[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a tumor in which only small improvements in clinical outcome have been achieved. The issue is critical for stage I patients for whom there are no available biomarkers that indicate which high-risk patients should receive adjuvant chemotherapy. We aimed to find DNA methylation markers that could be helpful in this regard.
A DNA methylation microarray that analyzes 450,000 CpG sites was used to study tumoral DNA obtained from 444 patients with NSCLC that included 237 stage I tumors. The prognostic DNA methylation markers were validated by a single-methylation pyrosequencing assay in an independent cohort of 143 patients with stage I NSCLC.
Unsupervised clustering of the 10,000 most variable DNA methylation sites in the discovery cohort identified patients with high-risk stage I NSCLC who had shorter relapse-free survival (RFS; hazard ratio [HR], 2.35; 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.28; P = .004). The study in the validation cohort of the significant methylated sites from the discovery cohort found that hypermethylation of five genes was significantly associated with shorter RFS in stage I NSCLC: HIST1H4F, PCDHGB6, NPBWR1, ALX1, and HOXA9. A signature based on the number of hypermethylated events distinguished patients with high- and low-risk stage I NSCLC (HR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.61 to 6.54; P = .001).
The DNA methylation signature of NSCLC affects the outcome of stage I patients, and it can be practically determined by user-friendly polymerase chain reaction assays. The analysis of the best DNA methylation biomarkers improved prognostic accuracy beyond standard staging.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extrapulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma (EPNEC) is a heterogeneous and rare group of high-grade neoplasms occurring in different organs. They usually share a poor prognosis, but diagnostic and therapeutic options still include several controversial issues, due to the rarity of this condition and to differences in architecture and cell size, being some cases pure small cell carcinomas, other pure large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and some others combined/mixed neuroendocrine carcinomas with a conventional non-neuroendocrine carcinoma. In addition, the therapeutic strategy varies in different organs (surgery and/or chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy and/or targeted treatments), and clinicians and pathologists are asked to interact to reach an accurate classification of every single case, as well as the most appropriate selection of the treatment options, even considering different time points of each EPNEC natural history. This overview highlights controversial pathological and clinical issues and summarizes possible solutions to most of such EPNEC-related problems.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Abiraterone strongly inhibits androgen synthesis but may lead to an increase in mineralocorticoid hormones that may impair its long term tolerability in patients with prostate cancer. How to implement available therapies in the management and prevention of these potential side effects is a matter of current clinical research. METHODS: The acute and long term consequences of mineralocorticoid excess and the effects of available treatments have been reviewed. Prospective studies in which abiraterone was employed were identified to assess the frequency and severity of the mineralocorticoid excess syndrome and the efficacy of ameliorating therapeutic approaches. RESULTS: Glucocorticoids to inhibit the ACTH increase that drives mineralocorticoid synthesis and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists can be used in the management of the abiraterone-induced mineralocorticoid excess syndrome. Phase I and II trials of abiraterone without additional therapies revealed that mineralocorticoid excess symptoms occur in the majority of patients. Eplerenone, a specific MR antagonist, seems to be effective but it does not control the mineralocorticoid excess. Glucorticoid supplementation to control ACTH drive is therefore needed. In several randomized trials the addition of prednisone (10mg daily) to abiraterone was not able to prevent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome in many cases and thus cannot be considered the gold standard. CONCLUSION: At present, the best conceivable treatment for managing the abiraterone-induced mineralocorticoid excess consists of the administration of glucocorticoid replacement at the lowest effective dose±MR antagonists and salt deprivation. The drug doses should be modulated by monitoring blood pressure, fluid retention and potassium levels during therapy.
Cancer treatment reviews 04/2013; · 5.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The management of advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer is increasingly based on diagnostic and predictive analyses performed mostly on limited amounts of tumor tissue. The evaluation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations have emerged as the strongest predictor of response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors mainly in patients with adenocarcinoma. Several EGFR mutation detection techniques are available, having both sensitivity and specificity issues, being the Sanger sequencing technique the reference standard, with the limitation of a relatively high amount of mutated cells needed for the analysis. METHODS: A novel nucleotide dispensation order for pyrosequencing was established allowing the identification and characterization of EGFR mutation not definable with commercially and clinically approved kits, and validated in a consecutive series of 321 lung cancer patients (246 biopsies or cytology samples and 75 surgical specimens). RESULTS: 61/321 (19%) mutated cases were detected, 17 (27.9%) in exon 21 and 44 (72.1%) in exon 19, these latter corresponding to 32/44 (72.7%) classical and 12/44 (27.3%) uncommon mutations. Furthermore, a novel, never reported, point mutation, was found, which determined a premature stop codon in the aminoacidic sequence that resulted in a truncated protein in the tyrosine kinase domain, thus impairing the inhibitory effect of specific therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The novel dispensation order allows to detect and characterize both classical and uncommon EGFR mutations. Although several phase III studies in genotypically defined groups of patients are already available, further prospective studies assessing the role of uncommon EGFR mutations are warranted.
