Gang Zhao

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (246)615.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Palladium (Pd) and silver (Ag) are the key elements for probing the weak component in the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) of stellar nucleosynthesis. We performed a detailed analysis of the high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio near-UV spectra from the archive of HIRES on the Keck telescope, UVES on the VLT, and HDS on the Subaru Telescope, to determine the Pd and Ag abundances of 95 stars. This sample covers a wide metallicity range with -2.6 $\lesssim$ [Fe/H] $\lesssim$ +0.1, and most of them are dwarfs. The plane-parallel LTE MAFAGS-OS model atmosphere was adopted, and the spectral synthesis method was used to derive the Pd and Ag abundances from Pd I {\lambda} 3404 {\AA} and Ag I {\lambda} 3280/3382 {\AA} lines. We found that both elements are enhanced in metal-poor stars, and their ratios to iron show flat trends at -0.6 < [Fe/H] < +0.1. The abundance ratios of [Ag/H] and [Pd/H] are well correlated over the whole abundance range. This implies that Pd and Ag have similar formation mechanisms during the Galactic evolution.
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    ABSTRACT: A new simple mechanism due to cold electron flow to produce strong magnetic field is proposed. A 600-T strong magnetic field is generated in the free space at the laser intensity of 5.7x10^15 Wcm^-2. Theoretical analysis indicates that the magnetic field strength is proportional to laser intensity. Such a strong magnetic field offers a new experimental test bed to study laser-plasma physics, in particular, fast-ignition laser fusion research and laboratory astrophysics.
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2015; 576:A96. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424194 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new code, RCF (“Radiative-Collisional code based on FAC”), which is used to simulate steady-state plasmas under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium condition, especially photoinization-dominated plasmas. RCF takes almost all of the radiative and collisional atomic processes into a rate equation to interpret the plasmas systematically. The Flexible Atomic Code (FAC) supplies all the atomic data needed for RCF, which insures calculating completeness and consistency of atomic data. With four input parameters relating to the radiation source and target plasma, RCF calculates the population of levels and charge states, as well as potential emission spectrum. In a preliminary application, RCF successfully reproduced the results of a photoionization experiment with reliable atomic data. The effects of the most important atomic processes on the charge state distribution are also discussed.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 03/2015; 67(2). DOI:10.1093/pasj/psu162 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have compiled a list of all planet host star candidates reported in the literature, which are likely to be cluster members, and we checked their memberships by the spatial location, radial velocity, proper motion and photometric criteria. We found that only six stars, BD-13 2130, HD 28305, Kepler-66, Kepler-67, Pr0201 and Pr0211, are planet orbiting stars in open clusters to date. Two stars, HD 70573 and HD 89744, belong to moving groups and one star, TYC 8975-2606-1, may not be a planet host star, while three stars, HD 16175, HD 46375 and HD 108874 are not members of open clusters. We note that all these six planetary systems in the stellar cluster environment are younger than ∼1 Gyr, which might indicate that the planetary system in open cluster can not survive for a long time, and we speculate that close stellar encounters between member stars in open cluster can potentially destroy, or at least strongly affect, the presence of planetary systems.
    Science China: Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy 03/2015; 58(3). DOI:10.1007/s11433-014-5593-z · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Desymmetrization of meso-aziridines with aromatic thiols was realized by using α-amino acids-derived chiral quaternary phosphonium salts catalysts to provide chiral β-amino sulfides with high yields (up to 99%) and in moderate enantioselectivities (up to 70%).
    Tetrahedron 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.tet.2015.02.001 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A combination of an amino acid derived chiral phosphine catalyst and methyl acrylate efficiently catalyzed the direct Mannich reaction of cyclic β-ketoesters and N-Boc-aldimines. The dual-reagent catalysis was presumed to function through the formation of a zwitterion, which catalyzed the reaction with excellent stereocontrol via a hydrogen-bonding assisted chiral ion-pair pathway.
