Gary J Weil

Washington University in St. Louis, San Luis, Missouri, United States

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Publications (148)529.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Filarial antigen tests are key tools for mapping the distribution of bancroftian filariasis and for detecting areas with persistent infections following mass drug administration (MDA). A recent study showed that the new Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) has better analytical sensitivity than the BinaxNOW Filariasis card test (Card Test) for detecting circulating filarial antigen, and the FTS detected more positive results than the Card Test in a field study performed in a highly endemic area in Liberia. The present study compared the performance of the FTS and the Card Test in community surveys that were conducted in southern Sri Lanka and in Indonesia (Central Java) in areas with low-level persistence of LF following multiple rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole. The studies were performed in densely populated semi-urban areas where Wuchereria bancrofti is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus. Antigenemia rates by FTS were 138 % higher in the Sri Lanka study (43/852 vs. 18/852) and 21 % higher in the Indonesia study (50/778 vs. 41/778) than antigenemia rates by Card Test. Antigenemia rates were significantly higher in males than in females and higher in adults than in children in both study sites. Although overall antigenemia rates and test scores were significantly higher by FTS than by Card Test in both study areas, rates in young children were similar with both tests in both areas. These results extend the previously reported superior sensitivity of the FTS to areas with low residual infection rates following MDA, and this could affect mapping and post-MDA survey results in adults. However, our findings suggest that results of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) performed in school-aged children are likely to be similar with both tests.
    Parasites & Vectors 12/2015; 8(1):369. DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-0979-y · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    Ben-Wen Li · Amy C. Rush · Gary J. Weil
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    ABSTRACT: Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects of drugs that target AChRs in filarial worms.
    International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance 06/2015; 76(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpddr.2015.04.003 · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Peter U Fischer · Gary J Weil
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    ABSTRACT: Paragonimiasis is a zoonotic, food-borne trematode infection that affects around 23 million people in Asia, Africa and the Americas. North American paragonimiasis, caused by Paragonimus kellicotti, is a common infection of crustacean-feeding mammals in parts of the USA and Canada. Although infection rates in crayfish are very high in some areas, human infections are rare and depend on the consumption of raw or undercooked crayfish. Human infections can be easily prevented and treated, but proper diagnosis of paragonimiasis is a problem. Paragonimus lung flukes often cause serious disease symptoms before they produce eggs that may be detectable in sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, stool or histological sections by microscopy or PCR. Antibodies against selected Paragonimus proteins are detectable as early as 2-3 weeks after infection. Therefore, antibody serology is the most promising diagnostic approach for paragonimiasis in North America and elsewhere.
    Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 04/2015; 13(6):1-8. DOI:10.1586/14787210.2015.1031745 · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    Peter U Fischer · Gary J Weil
    Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 04/2015; in press. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Commonly used methods for diagnosing Onchocerca volvulus infections (microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin snips and nodule palpation) are insensitive. Improved methods are needed for monitoring and evaluation of onchocerciasis elimination programs and for clinical diagnosis of individual patients. A sensitive probe-based qPCR assay was developed for detecting O. volvulus DNA, and this was tested with samples collected from an endemic area in eastern Côte d'Ivoire. The new test was evaluated with dried skin snip pairs from 369 subjects and compared to routine skin snip microscopy and nodule palpation results from the same individuals. Onchocerciasis prevalence for these samples by qPCR, skin snip microscopy, and nodule palpation were 56.9%, 26.0%, and 37.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of all three tests produced an infection prevalence of 72.9%, which was significantly higher than 53.1% detected by microscopy plus nodule palpation without qPCR. However, the qPCR assay was negative for 54 of 229 individuals with palpable nodules. qPCR could be a useful tool for detecting residual O. volvulus infections in human populations as prevalence decreases in areas following community-directed treatment with ivermectin. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Acta tropica 03/2015; 125. DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.03.019 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis. ©The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 03/2015; 92(5). