performed in 21 dogs with clinical and/or clinicopathological features consistent with hypothyroidism. In 14 dogs with technetium thyroidal uptake values consistent with euthyroidism, further investigations supported non-thyroidal illness. In five dogs with technetium thyroidal uptake values within the hypothyroid range, primary hypothyroidism was confirmed as the only disease in four. The remaining dog had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Two dogs had technetium thyroidal uptake values in the non-diagnostic range. One dog had iodothyronine concentrations indicative of euthyroidism. In the other, a dog receiving glucocorticoid therapy, all iodothyronine concentrations were decreased. Markedly asymmetric technetium thyroidal uptake was present in two dogs. All iodothyronine concentrations were within reference interval but canine thyroid stimulating hormone concentration was elevated in one. Non-thyroidal illness was identified in both cases. In dogs, technetium thyroidal uptake is a useful test to determine thyroid function. However, values may be non-diagnostic, asymmetric uptake can occur and excess glucocorticoids may variably suppress technetium thyroidal uptake and/or thyroid hormone concentrations. Further studies are necessary to evaluate quantitative thyroid scintigraphy as a gold standard method for determining canine thyroid function.
    Journal of Small Animal Practice 05/2012; 53(5):278-85. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 9-year-old female Yorkshire terrier was presented for vomiting and diarrhea. Blood chemistry tests revealed hepatic dysfunction, cholestasis, and inflammation. Liver ultrasonography and liver biopsy were consistent with cholangiohepatitis. Fine-needle aspiration of the gallbladder revealed the presence of bacteria later identified as Clostridium spp. The cholangiohepatitis was successfully treated.
    The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne 04/2012; 53(4):423-5. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A seven-month-old Cocker Spaniel had a cough, acute lethargy, decreased responsiveness, and episodes of hyperexcitability. There were bilateral generalized increased lung sounds, bilateral episcleral hemorrhage, and systemic hypertension. Prolonged buccal mucosal bleeding time and elevated D-dimer concentrations were detected. Radiographically, there was a generalized moderate unstructured interstitial pattern. In thoracic CT images, there was a diffuse moderate hyperattenuating appearance of the bronchial walls and interstitium and diffuse areas of moderate bronchiectasis. The brain CT images were characterized by marked hyperattenuating well-defined masses. In addition, there were smaller hyperattenuating and hypoattenuating masses scattered throughout the cerebral and cerebellar parenchyma. A zinc sulphate flotation test confirmed large numbers of Angiostrongylus vasorum L1 larvae. Despite therapy the dog continued to deteriorate and underwent euthanasia. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of multiple intracranial and extracranial hemorrhages. Angiostrongylosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in dogs presenting with neurologic signs consistent with acute intracranial haemorrhage.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 12/2011; 53(4):420-3. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sequelae of aortic root dilation are the lethal consequences of Marfan syndrome. The root dilation is attributable to an imbalance between deposition of matrix elements and metalloproteinases in the aortic medial layer as a result of excessive transforming growth factor-beta signaling. This study examined the efficacy and mechanism of statins in attenuating aortic root dilation in Marfan syndrome and compared effects to the other main proposed preventative agent, losartan. Marfan mice heterozygous for a mutant allele encoding a cysteine substitution in fibrillin-1 (C1039G) were treated daily from 6 weeks old with pravastatin 0.5 g/L or losartan 0.6 g/L. The end points of aortic root diameter (n=25), aortic thickness, and architecture (n=10), elastin volume (n=5), dp/dtmax (maximal rate of change of pressure) (cardiac catheter; n=20), and ultrastructural analysis with stereology (electron microscopy; n=5) were examined. The aortic root diameters of untreated Marfan mice were significantly increased in comparison to normal mice (0.161 ± 0.001 cm vs 0.252 ± 0.004 cm; P<0.01). Pravastatin (0.22 ± 0.003 cm; P<0.01) and losartan (0.221 ± 0.004 cm; P<0.01) produced a significant reduction in aortic root dilation. Both drugs also preserved elastin volume within the medial layer (pravastatin 0.23 ± 0.02 and losartan 0.29 ± 0.03 vs untreated Marfan 0.19 ± 0.02; P=0.01; normal mice 0.27 ± 0.02). Ultrastructural analysis showed a reduction of rough endoplasmic reticulum in smooth muscle cells with pravastatin (0.022 ± 0.004) and losartan (0.013 ± 0.001) compared to untreated Marfan mice (0.035 ± 0.004; P<0.01). Statins are similar to losartan in attenuating aortic root dilation in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. They appear to act through reducing the excessive protein manufacture by vascular smooth muscle cells, which occurs in the Marfan aorta. As a drug that is relatively well-tolerated for long-term use, it may be useful clinically.