BMC Cancer 03/2013; 13(1):114. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:: Recent clinical trials led to the approval of crizotinib (PF-02341066; Pfizer) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients whose tumors are positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) alterations. The European Medicines Agency accepted the regulatory submission of crizotinib for the treatment of these patients. Therefore, ALK gene testing has become mandatory to choose the most appropriate therapy. METHODS:: To help physicians, involved in the management of NSCLC patients to be treated with ALK inhibitors in Italy, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology and the Italian Society of Pathology and Cytopathology identified a large panel of Italian medical oncologists and pathologists that outlined recommendations for ALK testing in NSCLC patients. RESULTS:: The guidelines produced include specific information on the target patient population, the biological material for molecular analysis, a section dedicated to the histocytopathologic diagnosis of NSCLC, and the methods for the assessment of ALK alterations that are summarized in this article. CONCLUSIONS:: Clinicopathologic recommendations were produced to guide the management of NSCLC patients who need to be tested for ALK rearrangements before treatment with ALK inhibitors.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 03/2013; 8(3):352-358. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The N-methyl-N'-nitroso-guanidine human osteosarcoma transforming gene (MET) receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) control cellular signaling cascades that direct cell growth, proliferation, survival, and motility. Aberrant MET/HGF activation has been observed in many tumor types, can occur by multiple mechanisms, and promotes cellular proliferation and metastasis via growth factor receptors and other oncogenic receptor pathways. Thus, MET/HGF inhibition has emerged as targeted anticancer therapies. Preclinically, neoplastic and metastatic phenotypes of several tumor cells, including non-small cell lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and gastric cancer, were abrogated by MET inhibition. Ongoing clinical development with tivantinib, cabozantinib, onartuzumab, crizotinib, rilotumumab, and ficlatuzumab has shown encouraging results. These trials have established a key role for MET in a variety of tumor types. Evidence is emerging for identification of aberrant MET activity biomarkers and selection of patient subpopulations that may benefit from targeted MET and HGF inhibitor treatment.
Cancer treatment reviews 02/2013; · 5.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the interpretation of the data reported in meta-analyses may hide several issues, it is undoubtable that this methodological approach may significantly contribute to implement the results of clinical trials, and represent a useful and practical tool for the evidence-based medicine process. Indeed, level-one recommendations should consider well-conducted meta-analyses as well as large and adequately powered randomized trials as the main contributors for the definition of guidelines for clinical practice. In addition, the role of meta-analyses for issues whereas conflicting data (and/or unpowered results) are provided, is well established. In the field of lung cancer, meta-analyses already participated to change the current standard, and are now facing the challenging issues of predictive biomarkers of prognosis and/or efficacy of targeted agents. With this aim, the meta-analytic approach helped in the recent years to implement the quantification of the magnitude of the benefit of targeted agents, and added new insights by interpreting the data coming from clinical trials by integrating them with biomarkers. The treatment-interaction analyses according to putative predictive factors of efficacy may clarify unknown issues and generate new hypotheses for future perspectives. The current review attempts to put in the context of the clinical data of targeted agents for lung cancer all the pros and cons of the meta-analytic process published to date, and critically analyze all the potential perspectives which this methodology may add for both current practice and forthcoming research.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the second most common histologic subtype of lung cancer (preceded only by adenocarcinoma). SSC of the lung is prevalently diagnosed in smokers and has been described as a preferentially centrally located tumor in which the main airways are commonly involved. Clinically, it presents with predominant locoregional signs and symptoms, but in recent years an increasing frequency of peripheral SCC of the lung has been reported. Pathologic diagnosis can be easily made through light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The treatment approach for early-stage disease does not differ from that of other histologic subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer; in locally advanced unresectable or metastatic disease, doublet chemotherapy regimens (including cisplatin or carboplatin and a third-generation agent such as gemcitabine, taxanes, or vinorelbine) remain the cornerstone of front-line systemic treatment. Conversely, a single agent, mainly docetaxel, is the preferred treatment in second-line treatment. In unselected patient populations, targeted therapies have been extensively tested in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy with disappointing results because of increased toxicity or lack of improvement in efficacy outcomes. Genomic alterations in SCC of the lung have not been comprehensively characterized, and no molecularly targeted therapies have been specifically developed for the treatment of this disease, but recently immune checkpoints have emerged as new therapeutic agent.
