[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) were drawn from 30 primary schools. Low filarial antigenemia rates (0% and 0.1% for the inland and coastal EUs) suggest that LF transmission is very low in this district. The STH rates and stool sample participation rates were 0.8% and 61% (inland) and 2.8% and 58% (coastal). Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ~$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 02/2014; · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wolbachia α-proteobacteria are essential for growth, reproduction and survival for many filarial nematode parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Endobacteria were discovered in filarial parasites by transmission electron microscopy in the 1970's using chemically fixed specimens. Despite improvements of fixation and electron microscopy techniques during the last decades, methods to study the Wolbachia/filaria interaction on the ultrastructural level remained unchanged and the mechanisms for exchange of materials and for motility of endobacteria are not known.
We used high pressure freezing/freeze substitution to improve fixation of Brugia malayi and its endosymbiont, and this led to improved visualization of different morphological forms of Wolbachia. The three concentric, bilayer membranes that surround the endobacterial cytoplasm were well preserved. Vesicles with identical membrane structures were identified close to the endobacteria, and multiple bacteria were sometimes enclosed within a single outer membrane. Immunogold electron microscopy using a monoclonal antibody directed against Wolbachia surface protein-1 labeled the membranes that enclose Wolbachia and Wolbachia-associated vesicles. High densities of Wolbachia were observed in the lateral chords of L4 larvae, immature, and mature adult worms. Extracellular Wolbachia were sometimes present in the pseudocoelomic cavity near the developing female reproductive organs. Wolbachia-associated actin tails were not observed. Wolbachia motility may be explained by their residence within vacuoles, as they may co-opt the host cell's secretory pathway to move within and between cells.
High pressure freezing/freeze substitution significantly improved the preservation of filarial tissues for electron microscopy to reveal membranes and sub cellular structures that could be crucial for exchange of materials between Wolbachia and its host.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86383. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) are targets for avermectin/milbemycin (A/M) anthelmintics such as ivermectin that cause paralysis of somatic and pharyngeal muscles in gastrointestinal nematodes. Ivermectin is useful for onchocerciasis control programs because of its activity against microfilariae that often cause ocular disease and severe dermatitis. However, mechanisms responsible for reduced microfilaria production by adult worms following ivermectin treatment are poorly understood. We synthesized subunit-specific RNA probes for the Brugia malayi GluCl gene avr-14 (BmAVR-14) to localize expression of this gene in adult filarial worms. Both subunits of BmAVR-14 exhibited very similar expression patterns. In female worms, strong expression signals were detected in the ovary, developing embryos and lateral hypodermal chords, with moderate expression in the uterus wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae. These genes were also highly expressed in adult male worms (in spermatogonia, in the wall of the vas deferens, and in the lateral chords, but not in mature spermatozoa). In addition, avr-14 was highly expressed in somatic muscles adjacent to the terminal end of the vas deferens which contains mature sperm. These results show that avr-14 is highly expressed in B. malayi developing embryos and reproductive tissues, and they provide evidence for the involvement of GluCl in gamete production and embryogenesis in filarial worms. This may explain the observed suppression of microfilaria (Mf) production by female worms following treatment with avermectin/milbemycin anthelmintics.
