[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Accompanying neurological signs are not expected in primary cervical dystonia (PCD), characterized by involuntary muscle contractions resulting in abnormal posture of the neck. We aimed to assess the associated arm movements during walking in patients with PCD in compared to age-, sex-, weight- and height-matched controls. Methods: We examined 16 consecutive de novo patients with PCD and controls in a quantitative trial, and calculated the mean gait speed, mean number of steps, mean frequencies of right and left arms, mean frequencies of right and left legs, and mean arm/leg frequencies for right and left sides. Results: Eleven patients (68,8%) had right-sided cervical dystonia, 5 patients (31,2%) had left-sided cervical dystonia. The mean speed of gait and the mean number of steps were similar between patients and controls. The mean frequencies of bilateral upper extremities and arm/ leg frequencies were significantly slower in patients with PCD (p<0,05). In patient group, the mean armswing frequency was significantly lower in symptomatic side versus asymptomatic side (p=0,038). The disease duration was positively associated with the mean arm/leg frequency (p=0,042). Discussion: Our results imply that the reduced armswing in cervical dystonia might be a feature of primary cervical dystonia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The differentiation of narcolepsy without cataplexy from idiopathic hypersomnia is based on the number of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods (SOREMPs) observed by multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and nocturnal polysomnography. The main aim of this study was to investigate the utility of SOREMP in differential diagnosis of central hypersomnias.
The authors retrospectively evaluated consecutive 101 patients with a normal polysomnography other than the presence of SOREMP and/or REM without atonia and a latency of ≤8 minutes in MSLT.
The authors classified patients as follows: 52 patients had at least 2 SOREMPs (narcolepsy group), 23 had no SOREMPs (idiopathic hypersomnia group), and 26 patients had only 1 SOREMP (intermediate group). In polysomnographic recordings, both mean sleep latency and REM latency were significantly shorter in the narcolepsy (P = 0.012, P < 0.001, respectively) and intermediate groups (P = 0.005 and P = 0.035, respectively) compared with the idiopathic hypersomnia group. In MSLT recordings, sleep latency was 2.7 ± 2.2 minutes in the narcolepsy group, 3.6 ± 1.4 minutes in the intermediate group, and 5.2 ± 2.7 minutes in the idiopathic hypersomnia group (P < 0.001). The mean REM latency and sleep stages SOREMPs arised from were similar between the narcolepsy and intermediate groups.
To date, SOREMPs in MSLT and polysomnography remain the sole electrodiagnostic feature that discriminates narcolepsy without cataplexy from idiopathic hypersomnia. Different parameters or combined criteria are being increasingly investigated to increase the sensitivity and specificity of MSLT. The findings showed an altered instability of REM sleep not only in patients with 2 or more SOREMPs in MSLT but also in patients with one SOREMP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent hypersomnias are very rare with two subtypes as Kleine-Levin syndrome and menstruation-related hypersomnia, which is very rarely encountered worldwide. Here, we report a young girl with menstruation-related recurrent hypersomnia, who was misdiagnosed as epilepsy due to co-existing generalized epileptic discharges. The importance of this comorbidity in terms of differential diagnosis of the attacks is discussed.
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences 04/2015; 10(1):28-30. DOI:10.4103/1817-1745.154325
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by an inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Immune-mediated extraintestinal manifestations of UC have increasingly attracted attention in the literature recently, for which UC is now considered as a systemic disease. Neurologic involvement associated with UC is probably under-reported because of the unawareness of many physicians, although early recognition and treatment are crucial in preventing major morbidity and sequel. In this case report is presented a patient newly diagnosed as UC, who developed both sensorineural hearing loss and intractable status epilepticus that we suggest to have resulted from immune-mediated mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The somatosensory-evoked blink reflex (SBR) is one of the release phenomena of blink reflex, possibly resulting from increased excitability of brainstem reticular formation.
The authors investigated trigeminal blink responses and SBR in 26 patients with postparalytic facial syndrome (PFS) with synkinesia, 18 patients with essential blepharospasm, and 36 healthy volunteers (control participants).