American Society of Clinical Oncology educational book / ASCO. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Meeting. 01/2013; 2013:354-358.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study aimed to demonstrate that patients who exhibit a tumor metabolic response to first-line chemotherapy seen on FDG-PET and computed tomography (CT) would survive longer than those who did not show such a response, comparing this evaluation with the morphologic response seen on CT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Images were acquired in 22 consecutive patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) randomized to receive carboplatin/paclitaxel/sorafenib or placebo. FDG-PET was performed within 4 weeks before (PET1) and 2 weeks after starting treatment (PET2). Similarly, CT (CT1) was performed at baseline and then every 2 cycles (6 weeks) during treatment (CT2). Responders and nonresponders were identified with FDG-PET, and metabolic response was then compared with morphologic changes detected by spiral CT. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 22 patients completed this study. In terms of progression-free survival (PFS) (45 vs. 22.2 weeks) and overall survival (OS) (77 vs. 47.7 weeks), we observed a trend that was not statistically significant for patients whose response after 2 weeks of treatment was seen on FDG-PET (P = .22 for PFS; P = .15 for OS). CONCLUSION: Patients with advanced NSCLC who had a positive outcome, as evidenced by prolonged survival, were those who showed a tumor metabolic response seen on FDG-PET.
Clinical Lung Cancer 12/2012; · 2.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thymic epithelial tumors include several entities with different biologic behavior. Chemotherapy is indicated in advanced disease, but limited data exist on gene expression correlation with the response to chemotherapeutic agents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A series of 69 thymic neoplasms (7 A-, 6 AB-, 6 B1-, 10 B2-, 14 B3-thymomas, 22 carcinomas and 4 combined tumors) was collected to assess gene expression of thymidylate synthase (TS), excision repair cross complementing-1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase subunit 1 (RRM1), topoisomerase 2α (TOP2A) and mTOR. RESULTS: A strong linear correlation between TS gene and protein expression was observed (P<0.0001, R=0.40). TS expression was significantly lower in pure A-thymomas and thymic carcinomas (P<0.0001) and progressively decreasing from B1-type to thymic carcinomas (B1>B2>B3>C; P<0.0001). RRM1 and TOP2A mRNA expression levels were significantly correlated with TS levels (both P=0.03) with a similar trend of expression among histotypes. RRM1 and TOP2A high levels were significantly correlated with high TS (P=0.03) and low tumor stages (I-II) (P<0.0001 and P<0.01, respectively). No relevant changes of ERCC1 and mTOR were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Low TS and, to a minor extent, RRM1 and TOP2A expression were detected in aggressive thymic tumors. These findings should be prospectively considered in selecting the most appropriate chemotherapy.
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 12/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a relevant public health issue. A large amount of data indicate a relationship between mesothelioma and asbestos exposure. MPM incidence has considerably and constantly increased over the past two decades in industrialized countries and is expected to peak in 2010-2020. In Italy, the standardized incidence rate in 2008 was 3.6 and 1.3 per 100,000 in men and women respectively, with wide differences from one region to another. The approach to this disease remains difficult and complex in terms of pathogenic mechanism, diagnosis, staging and treatment thus an optimal strategy has not yet been clearly defined. The Second Italian Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma was held in Turin (Italy) on November 24-25, 2011: recommendations on MPM management for public health institutions, clinicians and patients are presented in this report.
