G J del Zoppo

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (81)573.49 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malignant infarction is characterized by the formation of cerebral edema, and medical treatment is limited. Preclinical data suggest that glyburide, an inhibitor of SUR1-TRPM4, is effective in preventing edema. We previously reported feasibility of the GAMES-Pilot study, a two-center prospective, open label, phase IIa trial of 10 subjects at high risk for malignant infarction based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) threshold of 82 cm(3) treated with RP-1127 (glyburide for injection). In this secondary analysis, we tested the hypothesis that RP-1127 may be efficacious in preventing poor outcome when compared to controls. Controls suffering large hemispheric infarction were obtained from the EPITHET and MMI-MRI studies. We first screened subjects for controls with the same DWI threshold used for enrollment into GAMES-Pilot, 82 cm(3). Next, to address imbalances, we applied a weighted Euclidean matching. Ninety day mRS 0-4, rate of decompressive craniectomy, and mortality were the primary clinical outcomes of interest. The mean age of the GAMES cohort was 51 years and initial DWI volume was 102 ± 23 cm(3). After Euclidean matching, GAMES subjects showed similar NIHSS, higher DWI volume, younger age and had mRS 0-4-90 % versus 50 % in controls p = 0.049; with a similar trend in mRS 0-3 (40 vs. 25 %; p = 0.43) and trend toward lower mortality (10 vs. 35 %; p = 0.21). In this pilot study, RP-1127-treated subjects showed better clinical outcomes when compared to historical controls. An adequately powered and randomized phase II trial of patients at risk for malignant infarction is needed to evaluate the potential efficacy of RP-1127.
    Neurocritical Care 03/2014; 21(1). DOI:10.1007/s12028-014-9970-2 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in acute liver failure (ALF) results in increased BBB permeability that often precludes the patients from obtaining a life-saving liver transplantation. It remains controversial whether matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) from the injured liver contributes to the deregulation of BBB function in ALF. We selectively upregulated a physiologic inhibitor of MMP-9 (TIMP-1) with a single intracerebroventricular injection of TIMP-1 cDNA plasmids at 48 and 72 hours, or with pegylated-TIMP-1 protein. Acute liver failure was induced with tumor necrosis factor-α and D-(+)-galactosamine in mice. Permeability of BBB was assessed with sodium fluorescein (NaF) extravasation. We found a significant increase in TIMP-1 within the central nervous system (CNS) after the administration of TIMP-1 cDNA plasmids and that increased TIMP-1 within the CNS resulted in an attenuation of BBB permeability, a reduction in activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signals, and a restoration of the tight junction protein occludin in mice with experimental ALF. Pegylated TIMP-1 provided similar protection against BBB permeability in mice with ALF. Our results provided a proof of principle that MMP-9 contributes to the BBB dysfunction in ALF and suggests a potential therapeutic role of TIMP-1 in ALF.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 27 March 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.45.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 03/2013; 33(7). DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.45 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, alteplase) improved functional outcome in patients treated soon after acute ischaemic stroke in randomised trials, but licensing is restrictive and use varies widely. The IST-3 trial adds substantial new data. We therefore assessed all the evidence from randomised trials for rt-PA in acute ischaemic stroke in an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched for randomised trials of intravenous rt-PA versus control given within 6 h of onset of acute ischaemic stroke up to March 30, 2012. We estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI in the primary analysis for prespecified outcomes within 7 days and at the final follow-up of all patients treated up to 6 h after stroke. In up to 12 trials (7012 patients), rt-PA given within 6 h of stroke significantly increased the odds of being alive and independent (modified Rankin Scale, mRS 0-2) at final follow-up (1611/3483 [46·3%] vs 1434/3404 [42·1%], OR 1·17, 95% CI 1·06-1·29; p=0·001), absolute increase of 42 (19-66) per 1000 people treated, and favourable outcome (mRS 0-1) absolute increase of 55 (95% CI 33-77) per 1000. The benefit of rt-PA was greatest in patients treated within 3 h (mRS 0-2, 365/896 [40·7%] vs 280/883 [31·7%], 1·53, 1·26-1·86, p<0·0001), absolute benefit of 90 (46-135) per 1000 people treated, and mRS 0-1 (283/896 [31·6%] vs 202/883 [22·9%], 1·61, 1·30-1·90; p<0·0001), absolute benefit 87 (46-128) per 1000 treated. Numbers of deaths within 7 days were increased (250/2807 [8·9%] vs 174/2728 [6·4%], 1·44, 1·18-1·76; p=0·0003), but by final follow-up the excess was no longer significant (679/3548 [19·1%] vs 640/3464 [18·5%], 1·06, 0·94-1·20; p=0·33). Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (272/3548 [7·7%] vs 63/3463 [1·8%], 3·72, 2·98-4·64; p<0·0001) accounted for most of the early excess deaths. Patients older than 80 years achieved similar benefit to those aged 80 years or younger, particularly when treated early. The evidence indicates that intravenous rt-PA increased the proportion of patients who were alive with favourable outcome and alive and independent at final follow-up. The data strengthen previous evidence to treat patients as early as possible after acute ischaemic stroke, although some patients might benefit up to 6 h after stroke. UK Medical Research Council, Stroke Association, University of Edinburgh, National Health Service Health Technology Assessment Programme, Swedish Heart-Lung Fund, AFA Insurances Stockholm (Arbetsmarknadens Partners Forsakringsbolag), Karolinska Institute, Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, Research Council of Norway, Oslo University Hospital.
    The Lancet 05/2012; 379(9834):2364-72. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60738-7 · 45.22 Impact Factor
  • L Rochanda · G J Del Zoppo · D I Feinstein · H A Liebman
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    ABSTRACT: Bleeding disorders secondary to acquired non-inhibitory antibodies directed against vitamin K-dependent coagulation proteins are rare. In this report, the authors describe a patient with a low grade lymphoma who presented with a fatal acquired bleeding manifestation and abnormal hemostatic studies resulting from deficiencies in both prothrombin and factor X. Patient plasma samples were collected and studied for the presence of an acquired inhibitor. Levels of plasma coagulation proteins were measured using immunoassay. Patient anti-prothrombin immunoglobulin G was isolated and binding to prothrombin, prothrombin F1.2, factors IX and X was evaluated using immunoblots and competition immunoassay. Prolongation in the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time suggested a factor deficiency in the common pathway of coagulation. Functional and antigenic levels of both prothrombin and factor X were decreased. An IgG subtype-4 antibody was isolated from patient plasma using affinity chromatography on prothrombin-sepharose. This antibody was found to bind to a common metal-ion-dependent conformational epitope found on the γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain of prothrombin, factor X and factor IX. This report represents the first description of an acquired bleeding disorder resulting from a unique cross-reactive auto-antibody against a common metal-ion-dependent antigenic structure on the Gla-domain of the vitamin K-dependent proteins.
    Haemophilia 06/2011; 18(1):102-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2516.2011.02553.x · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischaemic stroke improves outcome. Previous analysis of combined data from individual patients suggested potential benefit beyond 3 h from stroke onset. We re-examined the effect of time to treatment with intravenous rt-PA (alteplase) on therapeutic benefit and clinical risk by adding recent trial data to the analysis. We added data from ECASS III (821 patients) and EPITHET (100 patients) to a pool of common data elements from six other trials of alteplase for acute stroke (2775 patients). We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the relation of stroke onset to start of treatment (OTT) with treatment on favourable 3-month outcome (defined as modified Rankin score 0-1), mortality, and occurrence and outcome of clinically relevant parenchymal haemorrhage. The presence of an arterial occlusion was inferred from the patient's symptoms and absence of haemorrhage or other causes of ischaemic stroke. Vascular imaging was not a requirement in the trials. All patients with confirmed OTT within 360 min were included in the analysis. Treatment was started within 360 min of stroke onset in 3670 patients randomly allocated to alteplase (n=1850) or to placebo (n=1820). Odds of a favourable 3-month outcome increased as OTT decreased (p=0.0269) and no benefit of alteplase treatment was seen after around 270 min. Adjusted odds of a favourable 3-month outcome were 2.55 (95% CI 1.44-4.52) for 0-90 min, 1.64 (1.12-2.40) for 91-180 min, 1.34 (1.06-1.68) for 181-270 min, and 1.22 (0.92-1.61) for 271-360 min in favour of the alteplase group. Large parenchymal haemorrhage was seen in 96 (5.2%) of 1850 patients assigned to alteplase and 18 (1.0%) of 1820 controls, with no clear relation to OTT (p=0.4140). Adjusted odds of mortality increased with OTT (p=0.0444) and were 0.78 (0.41-1.48) for 0-90 min, 1.13 (0.70-1.82) for 91-180 min, 1.22 (0.87-1.71) for 181-270 min, and 1.49 (1.00-2.21) for 271-360 min. Patients with ischaemic stroke selected by clinical symptoms and CT benefit from intravenous alteplase when treated up to 4.5 h. To increase benefit to a maximum, every effort should be taken to shorten delay in initiation of treatment. Beyond 4.5 h, risk might outweigh benefit. None.
