[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMs) cells were introduced into the peritoneal cavity of severely-combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice in concentrations of 2.5-4.0 x 10(7) cells per mouse. Whole mononuclear cell suspensions were used either unstimulated or following primary in vitro culture with human spermatozoa. In some experiments, immunodepletion of CD8(+) cells was carried out prior to grafting. Lymphocytes were obtained from nonsensitized (to antigen) human subjects or from individuals who were primed in vivo (vasectomized individuals in case of sperm antigens). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to assess total human immunoglobulin (G or M) levels as well as the specificity of the antibodies generated. We have been successful by generating primary and secondary immune responses with 'naïve' human lymphocytes, challenged with chlamydia or ovalbumin but without adjuvant or CD8(+) immunodepletion; however, we were unable to induce specific antibodies to spermatozoa under this regime in SCID male mice. We then employed female SCID mice, treated with sperm antigen extracts (glycosylated or deglycosylated) encapsulated in liposomes and human lymphocytes obtained from 'naïve' or pre-sensitized in vivo subjects. It was found that the most pronounced humoral response to sperm antigens was obtained with deglycosylated antigens and PBMs from vasectomized (in vivo pre-primed to spermatozoa) individuals. A presented SCID mice model can be helpful at understanding of antisperm antibody development and the molecular nature of generated antibodies to modified sperm antigenic entities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TH1-type proinflammatory cytokines induce the expression of phagocytic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and prime the membrane-bound NADPH oxidase of neutrophils and monocytes of mice so as to attain an activated state, which upon a second stimulus releases up to 6-fold increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than do unprimed phagocytes. Enhanced levels of ROS and NO deregulate inflammatory signal transduction pathways, which play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of arthritis. The antiarthritic reactivity of diphenylene iodoniumchloride (DPI), an irreversible inhibitor of NADPH oxidase and NOS, was tested in male DBA/1xB10A(4R) hybrid mice suffering from potassium peroxochromate-induced arthritis. Daily doses of 2.8 mu mol/kg of DPI sufficed to inhibit the arthritis by 50%. A complete inhibition was obtained with 10 mu mol/kg of DPI. The reduction of overt arthritic symptoms correlated well with both the reduced levels of ROS and NO in plasma of DPI-treated mice. Our data support the hypothesis that oxidative stress and nitric oxides play a pivotal role in the pathology of arthritis, which can be therapeutically targetted by NADPH oxidase- and NO synthase-inhibitors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 02/1996; 20(1):75-81. DOI:10.1016/0891-5849(95)02026-8 · 5.74 Impact Factor