Cancer treatment reviews 12/2012; · 5.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:: Denosumab, a fully human anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody, reduces the incidence of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors. We present survival data for the subset of patients with lung cancer, participating in the phase 3 trial of denosumab versus zoledronic acid (ZA) in the treatment of bone metastases from solid tumors (except breast or prostate) or multiple myeloma. METHODS:: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive monthly subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg or intravenous ZA 4 mg. An exploratory analysis, using Kaplan-Meier estimates and proportional hazards models, was performed for overall survival among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and SCLC. RESULTS:: Denosumab was associated with improved median overall survival versus ZA in 811 patients with any lung cancer (8.9 versus 7.7 months; hazard ratio [HR] 0.80) and in 702 patients with NSCLC (9.5 versus 8.0 months; HR 0.78) (p = 0.01, each comparison). Further analysis of NSCLC by histological type showed a median survival of 8.6 months for denosumab versus 6.4 months for ZA in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (HR 0.68; p = 0.035). Incidence of overall adverse events was balanced between treatment groups; serious adverse events occurred in 66.0% of denosumab-treated patients and 72.9% of ZA-treated patients. Cumulative incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw was similar between groups (0.7% denosumab versus 0.8% ZA). Hypocalcemia rates were 8.6% with denosumab and 3.8% with ZA. CONCLUSION:: In this exploratory analysis, denosumab was associated with improved overall survival compared with ZA, in patients with metastatic lung cancer.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 12/2012; 7(12):1823-1829. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE To compare the efficacy of aflibercept (ziv-aflibercept), a recombinant human fusion protein targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, with or without docetaxel in platinum-pretreated patients with advanced or metastatic nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS In this international, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial, 913 patients were randomly assigned to (ziv-)aflibercept 6 mg/kg intravenous (IV; n = 456) or IV placebo (n = 457), both administered every 3 weeks and in combination with docetaxel 75 mg/m(2). The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Other efficacy outcomes, safety, and immunogenicity were also assessed. Results Patient characteristics were balanced between arms; 12.3% of patients had received prior bevacizumab. (Ziv-)Aflibercept did not improve OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.01; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.17; stratified log-rank P = .90). The median OS was 10.1 months (95% CI, 9.2 to 11.6 months) for (ziv-)aflibercept and 10.4 months (95% CI, 9.2 to 11.9 months) for placebo. In exploratory analyses, median progression-free survival was 5.2 months (95% CI, 4.4 to 5.6 months) for (ziv-)aflibercept versus 4.1 months (95% CI, 3.5 to 4.3 months) for placebo (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.94; P = .0035); overall response rate was 23.3% of evaluable patients (95% CI, 19.1% to 27.4%) in the (ziv-)aflibercept arm versus 8.9% (95% CI, 6.1% to 11.6%; P < .001) in the placebo arm. Grade ≥ 3 adverse events occurring more frequently in the (ziv-)aflibercept arm versus the placebo arm were neutropenia (28.0% v 21.1%, respectively), fatigue (11.1% v 4.2%, respectively), stomatitis (8.8% v 0.7%, respectively), and hypertension (7.3% v 0.9%, respectively). CONCLUSION The addition of (ziv-)aflibercept to standard docetaxel therapy did not improve OS. In exploratory analyses, secondary efficacy end points did seem to be improved in the (ziv-)aflibercept arm. The study regimen was associated with increased toxicities, consistent with known anti-VEGF and chemotherapy-induced events.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2012; 30(29):3640-7. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. The role of surgery for lung metastases (LM) secondary to colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. The bulk of evidence is derived from single surgical series, hampering any definitive conclusions. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of CRC patients with LM submitted to surgery with those who were not.Patients and Methods. Data from 409 patients with LM as the first evidence of advanced disease were extracted from a database of 1,411 patients. Patients were divided into three groups: G1, comprised 155 patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary metastases; G2, comprised of 104 patients with LM only and no surgery; G3, comprised of 50 patients with LM only and submitted to surgery.Results. No difference in response rates emerged between G1 and G2. Median progression-free survival (PFS) times were: 10.3 months, 10.5 months, and 26.2 months for G1, G2, and G3, respectively. No difference in PFS times was observed between G1 and G2, whereas there was a statistically significant difference between G2 and G3. Median overall survival times were 24.2 months, 31.5 months, and 72.4 months, respectively. Survival times were longer in resected patients: 17 survived >5 years and three survived >10 years. In patients with LM only and no surgery, four survived for 5 years and none survived >10 years.Conclusions. Even though patients with resectable LM are more likely to be those with a better outcome, our study provides evidence suggesting an active role of surgery in improving survival outcomes in this patient subset.