Gaëlle Juillien

Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (10)19.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain has been poorly investigated in the emergency department, although it is known to be less sensitive to opioids than other forms of pain. We tested the hypothesis that morphine requirements are increased in patients having severe pain classified as neuropathic using the DN4 score. We included adult patients with acute severe pain (visual analog scale ≥70), assessed using the DN4 score, and treated with intravenous morphine titration (bolus of 2 or 3 mg [body weight >60 kg] with 5-minute intervals between each bolus). Pain relief was defined as a visual analog scale 30 or less. Patients were divided into 2 groups: control group (DN4 score <4) and neuropathic pain group (DN4 score ≥4). The main outcome was the total dose of morphine administered. Data are mean±SD or median (interquartile range). Among the 239 patients included (mean age, 43+14 years), 35 patients (15%) had a DN4 score 4 or more. The main characteristics of the 2 groups were comparable. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in morphine dose (0.16+0.09 vs 0.17+0.11 mg/kg, P=.32), number of boluses administered (3.5 [3-5] vs 3 [3-6], P=.97), proportion of patients with pain relief (75 vs 83%, P=.39), or morphine-related adverse effects (11% vs 3%, P=.14). In conclusion, morphine consumption was not significantly modified in patients having severe pain classified as neuropathic using the DN4 score as compared with a control group, suggesting that specific detection of neuropathic pain may not be useful in the emergency department.
    The American journal of emergency medicine 07/2012; · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Revue De Medecine Interne - REV MED INTERNE. 01/2011; 32.
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    ABSTRACT: Morbidity, mortality and social cost of sepsis are high. Previous studies have suggested that individual cytokines levels could be used as sepsis markers. Therefore, we assessed whether the multiplex technology could identify useful cytokine profiles in Emergency Department (ED) patients. ED patients were included in a single tertiary-care center prospective study. Eligible patients were >18 years and met at least one of the following criteria: fever, suspected systemic infection, ≥ 2 systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, hypotension or shock. Multiplex cytokine measurements were performed on serum samples collected at inclusion. Associations between cytokine levels and sepsis were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC). Among the 126 patients (71 men, 55 women; median age: 54 years [19-96 years]) included, 102 had SIRS (81%), 55 (44%) had severe sepsis and 10 (8%) had septic shock. Univariate analysis revealed weak associations between cytokine levels and sepsis. Multivariate analysis revealed independent association between sIL-2R (p = 0.01) and severe sepsis, as well as between sIL-2R (p = 0.04), IL-1β (p = 0.046), IL-8 (p = 0.02) and septic shock. However, neither PCA nor AHC distinguished profiles characteristic of sepsis. Previous non-multiparametric studies might have reached inappropriate conclusions. Indeed, well-defined clinical conditions do not translate into particular cytokine profiles. Additional and larger trials are now required to validate the limited interest of expensive multiplex cytokine profiling for staging septic patients.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e28870. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: End-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (etCO(2)) is widely used in anaesthesia and critical care in intubated patients. The aim of our preliminary study was to evaluate the feasibility of a simple device to predict capnia in spontaneously breathing patients in an emergency department (ED). This study was a prospective, nonblind study performed in our teaching hospital ED. We included nonintubated patients with dyspnea (> or =18 years) requiring measurement of arterial blood gases, as ordered by the emergency physician in charge. There were no exclusion criteria. End-tidal CO(2) was measured by an easy-to-use device connected to a microstream capnometer, which gave a continuous measurement and graphical display of the etCO(2) level of a patient's exhaled breath. A total of 43 patients (48 measurements) were included, and the majority had pneumonia (n = 12), acute cardiac failure (n = 8), asthma (n = 7), or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation (n = 6). Using simple linear regression, the correlation between etCO(2) and Paco(2) was good (R = 0.82). However, 18 measurements (38%) had a difference between etCO(2) and Paco(2) of 10 mm Hg or more. The mean difference between the Paco(2) and etCO(2) levels was 8 mm Hg. Using the Bland and Altman matrix, the limits of agreement were -10 to +26 mm Hg. In our preliminary study, etCO(2) using a microstream method does not seem to accurately predict Paco(2) in patients presenting to an ED for acute dyspnea.