International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. 01/2014;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The value of a semi-quantitative scoring of the filarial antigen test (Binax Now Filariasis card test, ICT) results was evaluated during a field survey in the Republic of Congo. One hundred and thirty-four (134) of 774 tests (17.3%) were clearly positive and were scored 1, 2, or 3; and 11 (1.4%) had questionable results. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) were detected in 41 of those 133 individuals with an ICT test score ≥ 1 who also had a night blood smear; none of the 11 individuals with questionable ICT results harbored night mf. Cuzick's test showed a significant trend for higher microfilarial densities in groups with higher ICT scores (P < 0.001). The ICT scores were also significantly correlated with blood mf counts. Because filarial antigen levels provide an indication of adult worm infection intensity, our results suggest that semi-quantitative reading of the ICT may be useful for grading the intensity of filarial infections in individuals and populations.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 09/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been targeted for global elimination by 2020. The primary tool for the program is mass drug administration (MDA) with antifilarial medications to reduce the source of microfilariae required for mosquito transmission of the parasite. This strategy requires high MDA compliance rates. Egypt initiated a national filariasis elimination program in 2000 that targeted approximately 2.7 million persons in 181 disease-endemic localities. This study assessed factors associated with MDA compliance in year three of the Egyptian LF elimination program. 2,859 subjects were interviewed in six villages. The surveyed compliance rate for MDA in these villages was 85.3% (95% confidence interval = 83.9-86.5%). Compliance with MDA was positively associated with LF knowledge scores, male sex, and older age. Adverse events reported by 18.4% of participants were mild and more common in females. This study has provided new information on factors associated with MDA compliance during Egypt's successful LF elimination program.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) guidelines call for using filarial antigen testing to identify endemic areas that require mass drug administration (MDA) and for post-MDA surveillance. We compared a new filarial antigen test (the Alere Filariasis Test Strip) with the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test that has been used by the GPELF for more than 10 years. Laboratory testing of 227 archived serum or plasma samples showed that the two tests had similar high rates of sensitivity and specificity and > 99% agreement. However, the test strip detected 26.5% more people with filarial antigenemia (124/503 versus 98/503) and had better test result stability than the card test in a field study conducted in a filariasis-endemic area in Liberia. Based on its increased sensitivity and other practical advantages, we believe that the test strip represents a major step forward that will be welcomed by the GPELF and the filariasis research community.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 05/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the value of an IgG Western blot (WB) with Paragonimus kellicotti (Pk) antigen for diagnosis of North American paragonimiasis. The test was evaluated with sera from patients with Pk and Paragonimus westermani infections, with control sera from patients with other helminth infections, and sera from healthy Americans. All 11 proven Pk infection sera and two samples from suspected cases that were negative by P. westermani WB at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contained antibodies to antigens at 34 kDa and at 21/23 kDa. Seven of 7 P. westermani sera contained antibodies to the 34 kDa antigen, but only 2 recognized the 21/23 kDa doublet. No control samples were reactive with these antigens. Antibody reactivity declined after praziquantel treatment. Thus, the P. kellicotti WB appears to be superior to P. westermani WB for diagnosing Pk infections, and it may be useful for assessing responses to treatment.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 04/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most filarial species in the genus Onchocerca depend on Wolbachia endobacteria to successfully carry out their life cycle. O. flexuosa is a Wolbachia-free species, but its genome contains Wolbachia-like sequences presumably obtained from Wolbachia via horizontal gene transfer. Proteogenomic studies have shown that many of these Wolbachia-like sequences are expressed in adult worms. METHODS: Six Wolbachia-like sequences in O. flexuosa were chosen for further study based on their sequence conservation with Wolbachia genes, length of predicted open reading frames, and expression at the RNA and/or protein levels. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical labeling were used to localize Wolbachia-like transcripts and peptides in adult worm tissues. RESULTS: RNA probes representing three of the six target sequences produced hybridization signals in worm tissues. These probes bound to transcripts in the intestine and lateral chords of both sexes, in the hypodermis, median chords and uteri in females, and in sperm precursor cells in males. Antibodies raised to three peptides corresponding to these transcripts bound to specific bands in a soluble extract of adult O. flexuosa by Western blot that were not labeled by control antibodies in pre-immune serum. Two of the three antibodies produced labeling patterns in adult worm sections that were similar to those of the RNA probes, while the third produced a different pattern. CONCLUSIONS: A subset of the Wolbachia-like sequences present in the genome of the Wolbachia-free filarial species O. flexuosa are transcribed in tissues where Wolbachia reside in infected filarial species. Some of the peptides and/or proteins derived from these transcripts appear to be concentrated in these same tissues while others may be exported to other regions of the worm. These results suggest that horizontally transferred Wolbachia genes and gene products may replicate important Wolbachia functions in uninfected filarial worms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through treatment of entire at-risk populations with repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA). Essential for program success is defining and confirming the appropriate endpoint for MDA when transmission is presumed to have reached a level low enough that it cannot be sustained even in the absence of drug intervention. Guidelines advanced by WHO call for a transmission assessment survey (TAS) to determine if MDA can be stopped within an LF evaluation unit (EU) after at least five effective rounds of annual treatment. To test the value and practicality of these guidelines, a multicenter operational research trial was undertaken in 11 countries covering various geographic and epidemiological settings.