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is highly responsive to crizotinib. To determine whether ALK-positive NSCLC is also sensitive to pemetrexed, we retrospectively evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) of ALK-positive versus ALK-negative patients who had been treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC.Patients and methodsWe identified 121 patients with advanced, ALK-positive NSCLC in the USA, Australia, and Italy. For comparison, we evaluated 266 patients with advanced, ALK-negative, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-wild-type NSCLC, including 79 with KRAS mutations and 187 with wild-type KRAS (WT/WT/WT). We determined PFS on different pemetrexed regimens.ResultsAmong 70 ALK-positive patients treated with a platinum/pemetrexed regimen, the median PFS (mPFS) was 7.3 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5-9.5). The mPFS of 51 ALK-positive patients treated with single-agent pemetrexed or nonplatinum/pemetrexed combinations was 5.5 months (2.8-9.0). For ALK-negative patients, PFS on all pemetrexed-based regimens was similar to that of ALK-positive patients, except in the specific setting of first-line platinum/pemetrexed where the mPFS was only 4.2 and 5.4 months in KRAS and WT/WT/WT patients, respectively. However, among patients with a never/light-smoking history (0-10 pack-year smoking history) treated with first-line platinum/pemetrexed, there was no difference in PFS between ALK-positive and ALK-negative patients.ConclusionsPFS on pemetrexed or nonplatinum/pemetrexed combinations was similar in ALK-positive and ALK-negative patients. PFS on first-line platinum/pemetrexed may be prolonged in never/light-smoking patients regardless of ALK status.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether motesanib (a selective oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3; platelet-derived growth factor receptor; and Kit) combined with carboplatin/paclitaxel improved overall survival (OS) versus chemotherapy alone in patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in the subset of patients with adenocarcinoma.
Patients with stage IIIB/IV or recurrent nonsquamous NSCLC (no prior systemic therapy for advanced disease) were randomly assigned 1:1 to carboplatin (area under the curve, 6 mg/ml · min) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)) intravenously for up to six 3-week cycles plus either motesanib 125 mg (arm A) or placebo (arm B) once daily orally. OS was the primary end point. Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), adverse events (AEs), and association between placental growth factor (PLGF) change and OS.
A total of 1,090 patients with nonsquamous NSCLC were randomly assigned (arms A/B, n = 541 of 549); of those, 890 had adenocarcinoma (n = 448 of 442). Median OS in arms A and B was 13.0 and 11.0 months, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.04; P = .14); median OS for the adenocarcinoma subset was 13.5 and 11.0 months, respectively (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.03; P = .11). In descriptive analyses (arms A v B), median PFS was 5.6 months versus 5.4 months (P = < .001); ORR was 40% versus 26% (P < .001). There was no association between PLGF change and OS in arm A. The incidence of grade ≥ 3 AEs (arms A and B, 73% and 59%, respectively) and grade 5 AEs (14% and 9%, respectively) was higher with motesanib treatment.
Motesanib plus carboplatin/paclitaxel did not significantly improve OS over carboplatin/paclitaxel alone in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC or in the adenocarcinoma subset.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2012; 30(23):2829-36. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and can have devastating consequences. Preventing or delaying bone metastases may improve outcomes.
This study evaluated whether zoledronic acid (ZOL) delayed disease progression or recurrence in patients with controlled stage IIIA/B NSCLC after first-line therapy. Patients received vitamin D and calcium supplementation and were randomized to i.v. ZOL (every 3-4 weeks) or no treatment (control). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS).
No significant intergroup differences were observed in PFS or overall survival (OS). Median PFS was 9.0 months with ZOL versus 11.3 months for control. Fifteen ZOL-treated (6.6%) and 19 control patients (9.0%) developed bone metastases. Estimated 1-year OS was 81.8% for each group. ZOL safety profile was consistent with previous clinical data, but with higher discontinuations versus control. Fifteen ZOL-treated (6.6%) and five control patients (2.3%) had renal adverse events. Two cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were reported.
ZOL did not significantly affect PFS or OS in stage IIIA/B NSCLC patients with controlled disease, with a trend toward worsening PFS in the longer-term follow-up. Few patients experienced bone metastases, possibly limiting the potential ZOL impact on disease course.
Annals of Oncology 06/2012; 23(8):2082-7. · 7.38 Impact Factor