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Publications (3)10.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To identify patient-care practices related to an increased prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among chronic hemodialysis patients. Survey. Chronic hemodialysis facilities in the United States. Equal-probability 2-stage cluster sampling was used to select 87 facilities from all Medicare-approved providers treating 30-150 patients; 53 facilities and 2,933 of 3,680 eligible patients agreed to participate. Patients were tested for HCV antibody and HCV RNA. Data on patient-care practices were collected using direct observation. The overall prevalence of HCV infection was 9.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2%-11.6%); only 2 of 294 HCV-positive patients were detected solely by HCV RNA testing. After adjusting for non-dialysis-related HCV risk factors, patient-care practices independently associated with a higher prevalence of HCV infection included reusing priming receptacles without disinfection (odds ratio [OR], 2.3 [95% CI, 1.4-3.9]), handling blood specimens adjacent to medications and clean supplies (OR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.3-3.6]), and using mobile carts to deliver injectable medications (OR, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.0-2.8]). Independently related facility covariates were at least 10% patient HCV infection prevalence (OR, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.8-5.2]), patient-to-staff ratio of at least 7 : 1 (OR, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.4-4.1]), and treatment duration of at least 2 years (OR, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.3-4.4]). This study provides the first epidemiologic evidence of associations between specific patient-care practices and higher HCV infection prevalence among hemodialysis patients. Staff should review practices to ensure that hemodialysis-specific infection control practices are being implemented, especially handling clean and contaminated items in separate areas, reusing items only if disinfected, and prohibiting mobile medication and clean supply carts within treatment areas.
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 05/2011; 32(5):415-24. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nosocomial pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality attributed to nosocomial infection. Appropriate empirical therapy has been associated with improved survival, but data are limited regarding the etiologic agents of hospital-acquired pneumonia in nonventilated patients (HAP). This evaluation assessed whether the currently recommended empirical therapy is appropriate for both ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and HAP by evaluating the infecting flora. Prospectively collected hospitalwide surveillance data was obtained by infection control professionals using standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. A tertiary care academic hospital. All patients admitted from 2000 through 2003. A total of 588 episodes of pneumonia were reported in 556 patients: 327 episodes of VAP in 309 patients, and 261 episodes of HAP in 247 patients. The infecting flora in ventilated patients included gram-positive cocci (32.0% [oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus {OSSA}, 9.25%; oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus {ORSA}, 17.75%]), gram-negative bacilli (59.0% (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 17.50%; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 6.75%; Acinetobacter species, 7.75%), and miscellaneous pathogens (9.0%). The infecting flora in nonventilated patients included gram-positive cocci (42.59% [OSSA, 13.33%; ORSA, 20.37%]), gram-negative bacilli (39.63% [P. aeruginosa, 9.26%; S. maltophilia, 1.11%; Acinetobacter species, 3.33%), and miscellaneous pathogens (17.78%). Our data demonstrated that patients with HAP, compared with those with VAP, had a similar frequency of infection with ORSA but less commonly had infections due to P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, and S. maltophilia. However, the overall frequency of infection with these pathogens was sufficiently high to warrant the use of empirical therapy likely to be active against them. Our data supports using the currently recommended empirical therapy for both HAP and VAP.
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 08/2007; 28(7):825-31. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Health care-associated infections most commonly result from person-to-person transmission via the hands of health care workers. We studied the efficacy of hand hygiene agents (n = 14) following 10-second applications to reduce the level of challenge organisms (Serratia marcescens and MS2 bacteriophage) from the hands of healthy volunteers using the ASTM-E-1174-94 test method. The highest log 10 reductions of S marcescens were achieved with agents containing chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), triclosan, benzethonium chloride, and the controls, tap water alone and nonantimicrobial soap and water (episode 1 of hand hygiene, 1.60-2.01; episode 10, 1.60-3.63). Handwipes but not alcohol-based handrubs were significantly inferior from these agents after a single episode of hand hygiene, but both groups were significantly inferior after 10 episodes. After a single episode of hand hygiene, alcohol/silver iodide, CHG, triclosan, and benzethonium chloride were similar to the controls in reduction of MS2, but, in general, handwipes and alcohol-based handrubs showed significantly lower efficacy. After 10 episodes, only benzethonium chloride (1.33) performed as well as the controls (1.59-1.89) in the reduction of MS2. Antimicrobial handwashing agents were the most efficacious in bacterial removal, whereas waterless agents showed variable efficacy. Alcohol-based handrubs compared with other products demonstrated better efficacy after a single episode of hand hygiene than after 10 episodes. Effective hand hygiene for high levels of viral contamination with a nonenveloped virus was best achieved by physical removal with a nonantimicrobial soap or tap water alone.
    American Journal of Infection Control 04/2005; 33(2):67-77. · 2.73 Impact Factor