Trigeminal blink reflex responses were elicited in all participants, whereas SBRs were elicited in 44.4% of control participants, 38.9% of patients with essential blepharospasm, and 65.4% of patients with PFS. The mean R2 amplitude and duration and the mean amplitude and duration of SBR were highest in patients with essential blepharospasm. The mean latency of SBR was shorter on the symptomatic side of patients with PFS when compared with the asymptomatic side. The mean R2 duration on the symptomatic side of the patients with PFS was longer than the control participants.
These results showed that somatosensory stimulation could be used as an alternative method to demonstrate increased excitability in facial motor neuron in patients with PFS and essential blepharospasm. Disease states relating to different peripheral and/or suprasegmental structures could also influence blink reflex and change its basal excitability and manner in which the reflex responds to modulatory factors.
Journal of clinical neurophysiology: official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society 12/2014; 31(6):535-40. DOI:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000095 · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD) is a rare, progressive disease that has a vast clinical manifestation range. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and measurement of 14-3-3 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may offer a pragmatic approach in the diagnosis of CJD as an alternative to histopathological confirmation.
To present the symptoms and signs of the CJD patients in regard to radiological and neurophysiological findings.
We collected all cases with the diagnosis of probable CJD admitted to our neurology department between June 2010 and June 2014. The medical records and laboratory data, clinical features, results of MRI (including diffusion weighted images), EEG and CSF evaluations, and other laboratory data to exclude other possible diagnoses were recorded. None of the patients underwent biopsy or autopsy for histological diagnosis.
Of 20 patients, 11 (55%) were men and nine (45%) were women. The mean age at disease onset was 60.0 ± 9.5 years (age range, 47-80 years). All patients without exception had characteristic abnormalities in DWI and/or FLAIR on admission, about 4 months after the initial symptom. Periodic complexes on EEGs characteristic for CJD were detected only in 10 patients (50%) on admission and in 13 patients (65%) during disease course. Out of 14 patients who underwent CSF examination, 11 (78.5%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein.
Although the definite diagnosis of CJD is made histopathologically, we aimed to discuss the value of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of CJD in respect to EEG findings and protein 14-3-3 levels in CSF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimThe prevalence of insomnia is influenced by environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of insomnia and its sociodemographic and clinical correlates in a general population-based survey in Turkey.Methods
This population-based study included 4758 subjects among 5021, who participated in TAPES (Turkish Adult Population Epidemiology of Sleep Disorders) study. Questionnaire items evaluating insomnia were adapted from International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD)-II and DSM–IV–TR. Subjects with restless legs syndrome were excluded.ResultsInsomnia was found to be associated with older age (18-24 years: 9.8%, 25-44 years: 11.7%, 45-64 years: 13.8%, 65 years or older: 13.9%), lower income level (<500 USD: 16.5%), time spent watching TV (6-8 hour or more: 18.4%), tea consumption in the evening (≥6 glasses: 14.5%) and smoking status (current and ex-smoker both: 14.2%) in multiple logistic regression analysis. In respect to other medical disorders, insomnia was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension, diabetes and heart diseases after the adjustment for relevant risk factors for each disease, across all age and gender groups.Conclusions
Insomnia is a major health problem in our population, affecting subjects in working age group and lower socioeconomic status. It should especially be screened in patients with chronic diseases. Relatively low proportion of insomnia diagnosed as a sleep disorder suggests the possibility of under-recognition of this condition and its clinical correlates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebellum is highly vulnerable in the prenatal period. Increasing experience with fetal imaging studies has demonstrated that unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia (UCH) is mainly prenatally acquired, representing disruption rather than a true malformation. Here, we report the case of a 17-month-old boy presented with a sudden onset of abnormal eye movements, who was diagnosed during routine fetal screening with UCH and brain stem hypoplasia and suffered from cerebral palsy; however, no posterior arterial system pathology was detected on cranial magnetic resonance images at that time. Following this acute event, diagnostic neuroradiological interventions revealed a dissecting aneurysm with a saccular component in midbasilar arterial segment and hypoplastic left posterior cerebral artery, which may support the ischemic disruptive mechanism in the development of prenatally detected UCH in this child. The pathogenetic mechanisms for cerebellar disruption are certainly multifactorial in origin, although ischemic arterial etiologies were often undervalued.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The diversity of clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings of CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) from different regions of the world has not yet been studied in depth. Here we investigated the variability of clinical, radiological and genetic data of 48 patients analyzed for NOTCH3 mutation in Turkey.