    Organic Letters 01/2015; DOI:10.1021/ol503712m · 6.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan~II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars, and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-process may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2015; 798(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/798/2/110 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The atmospheres of exoplanets are commonly studied by observing the transit of the planet passing in front of its parent star. The obscuration of part of the stellar disk during a transit will reveal aspects of its surface structure resulting from general centre-to-limb variations (CLVs). These become apparent when forming the ratio between the stellar light in and out of transit. These phenomena can be seen particularly clearly during the progress of a penumbral lunar eclipse, where the Earth transits the solar disk and masks different regions of the solar disk as the eclipse progresses. When inferring the properties of the planetary atmosphere, it is essential that this effect originating at the star is properly accounted for. Using the data observed from the 2014-April-15 lunar eclipse with the ESPaDOnS spectrograph mounted on the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), we have obtained for the first time a time sequence of the penumbral spectra. These penumbral spectra enable us to study the centre-to-limb variations of solar Fraunhofer lines when the Earth is transiting Sun. The Na i and Ca ii absorption features reported from previous lunar eclipse observations are demonstrated to be CLV features, which dominate the corresponding line profiles and mask possible planetary signal. Detecting atmospheric species in exoplanets via transit spectroscopy must account for the CLV effect.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2015; 574. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425220 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the laboratory astrophysics community, those spectroscopic modeling codes extensively used in astronomy, e.g. Chianti, AtomDB, Cloudy and Xstar, cannot be directly applied to analyzing laboratory measurements due to their discrepancies from astrophysical cases. For example, plasma from an electron beam ion trap has an electron energy distribution that follows a Gaussian profile, instead of a Maxwellian one. The laboratory miniature for a compact object produced by a laser-driven implosion shows a departure from equilibrium, that often occurs in celestial objects, so we setup a spectral analysis system for astrophysical and laboratory (SASAL) plasmas to act as a bridge between them, which benefits the laboratory astrophysical community.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2014; 14(10):1351. DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/14/10/013 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present distance determinations for a large and clean sample of red giant branch stars selected from the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The distances are calculated based on both observational cluster fiducials and theoretical isochrones. Distributions of distances from the two methods are very similar with peaks at about 10 kpc and tails extending to more than 70 kpc. We find that distances from the two methods agree well for the majority of the sample stars; though, on average, distances based on isochrones are 10% higher than those based on fiducials. We test the accuracy of our distance determinations using 332 stars from 10 Galactic globular and open clusters. The average relative deviation from the literature cluster distances is 4% for the fiducial-based distances and 8% for the isochrone-based distances, both of which are within the uncertainties. We find that the effective temperature and surface gravity derived from low-resolution spectra are not accurate enough to essentially improve the performance of distance determinations. However, for stars with significant extinction, effective temperature may help to better constrain their distances to some extent. We make our sample stars and their distances available from an online catalog. The catalog comprises 17,941 stars with reasonable distance estimations reaching to more than 70 kpc, which is suitable for the investigation of the formation and evolution of the Galaxy, especially the Galactic halo.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 794(1):60. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/60 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of a substellar companion orbiting an evolved intermediate-mass ($M_\star=2.4\,M_\odot$) star HD 14067 (G9 III) using precise Doppler technique. Radial velocities of this star can be well fitted either by a periodic Keplerian variation with a decreasing linear velocity trend (P=1455 days, $K_1=92.2$ m s$^{-1}$, $e=0.533$, and $\dot{\gamma}=-22.4$ m s$^{-1}$ yr$^{-1}$) or a single Keplerian orbit without linear trend (P=2850 days, $K_1=100.1$ m s$^{-1}$, and $e=0.697$). The minimum mass ($m_2\sin{i}=7.8\,M_{\rm J}$ for the model with a linear trend, or $m_2\sin{i}=9.0\,M_{\rm J}$ for the model without a linear trend) suggests a long-period giant planet around an evolved intermediate-mass star. The eccentricity of the orbit is among the highest known for planets ever detected around evolved stars.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 09/2014; 66(6). DOI:10.1093/pasj/psu113 · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Kai Zhang, Gang Zhao, Weiguo Cao
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 4-fluoro-pyrazole derivatives were synthesized in moderate to good yields via a one-pot tandem procedure involving an Rh-2(OAc)(4)-catalyzed C-H insertion and an electrophilic fluorination with N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide (NFSI).