    Circulation 09/2011; 124(11 Suppl):S168-73. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work we investigated which mitral valve leaflet was most often involved in mitral valve prolapse with degenerative mitral valve disease and whether there was an association with breed, age, gender, or weight. Five hundred and thirty-seven dogs with mitral valve prolapse-degenerative mitral valve disease were assessed; the cross-breed dog was the most represented breed (248 dogs, 46.2%). Mitral valve prolapse was more common in male dogs, and the average age was 11.3±2.8 years. Prolapse of the anterior leaflet was present in 48.4% of dogs, prolapse of the the posterior leaflet in 7.1%, and bileaflet prolapse was present in 44.5%; this distribution is different than that typically found in humans. There was a significant correlation between severity of mitral regurgitation and severity of mitral valve prolapse or ISACHC class, and between severity of mitral valve prolapse and ISACHC class. There was no relationship between the particular affected leaflet(s) and severity of mitral regurgitation, severity of mitral valve prolapse, or ISACHC class. Our findings suggest that the susceptibility to the mitral valve prolapse-degenerative mitral valve disease is not confined to a specific breeds and that the specific leaflet prolapsing is different in dogs compared with humans.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 06/2009; 50(4):416 - 422. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The existence of hypothyroidism in greyhounds remains controversial and its investigation is complicated by the low circulating thyroid hormone concentrations typically found in healthy dogs of this breed. Quantitative measurement of thyroidal technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)TcO4-) uptake is known to be useful in assessing thyroid function in other breeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid scintigraphy as a method of assessing thyroid function in greyhounds suspected of primary hypothyroidism. Twenty greyhounds (eight females, 12 males) were studied. Thirteen had bald thigh syndrome and seven poor performance and low total T4. Total T4 concentrations were decreased in 18 (90%), and free T4 in two (10%) dogs. All canine thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were within the reference interval. Thyroidal (99m)TcO4- uptake values (mean +/- SD, 0.76 +/- 0.26%) were within the reference limits published for euthyroid dogs (0.39-1.86%) making hypothyroidism highly unlikely. There were no significant differences (P < 0.05) when comparing data between dogs with bald thigh syndrome (13 dogs) and the remaining dogs (seven dogs). Seventeen (85%) dogs had higher uptake in the left thyroid gland than in the right that might reflect an anatomic feature of the greyhound breed. Calculation of percent thyroidal uptake of (99m)TcO4- is more accurate than thyroid: salivary gland ratios because of high variability in salivary gland uptake. Percent thyroidal uptake of (99m)TcO4- should be used when assessing thyroid function scintigraphically in the greyhound breed.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 01/2009; 50(2):224-9. · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2009; 23(1):215-9. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    A McAlinden, M Glyde, H McAllister, B Kirby
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    ABSTRACT: A three-year-old male working border collie with an infected femoral nonunion fracture was managed in a two-stage procedure involving debridement and omentalisation, followed by stabilisation with a bone plate and an autogenous cancellous bone graft. Osseous union was documented radiographically 16 weeks after surgery. Telephone follow-up one year later revealed the dog had returned to full working function without evidence of lameness. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical case described in the veterinary literature using omentalisation as an adjunct to the management of an infected, biologically inactive nonunion fracture.
    Irish veterinary journal 01/2009; 62(10):663-8. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four horses and one pony, ranging in age from one to 11 years, were diagnosed with two different types of odontoid peg fractures. Their clinical signs included reluctance to move the neck and head, dullness, and abnormalities of gait. Radiography was essential for the diagnosis, and the method of treatment varied depending on the severity of the neurological signs, the intended use of the horse, and financial constraints. Optimal treatment requires a technique that allows decompression, anatomical alignment, and stabilisation of the odontoid fracture. If the clinical (neurological) signs are not too severe and the animal shows signs of feeling peripheral pain, conservative treatment can be applied, as is common practice in human surgery. All except the pony made a full recovery.
    The Veterinary record 02/2008; 162(4):116-9. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A seven-year-old male Jack Russell terrier was presented with a history of coughing, generalised weakness and lethargy 10 days after an abdominal coeliotomy to repair a large diaphragmatic rupture. Thoracic radiographs demonstrated a soft tissue mass in the midcaudal right thoracic cavity. Ultrasonographic studies, bronchoscopy and subsequent exploratory thoracotomy confirmed a diagnosis of a right cranial lung lobe torsion (LLT), with an anomalous caudodorsal displacement of the affected lobe. LLT should be considered as a differential diagnosis for respiratory tract disease following diaphragmatic rupture repair.
    Irish veterinary journal 01/2008; 61(3):170-4. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-five dogs were included in a randomised, double-blind, positive controlled, multi-centre trial to assess the efficacy of an orally-administered glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate (Glu/CS) combination for the treatment of confirmed osteoarthritis of hips or elbows. Carprofen was used as a positive control. Dogs were re-examined on days 14, 42 and 70 after initiation of treatment. Medication was then withdrawn and dogs were re-assessed on day 98. Response to treatment was based on subjective evaluation by participating veterinarians who recorded their findings at each visit. Dogs treated with Glu/CS showed statistically significant improvements in scores for pain, weight-bearing and severity of the condition by day 70 (P<0.001). Onset of significant response was slower for Glu/CS than for carprofen-treated dogs. The results show that Glu/CS has a positive clinical effect in dogs with osteoarthritis.