The TAS was conducted twice in each EU with TAS-1 and TAS-2 approximately 24 months apart. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) formed the basis of the TAS survey design but specific EU characteristics defined the survey site (school or community), eligible population (6-7 year olds or 1(st)-2(nd) graders), survey type (systematic or cluster-sampling), target sample size, and critical cutoff (a statistically powered threshold below which transmission is expected to be no longer sustainable). The primary diagnostic tools were the immunochromatographic (ICT) test for W. bancrofti EUs and the BmR1 test (Brugia Rapid or PanLF) for Brugia spp. EUs.
In 10 of 11 EUs, the number of TAS-1 positive cases was below the critical cutoff, indicating that MDA could be stopped. The same results were found in the follow-up TAS-2, therefore, confirming the previous decision outcome. Sample sizes were highly sex and age-representative and closely matched the target value after factoring in estimates of non-participation. The TAS was determined to be a practical and effective evaluation tool for stopping MDA although its validity for longer-term post-MDA surveillance requires further investigation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) has a target date of 2020. This program is progressing well in many countries. However, progress has been slow in some countries, and others have not yet started their mass drug administration (MDA) programs. Acceleration is needed. We studied how increasing MDA frequency from once to twice per year would affect program duration and costs by using computer simulation modeling and cost projections. We used the LYMFASIM simulation model to estimate how many annual or semiannual MDA rounds would be required to eliminate LF for Indian and West African scenarios with varied pre-control endemicity and coverage levels. Results were used to estimate total program costs assuming a target population of 100,000 eligibles, a 3% discount rate, and not counting the costs of donated drugs. A sensitivity analysis was done to investigate the robustness of these results with varied assumptions for key parameters. Model predictions suggested that semiannual MDA will require the same number of MDA rounds to achieve LF elimination as annual MDA in most scenarios. Thus semiannual MDA programs should achieve this goal in half of the time required for annual programs. Due to efficiency gains, total program costs for semiannual MDA programs are projected to be lower than those for annual MDA programs in most scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this conclusion is robust. Semiannual MDA is likely to shorten the time and lower the cost required for LF elimination in countries where it can be implemented. This strategy may improve prospects for global elimination of LF by the target year 2020.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The success of programs to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) depends in large part on their ability to achieve and sustain high levels of compliance with mass drug administration (MDA). This paper reports results from a comprehensive review of factors that affect compliance with MDA.
Papers published between 2000 and 2012 were considered, and 79 publications were included in the final dataset for analysis after two rounds of selection. While results varied in different settings, some common features were associated with successful programs and with compliance by individuals. Training and motivation of drug distributors is critically important, because these people directly interact with target populations, and their actions can affect MDA compliance decisions by families and individuals. Other important programmatic issues include thorough preparation of personnel, supplies, and logistics for implementation and preparation of the population for MDA. Demographic factors (age, sex, income level, and area of residence) are often associated with compliance by individuals, but compliance decisions are also affected by perceptions of the potential benefits of participation versus the risk of adverse events. Trust and information can sometimes offset fear of the unknown. While no single formula can ensure success MDA in all settings, five key ingredients were identified: engender trust, tailor programs to local conditions, take actions to minimize the impact of adverse events, promote the broader benefits of the MDA program, and directly address the issue of systematic non-compliance, which harms communities by prolonging their exposure to LF.
This review has identified factors that promote coverage and compliance with MDA for LF elimination across countries. This information may be helpful for explaining results that do not meet expectations and for developing remedies for ailing MDA programs. Our review has also identified gaps in understanding and suggested priority areas for further research.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphatic filariasis is caused by three closely related nematode parasites: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These species have many ecological variants that differ in several aspects of their biology such as mosquito vector species, host range, periodicity, and morphology. Although the genome of B. malayi (the first genome sequenced from a parasitic nematode) has been available for more than five years, very little is known about genetic variability among the lymphatic dwelling filariae. The genetic diversity among these worms is not only interesting from a biological perspective, but it may have important practical implications for the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as the parasites may respond differently to diagnostic tests and/or medical interventions. Therefore, better information on their genetic variability is urgently needed. With improved methods for nucleic acid extraction and recent advances in sequencing chemistry and instrumentation, this gap can be filled relatively inexpensively. Improved information on filarial genetic diversity may increase the chances of success for lymphatic filariasis elimination programs.
Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 11/2012; · 3.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Asia, P. westermani infections are relatively common because of dietary practices. However, in North America, cases of paragonimiasis, which are caused by P. kellicotti flukes, are rare. Only 7 autochthonous cases of paragonimiasis were reported during 1968-2008. In 2009, we reported 3 new case-patients with paragonimiasis who had been seen at our medical center over an 18-month period. Six additional case-patients were identified in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and treated at Washington University-affiliated health centers in 2009-2010. We report detailed descriptions of these case-patients, which includes unusual clinical manifestations. We also describe public health interventions that were undertaken to inform the general public and physicians about the disease and its mode of transmission.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA sequence comparisons are useful for characterizing proposed new parasite species or strains. Microfilariae with an atypical arrangement of nuclei behind the cephalic space have been recently described in human blood samples from the Amazon region of Peru. Three blood specimens containing atypical microfilariae were genetically characterized using three DNA markers (5S ribosomal DNA, 12S ribosomal DNA, and cytochrome oxidase I). All atypical microfilariae were clustered into the Mansonella group and indistinguishable from M. ozzardi based on these DNA markers.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 07/2012; 87(3):491-4. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gender-associated (GA) genes are important for the development and reproduction of filarial nematodes. Identification and characterization of GA genes may provide insight into major pathways and processes involved in development and reproduction. The recent completion of the Brugia malayi genome has provided a good foundation for proteomics studies. Multiplex protein labelling and two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem MS were used to identify GA proteins. Thirty male and 32 female associated proteins were identified in this study. Many of these GA genes have homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans (83% male and 69% female), and most of the homologues have severe RNA interference (RNAi) phenotypes (72% male and 55% female) in C. elegans. Functional analysis showed that the male-associated genes are enriched for energy production, metabolic processes and cytoskeleton, while the female-associated genes are enriched for RNA modification and transcription. GA genes encode many excreted/secreted proteins. In situ localization studies showed that GA genes are mainly expressed in reproductive organs, and this is further evidence for their involvement in reproduction. Improved understanding of the basic biology of filarial nematodes may lead to improved tools for prevention and treatment of filarial infections. This study combined proteomics, in situ hybridization (ISH) and bioinformatics in a systems biology approach to improve understanding of gender differences and key proteins involved in reproduction in filarial worms. Advanced proteomics methods and bioinformatics led to the identification of 62 GA proteins for B. malayi. ISH revealed that most of those GA genes are expressed during embryogenesis or spermatogenesis. ISH results were consistent with RNAi data for C. elegans that linked the homologues of the B. malayi proteins to gamete production and embryogenesis.
International journal for parasitology 07/2012; 42(9):841-50. · 3.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brugia malayi is a nematode parasite that causes lymphatic filariasis, a disfiguring and disabiling tropical disease. Although a first draft genome sequence was released in 2007, very little is understood about transcription programs that govern developmental changes required for the parasite's development and survival in its mammalian and insect hosts.
We used a microarray with probes that represent some 85% of predicted genes to generate gene expression profiles for seven parasite life cycle stages/sexes. Approximately 41% of transcripts with detectable expression signals were differentially expressed across lifecycle stages. Twenty-six percent of transcripts were exclusively expressed in a single parasite stage, and 27% were expressed in all stages studied. K-means clustering of differentially expressed transcripts revealed five major transcription patterns that were associated with parasite lifecycle stages or gender. Examination of known stage-associated transcripts validated these data sets and suggested that newly identified stage or gender-associated transcripts may exercise biological functions in development and reproduction. The results also indicate that genes with similar transcription patterns were often involved in similar functions or cellular processes. For example, nuclear receptor family gene transcripts were upregulated in gene expression pattern four (female-enriched) while protein kinase gene family transcripts were upregulated in expression pattern five (male-enriched). We also used pair-wise comparisons to identify transcriptional changes between life cycle stages and sexes.