    Tetrahedron 09/2014; 70(35):5659–5665. DOI:10.1016/j.tet.2014.06.065 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. White dwarf-main sequence (WDMS) binaries are used to study several different important open problems in modern astrophysics. Aims. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) identified the largest catalogue of WDMS binaries currently known. However, this sample is seriously affected by selection effects and the population of systems containing cool white dwarfs and early-type companions is under-represented.Here we search for WDMS binaries within the spectroscopic data release 1 of the LAMOST (Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope) survey. LAMOST and SDSS follow different target selection algorithms. Hence, LAMOST WDMS binaries may be drawn from a different parent population and thus help in overcoming the selection effects incorporated by SDSS on the current observed population. Methods. We develop a fast and efficient routine based on the wavelet transform to identify LAMOST WDMS binaries containing a DA white dwarf and a M dwarf companion, and apply a decomposition/fitting routine to their LAMOST spectra to estimate their distances and measure their stellar parameters, namely the white dwarf effective temperatures, surface gravities and masses, and the secondary star spectral types. Results. We identify 121 LAMOST WDMS binaries, 80 of which are new discoveries, and estimate the sample to be \sim90 per cent complete. The LAMOST and SDSS WDMS binaries are found to be statistically different. However, this result is not due to the different target selection criteria of both surveys, but likely a simple consequence of the different observing conditions. Thus, the LAMOST population is found at considerably shorter distances (\sim50-450 pc) and is dominated by systems containing early-type companions and hot white dwarfs. (abridged)
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2014; 570. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423689 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the spectral line shape associated with a High Resolution Spectrograph on the 2.16 m telescope at the Xinglong Observing Station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This measurement is based on modeling the instrumental line shape obtained by unresolved modes from a Yb-fiber mode-locked laser frequency comb. With the current repetition rate of 250 MHz and 26 GHz mode spacing on the spectrograph, we find the absolute variation of the line center, 0.0597 pixel in the direction of the CCDs, and 0.00275 pixel (~3 m s−1) for relative variation in successive exposures on a short timescale. A novel double-Gaussian model is presented to improve the quality of the fit by a factor of 2.47 in a typical single exposure. We also use analysis with raw moments and central moments to characterize the change in line shape across the detector. A trend in charge transfer efficiency can be found on the E2V 4096 × 4096 CCD that provides a correction for wavelength calibration aiming to reach a level of precision for radial velocity below 1 ms−1.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2014; 14(8):1037. DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/14/8/014 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An efficient tandem addition/cyclization procedure for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated phthalans under mild conditions was developed. This procedure involves tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF)-promoted addition of Ruppert-Prakash reagent (TMSCF3) to 2-alkynylbenzaldehyde to give 2-alkynylbenzylicalcohols, which would then undergo base-catalyzed selective 5-exo-dig cyclization to furnish the corresponding products.
    Tetrahedron 07/2014; 70(29):4373–4378. DOI:10.1016/j.tet.2014.04.072 · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Shan Qian, Gang Zhao
    ChemInform 06/2014; 45(24). DOI:10.1002/chin.201424202
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    ABSTRACT: Strongly Mg-enhanced stars with [Mg/Fe] $>$ 1.0 show peculiar abundance patterns and hence are of great interest for our understanding of stellar formation and chemical evolution of the Galaxy. A systematical search for strongly Mg-enhanced stars based on the low-resolution $(R\simeq2000)$ spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is carried out by finding the best matched synthetic spectrum to the observed one in the region of Mg I b lines around $\lambda$5170\AA$~$via a profile matching method. The advantage of our method is that fitting parameters are refined by reproducing the [Mg/Fe] ratios of 47 stars from very precise high-resolution spectroscopic (HRS) analysis by Nissen and Schuster (2010); and these parameters are crucial to the precision and validity of the derived Mg abundances. As a further check of our method, Mg abundances are estimated with our method for member stars in four Galactic globular clusters (M92, M13, M3, M71) which cover the same metallicity range as our sample, and the results are in good agreement with those of HRS analysis in the literature. The validation of our method is also proved by the agreement of [Mg/Fe] between our values and those of HRS analysis by Aoki et al.(2013). Finally, 33 candidates of strongly Mg-enhanced stars with [Mg/Fe]$>$1.0 are selected from 14850 F and G stars. Follow-up observations will be carried out on these candidates with high-resolution spectroscopy by large telescopes in the near future, so as to check our selection procedure and to perform a precise and detailed abundance analysis and to explore the origins of these stars.