    The Veterinary Journal 08/2007; 174(1):54-61. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity, we administered doxorubicin (Dox) to mice with genetic disruption of COX-2 (COX-2-/-). After treatment with Dox, COX-2-/- mice had increased cardiac dysfunction and cardiac cell apoptosis compared with Dox-treated wild-type mice. The expression of the death-associated protein kinase-related apoptosis-inducing protein kinase-2 was also increased in Dox-treated COX-2-/- animals. The altered gene expression, cardiac injury, and dysfunction after Dox treatment in COX-2-/- mice was attenuated by a stable prostacyclin analog, iloprost. Wild-type mice treated with Dox developed cardiac fibrosis that was absent in COX-2-/- mice and unaffected by iloprost. These results suggest that genetic disruption of COX-2 increases the cardiac dysfunction after treatment with Dox by an increase in cardiac cell apoptosis. This Dox-induced cardiotoxicity in COX-2-/- mice was attenuated by a prostacyclin analog, suggesting a protective role for prostaglandins in this setting.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 09/2006; 291(2):H532-6. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of doxorubicin (DOX) as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited by cardiac injury. Iloprost, a stable synthetic analogue of prostacyclin, has previously been shown to protect against DOX-induced cardiomyocyte injury in vitro. Here, we addressed whether iloprost is cardioprotective in vivo and whether it compromises the anti-tumour efficacy of DOX. Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells were implanted subcutaneously in the flank of C57BL/6 mice. DOX treatment was commenced from when tumours became visible. Iloprost was administered from prior to DOX treatment until sacrifice. Echocardiography and invasive haemodynamic measurements were performed immediately before sacrifice. As expected, DOX induced cardiac cell apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction, both of which were attenuated by iloprost. Also, iloprost alone had no effect on tumor growth and indeed, did not alter the DOX-induced suppression of this growth. In a murine model, iloprost attenuated the acute cardiac injury and dysfunction induced by DOX therapy without compromising its chemotherapeutic effect.
    European Heart Journal 06/2006; 27(10):1251-6. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this project was to determine the effect of patient position on the L5-L6 mid-laminar distance (MLD). The lumbar area of 22 recently euthanatized dogs of various breeds was radiographed in three positions: lateral recumbency with the spine in neutral position, lateral recumbency with the spine flexed in a kyphotic position, and sternal recumbency with the spine flexed in a kyphotic position. Digital images of the radiographs were analyzed using a computer program that allowed measurement of the MLD between L5-L6 in the three positions. The L5 and L6 MLD was significantly larger in sternal recumbency with the spine flexed (142.3 units) than both in lateral recumbency with the spine flexed (138.7 units; P= 0.001) and lateral recumbency with the spine in the neutral position (135.8 units; P < or = 0.001). The MLD in lateral recumbency with the spine flexed was significantly larger than in lateral recumbency with the spine in neutral position (P = 0.005). Positioning a dog in sternal recumbency with the spine flexed produces a significantly larger MLD than in lateral recumbency with the spine flexed; this should simplify needle placement when performing a lumbar puncture.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 01/2006; 47(5):449-52. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : A domestic-longhair cat presented due to lethargy, dyspnoea and hypersalivation. Radiographic examination revealed a bilateral pleural effusion, which was diagnosed as pyothorax based on cytological examination. Ultrasonographic examination revealed extensive loculations within the thoracic cavity. Exploratory sternotomy, under general anaesthesia, allowed the removal of approximately 100 ml of purulent fluid and debridement of a partially walled-off abscess and necrotic material from the pleural cavity. Postoperative positive-pressure ventilation was required due to severe respiratory depression. Intensive postoperative care, including intensive continuous monitoring, thoracostomy tube drainage and lavage of the pleural cavity and oesophagostomy tube feeding, was performed. Complete resolution of clinical signs had occurred by 15 days postoperatively. Clinical or radiographic abnormalities were not detected at a follow-up examination one year after surgery.
    Irish veterinary journal 01/2005; 58(4):211-5. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical, radiographic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), surgical and pathological findings related to an osteochondral lesion of the sacrum in a mastiff dog are described. The dog showed chronic signs of pain in its pelvic limbs. Radiography revealed a triangular mineralised opacity at the craniodorsal aspect of the sacrum consistent with sacral osteochondrosis. A T2-weighted spin-echo MRI revealed dorsal and lateral compression of the cauda equina. The osteochondral fragment was removed via a dorsal laminectomy, and the clinical signs resolved. Histological abnormalities in the fragment were consistent with a diagnosis of osteochondrosis.
    The Veterinary record 08/2004; 155(3):83-6. · 1.80 Impact Factor