    The Lancet 05/2010; 375(9727):1695-703. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60491-6 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    G J del Zoppo
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    ABSTRACT: Microvessels and neurons respond rapidly and simultaneously in focal regions of ischaemic injury in such a way as to suggest that the responses could be coordinated. The ability of neurons to modulate cerebral blood flow in regions of activation results from neurovascular coupling. But little is known about the microvessel-to-neuron direction of the relationship. The presence and participation of intervening glial cells implies the association of microvessels, glia, and neurons in a 'neurovascular unit'. The interdependent functions of the cellular and matrix components of this theoretical unit have not been rigorously explored, except under conditions of injury where, for the most part, only single components or tissue samples have been studied. Whereas maintenance or timely re-establishment of flow reduces tissue and neuron injury in both humans and animal models, protection of neuron function in humans has not prevented the evolution of injury despite the inherent mechanisms of neurovascular coupling. However, occlusion of flow to the brain rapidly identifies regions of neuron-vascular vulnerability within the vascular territory-at-risk. These coalesce to become the mature ischaemic lesion. The failure, so far, of clinical trials of neuron protectant agents to achieve detectable tissue salvage could be explained by the vulnerability (and lack of protection) of essential components of the 'unit'. This presentation summarizes evidence and thoughts on this topic. These support the need to understand component interactions within the neurovascular unit.
    Journal of Internal Medicine 02/2010; 267(2):156-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2009.02199.x · 5.79 Impact Factor
  • Gregory J. del Zoppo · Jeffrey L. Saver · Edward C. Jauch · Harold P. Adams
    Stroke 10/2009; 40(11). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.560086 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple approaches are being studied to enhance the rate of thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Treatment of myocardial infarction with a combination of a reduced-dose fibrinolytic agent and a glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist has been shown to improve the rate of recanalization versus fibrinolysis alone. The combined approach to lysis utilizing eptifibatide and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) (CLEAR) stroke trial assessed the safety of treating acute ischemic stroke patients within 3 hours of symptom onset with this combination. The CLEAR trial was a National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-funded multicenter, double-blind, randomized, dose-escalation and safety study. Patients were randomized 3:1 to either low-dose rt-PA (tier 1=0.3 mg/kg, tier 2=0.45 mg/kg) plus eptifibatide (75 microg/kg bolus followed by 0.75 microg/kg per min infusion for 2 hours) or standard-dose rt-PA (0.9 mg/kg). The primary safety end point was the incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 36 hours. Secondary analyses were performed regarding clinical efficacy. Ninety-four patients (40 in tier 1 and 54 in tier 2) were enrolled. The combination group of the 2 dose tiers (n=69) had a median age of 71 years and a median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 14, and the standard-dose rt-PA group (n=25) had a median age of 61 years and a median baseline NIHSS score of 10 (P=0.01 for NIHSS score). Fifty-two (75%) of the combination treatment group and 24 (96%) of the standard treatment group had a baseline modified Rankin scale score of 0 (P=0.04). There was 1 (1.4%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.3%) symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the combination group and 2 (8.0%; 95% CI, 0% to 19.2%) in the rt-PA-only arm (P=0.17). During randomization in tier 2, a review by the independent data safety monitoring board demonstrated that the safety profile of combination therapy at the tier 2 doses was such that further enrollment was statistically unlikely to indicate inadequate safety for the combination treatment group, the ultimate outcome of the study. Thus, the study was halted. There was a trend toward increased clinical efficacy of standard-dose rt-PA compared with the combination treatment group. The safety of the combination of reduced-dose rt-PA plus eptifibatide justifies further dose-ranging trials in acute ischemic stroke.