Analysis of gene expression patterns of lifecycle in B. malayi has provided novel insights into the biology of filarial parasites. Proteins encoded by stage-associated and/or stage-specific transcripts are likely to be critically important for key parasite functions such as establishment and maintenance of infection, development, reproduction, and survival in the host. Some of these may be useful targets for vaccines or new drug treatments for filariasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to characterize the chest CT findings of North American paragonimiasis due to Paragonimus kellicotti in the largest (to our knowledge) case series reported to date and to compare the findings with those reported for paragonimiasis infections in other regions.
A retrospective review was performed of chest CT examinations of eight patients with North American paragonimiasis treated at our institution between 2006 and 2010. Findings were characterized by site of involvement, including lungs and pleura, heart and pericardium, lymph nodes, and upper abdomen.
The most common chest CT findings in this case series were pleural effusions and internal mammary and cardiophrenic lymphadenopathy. Pulmonary parenchymal findings included peripheral lung nodules of 1-3.5 cm in size with surrounding ground-glass opacity; many nodules had a linear track to the pleural surface that may correspond to the worm's burrow tunnel. Pericardial involvement (5/8 patients) and omental inflammation (5/7 patients), which are uncommon in Asian paragonimiasis, were common in this series.
Pleural and pulmonary features of North American paragonimiasis are generally similar to those reported from Asia. The presence of a track between a pulmonary nodule and the pleura may help distinguish paragonimiasis from mimickers, including chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, tuberculosis, fungal infection, or malignancy. Pericarditis, lymphadenopathy, and omental inflammation were more common in our series than in reports on paragonimiasis from other regions. These differences may be related to the infecting parasite species or to the fact that radiologic examinations in the present series were performed relatively early in the course of infection.
American Journal of Roentgenology 05/2012; 198(5):1076-83. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many species of filarial nematodes depend on Wolbachia endobacteria to carry out their life cycle. Other species are naturally Wolbachia-free. The biological mechanisms underpinning Wolbachia-dependence and independence in filarial nematodes are not known. Previous studies have indicated that Wolbachia have an impact on mitochondrial gene expression, which may suggest a role in energy metabolism. If Wolbachia can supplement host energy metabolism, reduced mitochondrial function in infected filarial species may account for Wolbachia-dependence. Wolbachia also have a strong influence on mitochondrial evolution due to vertical co-transmission. This could drive alterations in mitochondrial genome sequence in infected species. Comparisons between the mitochondrial genome sequences of Wolbachia-dependent and independent filarial worms may reveal differences indicative of altered mitochondrial function.
The mitochondrial genomes of 5 species of filarial nematodes, Acanthocheilonema viteae, Chandlerella quiscali, Loa loa, Onchocerca flexuosa, and Wuchereria bancrofti, were sequenced, annotated and compared with available mitochondrial genome sequences from Brugia malayi, Dirofilaria immitis, Onchocerca volvulus and Setaria digitata. B. malayi, D. immitis, O. volvulus and W. bancrofti are Wolbachia-dependent while A. viteae, C. quiscali, L. loa, O. flexuosa and S. digitata are Wolbachia-free. The 9 mitochondrial genomes were similar in size and AT content and encoded the same 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. Synteny was perfectly preserved in all species except C. quiscali, which had a different order for 5 tRNA genes. Protein-coding genes were expressed at the RNA level in all examined species. In phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial protein-coding sequences, species did not cluster according to Wolbachia dependence.
Thus far, no discernable differences were detected between the mitochondrial genome sequences of Wolbachia-dependent and independent species. Additional research will be needed to determine whether mitochondria from Wolbachia-dependent filarial species show reduced function in comparison to the mitochondria of Wolbachia-independent species despite their sequence-level similarities.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi.
Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles.
Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion).
Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti-oxidants, and others with unknown functions had increased expression signals after doxycycline treatment. These results suggest that female worms are able to compensate in part for the loss of Wolbachia so that they can survive, albeit without reproductive capacity. This study of doxycycline induced changes in gene expression has provided new clues regarding the symbiotic relationship between Wolbachia and B. malayi.
Journal of Biomedical Science 02/2012; 19:21. · 2.46 Impact Factor