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2014; 14(11). DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/14/11/006 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the rapid developments in the exoplanet field, more and more terrestrial exoplanets are being detected. Characterising their atmospheres using transit observations will become a key datum in the quest for detecting an Earth-like exoplanet. The atmospheric transmission spectrum of our Earth will be an ideal template for comparison with future exo-Earth candidates. By observing a lunar eclipse, which offers a similar configuration to that of an exoplanet transit, we have obtained a high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio transmission spectrum of the Earth's atmosphere. This observation was performed with the High Resolution Spectrograph at Xinglong Station, China during the total lunar eclipse in December 2011. We compare the observed transmission spectrum with our atmospheric model, and determine the characteristics of the various atmospheric species in detail. In the transmission spectrum, O2, O3, O2-O2, NO2 and H2O are detected, and their column densities are measured and compared with the satellites data. The visible Chappuis band of ozone produces the most prominent absorption feature, which suggests that ozone is a promising molecule for the future exo-Earth characterization. The individual O2 lines are resolved and O2 isotopes are clearly detected. Our new observations do not confirm the absorption features of Ca II or Na I which have been reported in previous lunar eclipse observations. However, features in these and some other strong Fraunhofer line positions do occur in the observed spectrum. We propose that these are due to a Raman-scattered component in the forward-scattered sunlight appearing in the lunar umbral spectrum. Water vapour absorption is found to be rather weak in our spectrum because the atmosphere we probed is relatively dry, which prompts us to discuss the detectability of water vapour in Earth-like exoplanet atmospheres.
    International Journal of Astrobiology 05/2014; 14(02). DOI:10.1017/S1473550414000172 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We select 947 star-forming galaxies from SDSS-DR7 with [O {\sc iii}]\lambda4363 emission lines detected at a signal-to-noise larger than 5\sigma. Their electron temperatures and direct oxygen abundances are determined then. And we compare the results from different methods. The $t_2$ electron temperature in low ionization region estimated from $t_3$ in high ionization region are compared for the three analysis relations between $t_2-t_3$, and show obvious differences, which results in some different ionic oxygen abundances. The results of $t_3$, $t_2$, $O^{++}$/$H^+$ and $O^{+}$/$H^+$ derived by using methods from IRAF and literature are also compared. The ionic abundances $O^{++}$/$H^+$ is higher than $O^{+}$/$H^+$ for most cases. The oxygen abundances derived from $T_e$ and the strong-line ratios show clear discrepancy, which is more obvious following increasing stellar mass and strong-line ratio $R_{23}$. The sample galaxies from SDSS having detected [O {\sc iii}]$\lambda$4363 have lower metallicites and higher SFRs, and they may not be typical representatives of the whole galaxies population. Adopting data objects from \cite{and13}, \cite{lia07} and \cite{lee06} data, we derive new relations of stellar mass and metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a much wider stellar mass range: from $10^6M_\odot$ to $10^{11}M_\odot$.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2014; 14(7). DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/14/7/010 · 1.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
615.87 Total Impact Points


  • 1999–2015
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • Key Laboratory of Synthetic Chemistry of Natural Substances
      • • Purple Mountain Observatory
      • • Shanghai Astronomical Observatory
      • • Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry
      • • National Astronomical Observatories
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 1998–2015
    • Shanghai Research Institute of Chemical Industry
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2014
    • Peking University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007–2013
    • University of Science and Technology of China
      • Department of Chemistry
      Luchow, Anhui Sheng, China
    • Shanghai Institute of Health Sciences
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2012
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2008–2012
    • Shanghai University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2011
    • Shandong University
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
    • Clemson University
      CEU, South Carolina, United States
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      • Earth and Planetary Sciences Department
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2009
    • Xinjiang University
      Hsin-chien, Jiangxi Sheng, China
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Organic and Industrial Chemistry
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2006
    • Anhui Normal University
      Wu-hu-shih, Anhui Sheng, China
  • 2001
    • China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China