[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism due to deficient activity of α-galactosidase A that leads to accumulation of the enzyme substrates, mainly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in body fluids and lysosomes of many cell types. Some pathophysiology hypotheses are intimately linked to reactive species production and inflammation, but until this moment there is no in vivo study about it. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress parameters, pro-inflammatory cytokines and Gb3 levels in Fabry patients under treatment with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and finally to establish a possible relation between them. We analyzed urine and blood samples of patients under ERT (n=14) and healthy age-matched controls (n=14). Patients presented decreased levels of antioxidant defenses, assessed by reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and increased superoxide dismutase/catalase (SOD/CAT) ratio in erythrocytes. Concerning to the damage to biomolecules (lipids and proteins), we found that plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl groups and di-tyrosine (di-Tyr) in urine were increased in patients. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α were also increased in patients. Urinary Gb3 levels were positively correlated with the plasma levels of IL-6, carbonyl groups and MDA. IL-6 levels were directly correlated with di-Tyr and inversely correlated with GPx activity. This data suggest that pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant states occur, are correlated and seem to be induced by Gb3 in Fabry patients.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2011; 1822(2):226-32. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes may modify central nervous system functions and is associated with moderate cognitive deficits and changes in the brain, a condition that may be referred to as diabetic encephalopathy. The prevalence of depression in diabetic patients is higher than in the general population, and clonazepam is being used to treat this complication. Oxidative stress may play a role in the development of diabetes complications. We investigated oxidative stress parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats submitted to forced swimming test (STZ) and evaluated the effect of insulin (STZ-INS) and/or clonazepam (STZ-CNZ and STZ-INS-CNZ) acute treatment on these animal model. Oxidative damage to proteins measured as carbonyl content in plasma was significantly increased in STZ group compared to STZ treated groups. Malondialdehyde plasma levels were significantly reduced in STZ-INS and STZ-INS-CNZ groups when compared to STZ rats, being significantly reduced in STZ-INS-CNZ than STZ-INS rats. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase showed no significant differences among all groups of animals. These findings showed that protein and lipid damage occurs in this diabetes/depression animal model and that the associated treatment of insulin and clonazepam is capable to protect against oxidative damage in this experimental model.