    Stroke 10/2008; 39(12):3268-76. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.517656 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    G J del Zoppo
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    ABSTRACT: Responses to focal cerebral ischemia by neurons and adjacent microvessels are rapid, simultaneous, and topographically related. Recent observations indicate the simultaneous appearance of proteases by components of nearby microvessels that are also expressed by neurons in the ischemic territory, implying that the events could be coordinated. The structural relationship of neurons to their microvascular supply, the direct functional participation of glial cells, and the observation of a highly ordered microvessel-neuron response to ischemia suggest that these elements are arranged in and behave in a unitary fashion, the neurovascular unit. Their roles as a unit in the stimulation of cellular inflammation and the generation of inflammatory mediators during focal cerebral ischemia have not been explored yet. However, components of the neurovascular unit both generate and respond to these influences under the conditions of ischemia. Here we briefly explore the potential inter-relationships of the components of the neurovascular unit with respect to their potential roles in ischemia-induced inflammatory responses.
    Neuroscience 09/2008; 158(3):972-82. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.08.028 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our goal is to provide an overview of the current evidence about components of the evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audience is physicians and other emergency healthcare providers who treat patients within the first 48 hours after stroke. In addition, information for healthcare policy makers is included. Members of the panel were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and represented different areas of expertise. The panel reviewed the relevant literature with an emphasis on reports published since 2003 and used the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Levels of Evidence grading algorithm to rate the evidence and to make recommendations. After approval of the statement by the panel, it underwent peer review and approval by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. It is intended that this guideline be fully updated in 3 years. Management of patients with acute ischemic stroke remains multifaceted and includes several aspects of care that have not been tested in clinical trials. This statement includes recommendations for management from the first contact by emergency medical services personnel through initial admission to the hospital. Intravenous administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator remains the most beneficial proven intervention for emergency treatment of stroke. Several interventions, including intra-arterial administration of thrombolytic agents and mechanical interventions, show promise. Because many of the recommendations are based on limited data, additional research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke is needed.
    Circulation 06/2007; 115(20):e478-534. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.181486 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    G J Del Zoppo · R Milner · T Mabuchi · S Hung · X Wang · JA Koziol
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    ABSTRACT: The integrity of the cerebral microvasculature depends on the interaction between its component cells and the extracellular matrix, as well as reorganized cell-cell interactions. In the central nervous system, matrix adhesion receptors are expressed in the microvasculature and by neurons and their supporting glial cells. Cells within cerebral microvessels express both the integrin and dystroglycan families of matrix adhesion receptors. However, the functional significance of these receptors is only now being explored. Endothelial cells and astrocytes within cerebral capillaries co-operate to generate and maintain the basal lamina and the unique barrier functions of the endothelium. Integrins and the dystroglycan complex are found on the matrix-proximate faces of both endothelial cells and astrocyte end-feet. Pericytes rest against the basal lamina. In the extravascular compartment, select integrins are expressed on neurons, microglial cells and oligodendroglia. Significant alterations in both cellular adhesion receptors and their matrix ligands occur during focal cerebral ischaemia, which support their functional significance in the normal state. We propose that matrix adhesion receptors are essential for the maintenance of the integrity of the blood-brain permeability barrier and that modulation of these receptors contributes to alterations in the barrier during brain injury.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 01/2007; 34(Pt 6):1261-6. DOI:10.1042/BST0341261 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This workshop examined the opportunities for translational research directed at immune and inflammatory mechanisms. This summary presents the background data in 3 general areas: (1) inflammation and hemostasis in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease, (2) immune interactions in the central nervous system and heart, and (3) translation of immune modulation in the brain and heart, all of which supported a consensus derivation of the opportunities for future research in these areas. The summary concludes with 11 recommendations.