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0661 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethycarbamazine plus albendazole between 2002 and 2006. We now report results of a comprehensive surveillance program that assessed the lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation in Sri Lanka 6 years after cessation of MDA. Methodology and Principal Findings Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) were performed per WHO guidelines in primary school children in 11 evaluation units (EUs) in all 8 formerly endemic districts. All EUs easily satisfied WHO criteria for stopping MDA. Comprehensive surveillance was performed in 19 Public Health Inspector (PHI) areas (subdistrict health administrative units). The surveillance package included cross-sectional community surveys for microfilaremia (Mf) and circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA), school surveys for CFA and anti-filarial antibodies, and collection of Culex mosquitoes with gravid traps for detection of filarial DNA (molecular xenomonitoring, MX). Provisional target rates for interruption of LF transmission were community CFA <2%, antibody in school children <2%, and filarial DNA in mosquitoes <0.25%. Community Mf and CFA prevalence rates ranged from 0–0.9% and 0–3.4%, respectively. Infection rates were significantly higher in males and lower in people who denied prior treatment. Antibody rates in school children exceeded 2% in 10 study sites; the area that had the highest community and school CFA rates also had the highest school antibody rate (6.9%). Filarial DNA rates in mosquitoes exceeded 0.25% in 10 PHI areas. Conclusions Comprehensive surveillance is feasible for some national filariasis elimination programs. Low-level persistence of LF was present in all study sites; several sites failed to meet provisional endpoint criteria for LF elimination, and follow-up testing will be needed in these areas. TAS was not sensitive for detecting low-level persistence of filariasis in Sri Lanka. We recommend use of antibody and MX testing as tools to complement TAS for post-MDA surveillance.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11/2014; 8(11):e3281. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematode infection acquired by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans. It is a major public health problem in the far East, but it also occurs in South Asia, Africa, and in the Americas. Paragonimus worms cause chronic lung disease with cough, fever and hemoptysis that can be confused with tuberculosis or other non-parasitic diseases. Treatment is straightforward, but diagnosis is often delayed due to a lack of reliable parasitological or serodiagnostic tests. Hence, the purpose of this study was to use a systems biology approach to identify key parasite proteins that may be useful for development of improved diagnostic tests.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10/2014; 8(10):e3242. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003242 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of incomplete mapping and coendemic loiasis. We mapped two regions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that were suspected to have LF. Night blood samples were collected from 2,724 subjects in 30 villages. Filarial antigenemia rates by card test exceeded 1% in 28 villages (range = 0-14%). Prevalence rates for large sheathed microfilariae (Mf) ranged from 4% to 40%; Mansonella perstans rates ranged from 22% to 98%. Large Mf were exclusively Loa loa by microscopy, and only 1 of 337 samples tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was positive for Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Filarial antigen positivity was strongly associated with high L. loa Mf counts. Periodicity studies revealed atypical patterns, with no significant diurnal periodicity in some individuals. Thus, methods routinely used for LF mapping may not be reliable in areas in central Africa that are highly endemic for loiasis.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 09/2014; DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0358 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    Ben Wen Li · Amy C. Rush · Gary J. Weil
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    ABSTRACT: Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) are targets for avermectin/milbemycin (A/M) anthelmintics such as ivermectin that cause paralysis of somatic and pharyngeal muscles in gastrointestinal nematodes. Ivermectin is useful for onchocerciasis control programs because of its activity against microfilariae that often cause ocular disease and severe dermatitis. However, mechanisms responsible for reduced microfilaria production by adult worms following ivermectin treatment are poorly understood. We synthesized subunit-specific RNA probes for the Brugia malayi GluCl gene avr-14 (BmAVR-14) to localize expression of this gene in adult filarial worms. Both subunits of BmAVR-14 exhibited very similar expression patterns. In female worms, strong expression signals were detected in the ovary, developing embryos and lateral hypodermal chords, with moderate expression in the uterus wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae. These genes were also highly expressed in adult male worms (in spermatogonia, in the wall of the vas deferens, and in the lateral chords, but not in mature spermatozoa). In addition, avr-14 was highly expressed in somatic muscles adjacent to the terminal end of the vas deferens which contains mature sperm. These results show that avr-14 is highly expressed in B. malayi developing embryos and reproductive tissues, and they provide evidence for the involvement of GluCl in gamete production and embryogenesis in filarial worms. This may explain the observed suppression of microfilaria (Mf) production by female worms following treatment with avermectin/milbemycin anthelmintics.