Clinical evaluation was made according to a preformed questionnaire. Cranial neuroimaging findings were determined on the basis of T1, T2, FLAIR and proton-density magnetic resonance scans. For genetic analysis, polymerase chain reaction was performed with primers flanking exons 2-6 and 11 of NOTCH3 gene.
Twenty-five patients (52.1%) were diagnosed as CADASIL with NOTCH3 mutation, while 23 patients (47.9%) had no mutation (NOTCH3-negative patients). The mean age and age at stroke onset were lower in male CADASIL patients (p < 0.03). A family history of migraine (p = 0.012), stroke (p < 0.001), recurrent strokes (p = 0.020) and dementia (p = 0.012) was more common in CADASIL patients. Temporal pole involvement was more common in CADASIL patients (p = 0.004).
It is of clinical importance to identify the heterogeneity of CADASIL from different countries due to a low correlation of clinical and radiological data with respect to NOTCH3 mutation.
European Neurology 07/2014; 72(3-4):125-131. DOI:10.1159/000360530 · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many efforts have been made to develop decision-support tools and bleeding prediction schemes to start or resume anticoagulation after intracerebral hemorrhage, related with anticoagulation use or not, such as CHA2DS2-VASc or HAS-BLED scoring. HAS-BLED is a validated scoring system to predict the risk of major bleeding in a patient with atrial fibrillation; some current scientific guidelines suggest its use in ‘risk–benefit’ reasoning when deciding whether to start long-term oral anticoagulation. Here the authors present a patient with atrial fibrillation and intracerebral hemorrhage, and aim to discuss the use of HAS-BLED, suggesting that some revisions may help better management of these patients for major bleeding risk.
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 07/2014; 12(8). DOI:10.1586/14779072.2014.931225
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While previous studies have investigated the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with migraine, we aimed to explore the prevalence and characteristics of migraine in adult patients diagnosed with RLS.
The association of primary headaches, especially of migraine, with RLS has recently attracted much attention. Migraine prevalence was reported to be higher in patients with RLS than in the general population, and the role of dopamine was strengthened.
We evaluated 265 consecutive adult RLS patients (137 males and 128 females) followed up in a Sleep Disorders Unit and diagnosed according to criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). RLS characteristics, and the severity, were performed by using the IRLSSG severity scale. The diagnosis of headache subtypes was defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Gender, age, age at RLS onset, duration of RLS, family history of RLS, family history of headache, presence of depression, any treatments given for RLS, and the change in headache following RLS treatment were questioned.
The mean age of the study population was 50.4 ± 12.8 years, mean age at RLS onset was 41.6 ± 13.2 years, and mean disease duration was 8.40 ± 8.6 years. Of these, 163 patients had headache; 40 of them were diagnosed to have migraine-type headache (15.1%). The presence of migraine-type headache was 9.4% in males with RLS, and 21.1% in female RLS patients. In RLS patients with migraine, 67.5% were females, while 48.0% of RLS patients with other types of headache were females (P = .032), and only 41.2% of RLS patients without headache were females (P = .005). The severity of RLS was significantly higher in patients with migraine compared with those without headache (P < .001). The presence of depression, the family history of RLS, and headache were also higher in patients with migraine compared with RLS patients with other types of headache or those without headache. Thirty-six patients with headache reported partial or substantial benefit from RLS treatment.
Our results did not suggest higher rates of migraine-type headache in RLS patients when compared with population-based prevalence studies from Turkey. Alternatively, the severity of RLS was significantly higher in patients with migraine. Although the increase in these scores does not constitute a relationship etiopathogenetic, it suggests a correlation between the type cross-model nociceptive systems. Moreover, the family history of RLS was higher in patients with migraine. The prevalence of migraine in patients with RLS, however, waits to be better demonstrated.
Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 01/2014; 54(5). DOI:10.1111/head.12288 · 2.71 Impact Factor