[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) support only low levels of HIV-1 replication, but have been shown to transfer infectious viral particles highly efficiently to neighboring permissive CD4 T-lymphocytes. This mode of cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread may be a predominant mode of infection and dissemination. In conditions of HIV-1 transfer, we analyzed the kinetics of fusion, replication and the ability of HIV-1-specific antibodies to inhibit HIV-1 transfer from immature DCs to autologous CD4 T-lymphocytes. We found that neutralizing monoclonal antibodies prevented HIV-1 transfer to CD4 T-lymphocytes in trans and in cis, whereas non-neutralizing antibodies did not. Neutralizing antibodies also significantly decreased HIV-1 replication in DCs, even when added two hours after HIV-1 infection. Interestingly, a similar inhibition of HIV-1 replication in DCs was detected with some non-neutralizing antibodies and was correlated with DC maturation. We suggest that the binding of HIV-1-specific antibodies to FcγRs leads to HIV-1 inhibition in DCs, by triggering DC maturation. This efficient inhibition of HIV-1 transfer by antibodies highlights the importance of inducing HIV-specific antibodies by vaccination directly at the mucosal portal of HIV-1 entry, to prevent early dissemination after sexual transmission.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of resistant viruses to any of the anti-HIV-1 compounds used in the current therapies against AIDS underlies the urge for the development of new drug targets and/or new drugs acting through novel mechanisms. While all anti-HIV-1 nucleoside analogues in clinical use and in clinical trials rely on ribose modifications for activity, we designed nucleosides with a natural deoxyribose moiety and modifications of position 8 of the adenine base. Such modifications might induce a steric clash with helix αH in the thumb domain of the p66 subunit of HIV-1 RT at a distance from the catalytic site, causing delayed chain termination. Eleven new 2'-deoxyadenosine analogues modified on position 8 of the purine base were synthesized and tested in vitro and in cell-based assays. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that chemical modifications on position 8 of 2'-deoxyadenosine induce delayed chain termination in vitro, and also inhibit DNA synthesis when incorporated in a DNA template strand. Furthermore, one of them had moderate anti-HIV-1 activity in cell-culture. Our results constitute a proof of concept indicating that modification on the base moiety of nucleosides can induce delayed polymerization arrest and inhibit HIV-1 replication.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27456. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the goal of limiting HIV-1 proliferation by increasing the mutation rate of the viral genome, we synthesized a series of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues modified in position 5 of the aglycone moiety but unmodified on the sugar part. The synthetic strategies allow us to prepare the targeted compounds directly from commercially available nucleosides. All compounds were tested for their ability to reduce HIV-1 proliferation in cell culture. Two of them (5-hydroxymethyl-2'-dU (1c) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-dC (2c)) displayed a moderate antiviral activity in single passage experiments. The same two compounds plus two additional ones (5-carbamoyl-2'-dU (1a) and 5-carbamoylmethyl-2'-dU (1b)) were potent inhibitors of HIV-1 RT activity in serial passage assays, in which they induced a progressive loss of HIV-1 replication. In addition, viruses collected after seven passages in the presence of 1c and 2c replicated very poorly after withdrawal of these compounds, consistent with the accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 02/2010; 53(4):1534-45. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sexual transmission is the major route of HIV-1 infection worldwide. Dendritic cells (DCs) from the mucosal layers are considered to be the initial targets of HIV-1 and probably play a crucial role in HIV-1 transmission. We investigated the role of cell-to-cell contact between HIV-1-exposed immature DCs and various lymphocyte subsets in the stimulation of HIV-1 replication. We found that HIV-1 replication and production in DCs were substantially enhanced by the coculture of DCs with primary CD4 T or nonpermissive B lymphocytes but not with primary activated CD8 T lymphocytes or human transformed CD4 T lymphocytes. Most of the new virions released by cocultures of HIV-1-exposed immature DCs and primary B lymphocytes expressed the DC-specific marker CD1a and were infectious for both immature DCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cocultured DCs thus produced large numbers of infectious viral particles under these experimental conditions. The soluble factors present in the supernatants of the cocultures were not sufficient to enhance HIV-1 replication in DCs, for which cell-to-cell contact was required. The neutralizing monoclonal antibody IgG1b12 and polyclonal anti-HIV-1 sera efficiently blocked HIV-1 transfer to CD4 T lymphocytes but did not prevent the increase in viral replication in DCs. Neutralizing antibodies thus proved to be more efficient at blocking HIV-1 transfer than previously thought. Our findings show that HIV-1 exploits DC-lymphocyte cross talk to upregulate replication within the DC reservoir. We provide evidence for a novel mechanism that may facilitate HIV-1 replication and transmission. This mechanism may favor HIV-1 pathogenesis, immune evasion, and persistence.
Journal of Virology 02/2010; 84(9):4172-82. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nine anionic water-soluble calixarene species, incorporating sulfonate, carboxylate or phosphonate groups, six of them incorporating two 2,2'-bithiazole subunits in alternate position at the lower rim, have been synthesised and evaluated as anti-HIV agents on various HIV strains and cells of the lymphocytic lineage (HIV-1 III B/MT4, HIV-1 LAI/CEM-SS, HIV-1 Bal/PBMC), using AZT as reference compound. A toxicity was detected for a minority of compounds on PBMC whereas for the others no cellular toxicity was measured at concentrations up to 100 microM. Most of the compounds have an antiviral activity in a 10-50 microM range, and one of them, sulfonylated, displays its activity, whatever the tropism of the virus, at a micromolar concentration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes the synthesis of a series of AZT analogues bearing an acyclic chain between the sugar and the base moieties is described. These new compounds were readily obtained using microwave irradiation. The compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR and IR spectroscopy. Antiviral (HIV-1) properties of these compounds were examined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of new acyclic nucleosides is described. These syntheses were accomplished by various methods: glycosylation, selective or total deprotection, oxidation/reduction, chlorination or azidation of hydroxyl groups. The compounds were characterized with NMR, mass and IR spectroscopy. Antiviral properties of these compounds were evaluated on HIV-1 infected cell lines.