    International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance 08/2014; 4(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpddr.2014.01.002 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Little is known regarding risk factors for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Central Africa. We studied the epidemiology of LF in an endemic village in the Republic of Congo. Methods Dependent variables were Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia (ICT card test) and microfilaremia (night blood smears). The following factors were investigated: sex, age, bed net, latrines, source of water, uptake of anthelmintic drugs, hunting/fishing activities, and occasionally sleeping in the bush. Mixed multivariate logistic regression models were used. Results 134 of 774 subjects aged ≥ 5 years (17.3%) had W. bancrofti antigenemia and 41 (5.3%) had microfilaremia (mf). Infection rates increased with age up to roughly 20 years and remained stable thereafter. Multivariate analysis of antigenemia demonstrated an increased risk for males (OR = 2.0 [1.3-3.0]) and for people who hunt or fish (OR = 1.5 [1.0-2.4]) and a protective effect of latrines (OR = 0.5 [0.4-0.8]). Among males, those hunting or fishing at night had an increased risk for antigenemia (OR = 1.9 [1.1-3.5]), and use of latrines was protective (OR = 0.5 [0.3-0.9]). For females, bed nets were protective (OR = 0.4 [0.1-0.9]), and there was a strong household effect (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: 0.24). When mf was used as the dependent variable, males had a higher risk for infection (OR = 5.4 [2.1-13.4]), latrines had a protective effect (OR = 0.4 [0.1-0.9]) and there was a marked household effect (ICC = 0.49). Conclusions Age, sex, and occupation-dependent exposure to mosquitoes were important risk factors for infection with W. bancrofti in this study. It is likely that men often acquire infection in high transmission areas outside of the village, while children and women are infected in areas with lower transmission inside or near the village. Additional studies are needed to determine whether these findings apply to other areas in Central Africa.
    Parasites & Vectors 07/2014; 7(1):300. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-7-300 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) were drawn from 30 primary schools. Low filarial antigenemia rates (0% and 0.1% for the inland and coastal EUs) suggest that LF transmission is very low in this district. The STH rates and stool sample participation rates were 0.8% and 61% (inland) and 2.8% and 58% (coastal). Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ~$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 02/2014; 90(4). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0641 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wolbachia α-proteobacteria are essential for growth, reproduction and survival for many filarial nematode parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Endobacteria were discovered in filarial parasites by transmission electron microscopy in the 1970's using chemically fixed specimens. Despite improvements of fixation and electron microscopy techniques during the last decades, methods to study the Wolbachia/filaria interaction on the ultrastructural level remained unchanged and the mechanisms for exchange of materials and for motility of endobacteria are not known. We used high pressure freezing/freeze substitution to improve fixation of Brugia malayi and its endosymbiont, and this led to improved visualization of different morphological forms of Wolbachia. The three concentric, bilayer membranes that surround the endobacterial cytoplasm were well preserved. Vesicles with identical membrane structures were identified close to the endobacteria, and multiple bacteria were sometimes enclosed within a single outer membrane. Immunogold electron microscopy using a monoclonal antibody directed against Wolbachia surface protein-1 labeled the membranes that enclose Wolbachia and Wolbachia-associated vesicles. High densities of Wolbachia were observed in the lateral chords of L4 larvae, immature, and mature adult worms. Extracellular Wolbachia were sometimes present in the pseudocoelomic cavity near the developing female reproductive organs. Wolbachia-associated actin tails were not observed. Wolbachia motility may be explained by their residence within vacuoles, as they may co-opt the host cell's secretory pathway to move within and between cells. High pressure freezing/freeze substitution significantly improved the preservation of filarial tissues for electron microscopy to reveal membranes and sub cellular structures that could be crucial for exchange of materials between Wolbachia and its host.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86383. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086383 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Manson's Tropical Diseases, 23rd edited by Jeremy Farrar, Peter J. Hotez, Thomas Junghanss, Gagandeep Kang, David Lalloo, Nicholas J. White, 01/2014: chapter The Filariases: pages 737-765; Elsevier., ISBN: 9780702051012