    The American journal of emergency medicine 07/2010; 28(6):711-4. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effect of non-exertional heatstroke on serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels. Cohort study. The emergency and intensive care departments of two academic tertiary-care hospitals, Paris, France A total of 53 patients with defined heatstroke attending the emergency department and/or the intensive care unit during the August 2003 heat wave in France. None. Serum PCT measurement using a sensitive assay and vital and routine biological variables on arrival of patients presenting with classic heatstroke. Thirty-day mortality was recorded. Among the 53 patients included, 14 (26%) were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). At 30 days, 24 patients (45%) had died. Median PCT value was 0.58 microg/l (95% confidence interval 0.16-1.61) and 31 (58%) patients had PCT above 0.2 microg/l (PCT+). Temperature above or equal to 40 degrees C was the only variable significantly associated with fatal outcome. Median PCT values were 1.4 microg/l (0.16-4.71) and 0.18 microg/l (0.12-1.61) in the group of deceased and surviving patients respectively (p = 0.22). All patients admitted in ICU had elevated PCT values. Patients PCT+ initially presented with a more pronounced systemic inflammatory response. Microbiologically or clinically documented infection was not more frequent in PCT+ group. High serum PCT levels can be observed in heatstroke without any concomitant documented bacterial infection. The PCT is not a valid mortality predictor in heatstroke but could be an indicator of the severity of illness. Heatstroke could represent a model of a "non-septic" pathway of PCT synthesis.
    Intensive Care Medicine 04/2008; 34(8):1377-83. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In febrile patients, distinguishing bacterial from viral infections is crucial for early treatment initiation and rational use of antibiotics. Raised interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) levels in serum has been associated with a wide range of viral infections. We evaluated the effectiveness of IFN-alpha serum measurements for the etiological diagnosis of febrile patients. Adult patients who were attending the emergency department with body temperature above or equal to 38.5 degrees C were studied prospectively, followed-up until day 30, and classified by two independent experts (blind for IFN-alpha results) as having a bacterial/parasitic infection, viral infection, or other diagnosis. The results of IFN-alpha measurements in blood samples taken in the emergency room, were compared with expert diagnosis. Among 243 patients included, 167 had bacterial/parasitic infections (including 19 with viral co-infection), 59 had viral infections, and 36 other diagnoses. IFN-alpha assay had a sensitivity of 0.44 and a specificity of 0.92 for the diagnosis of viral infection. Among the 20 patients with acute viral infection according to the emergency physician diagnosis, 7 (35%) were given antibiotics, including four patients with raised IFN-alpha concentrations. It is concluded that in febrile patients, raised serum IFN-alpha level is highly specific of the viral etiology of fever but poorly sensitive. Reliable viral and bacterial biological markers are needed in order to improve rational use of antibiotics.
    Journal of Medical Virology 08/2007; 79(7):935-8. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of bacterial infections is crucial if treatment is to be initiated early and antibiotics used rationally. The primary objective of this study was to test the efficiency of procalcitonin (PCT) in identifying bacterial/parasitic episodes among febrile adult patients presenting to an emergency department. Secondary objectives were to identify clinical or biological variables associated with either bacterial/parasitic infection or critical illness. This was a prospective, single centre, non-interventional study, conducted in the adult emergency department of an academic tertiary care hospital. We included patients with body temperature of 38.5 degrees C or greater. A serum sample for measurement of PCT was collected in the emergency room. Patients were followed up until day 30. After reviewing the medical files, two independent experts, who were blind to the PCT results, classified each of the patients as having a bacterial/parasitic infection, viral infection, or another diagnosis. Among 243 patients included in the study, 167 had bacterial/parasitic infections, 35 had viral infections and 41 had other diagnoses. The PCT assay, with a 0.2 microg/l cutoff value, had a sensitivity of 0.77 and a specificity of 0.59 in diagnosing bacterial/parasitic infection. Of the patients with PCT 5 microg/l or greater, 51% had critical illness (death or intensive care unit admission) as compared with 13% of patients with lower PCT values. Bearing in mind the limitations of an observational study design, the judgements of the emergency department physicians were reasonably accurate in determining the pretest probability of bacterial/parasitic infection. PCT may provide additional, valuable information on the aetiology and prognosis of infection in the emergency department.
    Critical care (London, England) 02/2007; 11(3):R60. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Health Policy. 01/2007; 20(1):9-10.
  • Revue De Medecine Interne - REV MED INTERNE. 01/2003; 24.