ABSTRACT: Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is the causative agent of bovine herpetic encephalitis. In countries where BoHV-5 is prevalent, attempts to vaccinate cattle to prevent clinical signs from BoHV-5-induced disease have relied essentially on vaccination with BoHV-1 vaccines. However, such practice has been shown not to confer full protection to BoHV-5 challenge. In the present study, an inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccine prepared with a recombinant BoHV-5 from which the genes coding for glycoprotein I (gI), glycoprotein E (gE) and membrane protein US9 were deleted (BoHV-5 gI/gE/US9(-)), was evaluated in cattle in a vaccination/challenge experiment. The vaccine was prepared from a virus suspension containing a pre-inactivation antigenic mass equivalent to 10(7.69) TCID(50)/dose. Three mL of the inactivated vaccine were administered subcutaneously to eight calves serologically negative for BoHV-5 (vaccinated group). Four other calves were mock-vaccinated with an equivalent preparation without viral antigens (control group). Both groups were boostered 28 days later. Neither clinical signs of disease nor adverse effects were observed during or after vaccination. A specific serological response, revealed by the development of neutralizing antibodies, was detected in all vaccinated animals after the first dose of vaccine, whereas control animals remained seronegative. Calves were subsequently challenged on day 77 post-vaccination (pv) with 10(9.25) TCID(50) of the wild-type BoHV-5 (parental strain EVI 88/95). After challenge, vaccinated cattle displayed mild signs of respiratory disease, whereas the control group developed respiratory disease and severe encephalitis, which led to culling of 2/4 calves. Searches for viral DNA in the central nervous system (CNS) of vaccinated calves indicated that wild-type BoHV-5 did not replicate, whereas in CNS tissues of calves on the control group, viral DNA was widely distributed. BoHV-5 shedding in nasal secretions was significantly lower in vaccinated calves than in the control group on days 2, 3, 4 and 6 post-challenge (pc). In addition, the duration of virus shedding was significantly shorter in the vaccinated (7 days) than in controls (12 days). Attempts to reactivate latent infection by administration of dexamethasone at 147 days pv led to recrudescence of mild signs of respiratory disease in both vaccinated and control groups. Infectious virus shedding in nasal secretions was detected at reactivation and was significantly lower in vaccinated cattle than in controls on days 11-13 post-reactivation (pr). It is concluded that the inactivated vaccine prepared with the BoHV-5 gI/gE/US9(-) recombinant was capable of conferring protection to encephalitis when vaccinated cattle were challenged with a large infectious dose of the parental wild type BoHV-5. However, it did not avoid the establishment of latency nor impeded dexamethasone-induced reactivation of the virus, despite a significant reduction in virus shedding after challenge and at reactivation on vaccinated calves.
Veterinary Microbiology 02/2011; 148(1):18-26. · 3.33 Impact Factor