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through treatment of entire at-risk populations with repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA). Essential for program success is defining and confirming the appropriate endpoint for MDA when transmission is presumed to have reached a level low enough that it cannot be sustained even in the absence of drug intervention. Guidelines advanced by WHO call for a transmission assessment survey (TAS) to determine if MDA can be stopped within an LF evaluation unit (EU) after at least five effective rounds of annual treatment. To test the value and practicality of these guidelines, a multicenter operational research trial was undertaken in 11 countries covering various geographic and epidemiological settings. The TAS was conducted twice in each EU with TAS-1 and TAS-2 approximately 24 months apart. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) formed the basis of the TAS survey design but specific EU characteristics defined the survey site (school or community), eligible population (6-7 year olds or 1(st)-2(nd) graders), survey type (systematic or cluster-sampling), target sample size, and critical cutoff (a statistically powered threshold below which transmission is expected to be no longer sustainable). The primary diagnostic tools were the immunochromatographic (ICT) test for W. bancrofti EUs and the BmR1 test (Brugia Rapid or PanLF) for Brugia spp. EUs. In 10 of 11 EUs, the number of TAS-1 positive cases was below the critical cutoff, indicating that MDA could be stopped. The same results were found in the follow-up TAS-2, therefore, confirming the previous decision outcome. Sample sizes were highly sex and age-representative and closely matched the target value after factoring in estimates of non-participation. The TAS was determined to be a practical and effective evaluation tool for stopping MDA although its validity for longer-term post-MDA surveillance requires further investigation.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 12/2013; 7(12):e2584. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002584 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    Alison Krentel · Peter U Fischer · Gary J Weil
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    ABSTRACT: The success of programs to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) depends in large part on their ability to achieve and sustain high levels of compliance with mass drug administration (MDA). This paper reports results from a comprehensive review of factors that affect compliance with MDA. Papers published between 2000 and 2012 were considered, and 79 publications were included in the final dataset for analysis after two rounds of selection. While results varied in different settings, some common features were associated with successful programs and with compliance by individuals. Training and motivation of drug distributors is critically important, because these people directly interact with target populations, and their actions can affect MDA compliance decisions by families and individuals. Other important programmatic issues include thorough preparation of personnel, supplies, and logistics for implementation and preparation of the population for MDA. Demographic factors (age, sex, income level, and area of residence) are often associated with compliance by individuals, but compliance decisions are also affected by perceptions of the potential benefits of participation versus the risk of adverse events. Trust and information can sometimes offset fear of the unknown. While no single formula can ensure success MDA in all settings, five key ingredients were identified: engender trust, tailor programs to local conditions, take actions to minimize the impact of adverse events, promote the broader benefits of the MDA program, and directly address the issue of systematic non-compliance, which harms communities by prolonging their exposure to LF. This review has identified factors that promote coverage and compliance with MDA for LF elimination across countries. This information may be helpful for explaining results that do not meet expectations and for developing remedies for ailing MDA programs. Our review has also identified gaps in understanding and suggested priority areas for further research.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11/2013; 7(11):e2447. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002447 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The value of a semi-quantitative scoring of the filarial antigen test (Binax Now Filariasis card test, ICT) results was evaluated during a field survey in the Republic of Congo. One hundred and thirty-four (134) of 774 tests (17.3%) were clearly positive and were scored 1, 2, or 3; and 11 (1.4%) had questionable results. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) were detected in 41 of those 133 individuals with an ICT test score ≥ 1 who also had a night blood smear; none of the 11 individuals with questionable ICT results harbored night mf. Cuzick's test showed a significant trend for higher microfilarial densities in groups with higher ICT scores (P < 0.001). The ICT scores were also significantly correlated with blood mf counts. Because filarial antigen levels provide an indication of adult worm infection intensity, our results suggest that semi-quantitative reading of the ICT may be useful for grading the intensity of filarial infections in individuals and populations.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 09/2013; 89(5). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0245 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been targeted for global elimination by 2020. The primary tool for the program is mass drug administration (MDA) with antifilarial medications to reduce the source of microfilariae required for mosquito transmission of the parasite. This strategy requires high MDA compliance rates. Egypt initiated a national filariasis elimination program in 2000 that targeted approximately 2.7 million persons in 181 disease-endemic localities. This study assessed factors associated with MDA compliance in year three of the Egyptian LF elimination program. 2,859 subjects were interviewed in six villages. The surveyed compliance rate for MDA in these villages was 85.3% (95% confidence interval = 83.9-86.5%). Compliance with MDA was positively associated with LF knowledge scores, male sex, and older age. Adverse events reported by 18.4% of participants were mild and more common in females. This study has provided new information on factors associated with MDA compliance during Egypt's successful LF elimination program.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/2013; 89(2). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.12-0491 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) guidelines call for using filarial antigen testing to identify endemic areas that require mass drug administration (MDA) and for post-MDA surveillance. We compared a new filarial antigen test (the Alere Filariasis Test Strip) with the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test that has been used by the GPELF for more than 10 years. Laboratory testing of 227 archived serum or plasma samples showed that the two tests had similar high rates of sensitivity and specificity and > 99% agreement. However, the test strip detected 26.5% more people with filarial antigenemia (124/503 versus 98/503) and had better test result stability than the card test in a field study conducted in a filariasis-endemic area in Liberia. Based on its increased sensitivity and other practical advantages, we believe that the test strip represents a major step forward that will be welcomed by the GPELF and the filariasis research community.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 05/2013; 89(1). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0089 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the value of an IgG Western blot (WB) with Paragonimus kellicotti (Pk) antigen for diagnosis of North American paragonimiasis. The test was evaluated with sera from patients with Pk and Paragonimus westermani infections, with control sera from patients with other helminth infections, and sera from healthy Americans. All 11 proven Pk infection sera and two samples from suspected cases that were negative by P. westermani WB at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contained antibodies to antigens at 34 kDa and at 21/23 kDa. Seven of 7 P. westermani sera contained antibodies to the 34 kDa antigen, but only 2 recognized the 21/23 kDa doublet. No control samples were reactive with these antigens. Antibody reactivity declined after praziquantel treatment. Thus, the P. kellicotti WB appears to be superior to P. westermani WB for diagnosing Pk infections, and it may be useful for assessing responses to treatment.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 04/2013; 88(6). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.12-0720 · 2.70 Impact Factor

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  • 1987–2015
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Department of Genetics
      • • Division of Oncology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      Сент-Луис, Michigan, United States
  • 1994–2007
    • Ain Shams University
      • • Ain Shams Research and Training Center on Vectors of Diseases
      • • Department of Entomology
      Cairo, Muhafazat al Qahirah, Egypt
    • Saint Louis University
      • Department of Biology
      Saint Louis, MI, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Indonesia
      • Parasitology
      Depok, West Java, Indonesia
  • 1991–2002
    • Barnes Jewish Hospital
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Colombo
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Columbo, Western, Sri Lanka
  • 1992–1993
    • University of Ibadan
      • Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Parasitology
      Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria
  • 1990
    • Oakland University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Рочестер, Michigan, United States