    Stroke 01/2007; 37(12):3035-42. DOI:10.1161/01.STR.0000248836.82538.ee · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women have poorer outcomes from stroke than men. Women also have risk factors that are unique, including pregnancy and hormone therapy. Hormone therapy for postmenopausal replacement increased the risk of ischemic stroke according to results of the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials. Based on the current understanding of the mechanisms of action of estrogen, the reasons for this increased risk are uncertain. One method to better understand the reasons for this increased risk is to re-evaluate estrogen's role in the neurovascular unit, simplistically comprised of the neurons, glia, and endothelial cells, as well as the processes of inflammation, and hemostasis/thrombosis. Besides the role of estrogen there are many gaps of knowledge about issues specific to women and stroke. A multidisciplinary workshop was held in August 2005 to summarize the current evidence for estrogen and, more generally, stroke in women, and to provide recommendations for future basic, preclinical, and clinical research studies. These studies may ultimately change the approach to stroke prevention and treatment in women.
    Stroke 10/2006; 37(9):2387-99. DOI:10.1161/01.STR.0000236053.37695.15 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    G J Del Zoppo
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 08/2005; 3(7):1376-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2005.01465.x · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    Harold Adams · Robert Adams · Gregory Del Zoppo · Larry B Goldstein
    Stroke 05/2005; 36(4):916-23. DOI:10.1161/01.STR.0000163257.66207.2d · 6.02 Impact Factor
  • G J del Zoppo
    Ernst Schering Research Foundation workshop 02/2004;
  • J M Wardlaw · G. J. Del Zoppo · T Yamaguchi · E Berge
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of strokes are due to blockage of an artery in the brain by a blood clot. Prompt treatment with thrombolytic drugs can restore blood flow before major brain damage has occurred. Successful treatment could mean that the patient is more likely to make a good recovery from their stroke. Thrombolytic drugs however, can also cause serious bleeding in the brain which can be fatal. Thrombolytic therapy has now been evaluated in several randomised trials in acute ischaemic stroke. The objective of this review was to assess the safety and efficacy of thrombolytic agents in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched January 2003), MEDLINE (1966- January 2003) and EMBASE (1980-January 2003). In addition we contacted researchers and pharmaceutical companies, attended relevant conferences and handsearched four Japanese journals. Randomised trials of any thrombolytic agent compared with control in patients with definite ischaemic stroke. One reviewer applied the inclusion criteria and extracted the data. Trial quality was assessed. The extracted data were verified by the principal investigators of all major trials. Thus published and unpublished data were obtained where available. Eighteen trials including 5727 patients were included, but not all trials contributed data to each outcome examined in this review. Sixteen trials were double-blind. The trials tested urokinase, streptokinase, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator or recombinant pro-urokinase. Two trials used intra-arterial administration but the rest used the intravenous route. About 50% of the data (patients and trials) come from trials testing intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. There are few data from patients aged over 80 years. Much of the data comes from trials conducted in the first half of the 1990s when, in an effort to reduce delays to trial drug administration, on site randomisation methods were used that, in consequence, limited the ability to stratify randomisation on key prognostic variables. Several trials, because of the biological effects of thrombolysis combined with the follow-up methods used, did not have complete blinding of outcome assessment. Thrombolytic therapy, administered up to six hours after ischaemic stroke, significantly reduced the proportion of patients who were dead or dependent (modified Rankin 3 to 6) at the end of follow-up at three to six months (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.95). This was in spite of a significant increase in : the odds of death within the first ten days (odds ratio [OR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46 to 2.24), the main cause of which was fatal intracranial haemorrhage (OR 4.34, 95% CI 3.14 to 5.99). Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was increased following thrombolysis (OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.68 to 4.22). Thrombolytic therapy also increased the odds of death at the end of follow-up at three to six months (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.53). For patients treated within three hours of stroke, thrombolytic therapy appeared more effective in reducing death or dependency (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.83) with no statistically significant adverse effect on death (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.48). There was heterogeneity between the trials that could have been due to many trial features including : thrombolytic drug used, variation in the use of aspirin and heparin, severity of the stroke (both between trials and between treatment groups within trials), and time to treatment. Trials testing intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator suggested that it may be associated with slightly less hazard and more benefit than other drugs when given up to six hours after stroke but these are non-random comparisons - death within the first ten days OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.81, death at the end of follow-up OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.45, dead or dependent at the end of follow-up OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.93. However, no trial has directly comparedup OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.93. However, no trial has directly compared rt-PA with any other thrombolytic agent. There is some evidence that antithrombotic drugs given soon after thrombolysis may increase the risk of death. Overall, thrombolytic therapy appears to result in a significant net reduction in the proportion of patients dead or dependent in activities of daily living. However, this appears to be net of an increase in deaths within the first seven to ten days, symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage, and deaths at follow-up at three to six months. The data from trials using intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, from which there are the most evidence on thrombolytic therapy so far, suggest that it may be associated with less hazard and more benefit. There was heterogeneity between the trials for some outcomes and the optimum criteria to identify the patients most likely to benefit and least likely to be harmed, the latest time window, the agent, dose, and route of administration, are not clear. The data are promising and may justify the use of thrombolytic therapy with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in experienced centres in highly selected patients where a licence exists. However, the data do not support the widespread use of thrombolytic therapy in routine clinical practice at this time, but suggest that further trials are needed to identify which patients are most likely to benefit from treatment and the environment in which it may best be given. To avoid the problem of data missing from some trials for some key outcomes encountered in this review to date, and to assist future metaanalyses, future trialists should try to collect data in such a way as to be compatible with the basic outcome assessments reviewed here (eg early death, fatal intracranial haemorrhage, poor functional outcome).
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 02/2003; 3(3):CD000213. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD000213 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    N Hosomi · J Lucero · J H Heo · JA Koziol · B R Copeland · G J del Zoppo
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    ABSTRACT: During focal cerebral ischemia, the microvascular matrix (ECM), which participates in microvascular integrity, is degraded and lost when neurons are injured. Loss of microvascular basal lamina antigens coincides with rapid expression of select matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Plasminogen activators (PAs) may also play a role in ECM degradation by the generation of plasmin or by MMP activation. The endogenous expressions of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase (uPA), and PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were quantified in 10-microm frozen sections from ischemic and matched nonischemic basal ganglia and in the plasma of 34 male healthy nonhuman primates before and after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCA:O). Within the ischemic basal ganglia, tissue uPA activity and antigen increased significantly within 1 hour after MCA:O (2P<0.005). tPA activity transiently decreased 2 hours after MCA:O (2P=0.01) in concert with an increase in PAI-1 antigen (2P=0.001) but otherwise did not change. The transient decrease in free tPA antigen was marked by an increase in the tPA-PAI-1 complex (2P<0.001). No significant relations to neuronal injury or intracerebral hemorrhage were discerned. The rapid increase in endogenous PA activity is mainly due to significant increases in uPA, but not tPA, within the ischemic basal ganglia after MCA:O. This increase and an increase in PAI-1 coincided with latent MMP-2 generation and microvascular ECM degeneration but not neuronal injury.
    Stroke 06/2001; 32(6):1341-8. DOI:10.1161/01.STR.32.6.1341 · 6.02 Impact Factor
  • G J del Zoppo · K J Becker · J M Hallenbeck
    JAMA Neurology 05/2001; 58(4):669-72. DOI:10.1001/archneur.58.4.669 · 7.01 Impact Factor
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    Stroke 02/2001; 32(1):280-99. DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.103.1.163 · 6.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
573.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Division of Hematology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Neurology
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2007
    • Osaka City University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1992–2005
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2003
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Division of Clinical Neurosciences
      Edinburgh, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Department of Neurology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1997
    • University of the Witwatersrand
      • Department of Physiotherapy
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 1986
    • University Hospital RWTH Aachen
      • Department of Neurology
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany