Gang Zhao

East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (264)662.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Carbon stars are excellent kinematic tracers of galaxies and can serve as a viable standard candle, so it is worthwhile to automatically search for them in a large amount of spectra. In this paper, we apply the efficient manifold ranking algorithm to search for carbon stars from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) pilot survey, whose performance and robustness are verified comprehensively with four test experiments. Using this algorithm, we find a total of 183 carbon stars, and 158 of them are new findings. According to different spectral features, our carbon stars are classified as 58 C-H stars, 11 C-H star candidates, 56 C-R stars, ten C-R star candidates, 30 C-N stars, three C-N star candidates, and four C-J stars. There are also ten objects which have no spectral type because of low spectral quality, and a composite spectrum consisting of a white dwarf and a carbon star. Applying the support vector machine algorithm, we obtain the linear optimum classification plane in the J - H versus H - Ks color diagram which can be used to distinguish C-H from C-N stars with their J - H and H - Ks colors. In addition, we identify 18 dwarf carbon stars with their relatively high proper motions, and find three carbon stars with FUV detections likely have optical invisible companions by cross matching with data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. In the end, we detect four variable carbon stars with the Northern Sky Variability Survey, the Catalina Sky Survey and the LINEAR variability databases. According to their periods and amplitudes derived by fitting light curves with a sinusoidal function, three of them are likely semiregular variable stars and one is likely a Mira variable star. © 2015 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2015; 15(10):1671-1694. DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/15/10/005 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Large sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) general survey is a spectroscopic survey that will eventually cover approximately half of the celestial sphere and collect 10 million spectra of stars, galaxies and QSOs. Objects in both the pilot survey and the first year regular survey are included in the LAMOST DR1. The pilot survey started in October 2011 and ended in June 2012, and the data have been released to the public as the LAMOST Pilot Data Release in August 2012. The regular survey started in September 2012, and completed its first year of operation in June 2013. The LAMOST DR1 includes a total of 1202 plates containing 2 955 336 spectra, of which 1 790 879 spectra have observed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) ≥ 10. All data with SNR ≥ 2 are formally released as LAMOST DR1 under the LAMOST data policy. This data release contains a total of 2 204 696 spectra, of which 1 944 329 are stellar spectra, 12 082 are galaxy spectra and 5017 are quasars. The DR1 not only includes spectra, but also three stellar catalogs with measured parameters: late A,FGK-type stars with high quality spectra (1061 918 entries), A-type stars (100 073 entries), and M-type stars (121 522 entries). This paper introduces the survey design, the observational and instrumental limitations, data reduction and analysis, and some caveats. A description of the FITS structure of spectral files and parameter catalogs is also provided. © 2015 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2015; 15(8):1095-1124. DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/15/8/002 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have cross-matched the LAMOST DR2 with the WISE, 2MASS and PPMXL catalogs and obtained a sample of 64 819 FGK metal-poordwarfs with [Fe/H] < -0.7, distances within 2 kpc from the Sun and reliable kinematics (space velocities, angular momenta and eccentricities). With a detection strategy for halo streams provided by Klement et al, nine significant "phase-space overdensities" with stars on very similar orbits are identified from this sample. Among these overdensities, three were previously known and six are new stream candidates. The kinematics and metallicities of these stream candidates are then analyzed; they have typical halo characteristics. We have extracted the most probable members of each halo stream according to their angles with respect to the North Galactic Pole and investigate the distribution of the angular momenta to further verify their existences. Detailed study of elemental abundances for these members based on high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra from follow-up observations in the near future is of high interest to understand the origin of these streams. © 2015 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2015; 15(8):1378-1391. DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/15/8/019 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most Galactic metal-poor stars exhibit enhanced α-abundances (e.g. [Mg/Fe] ∼ +0.4) according to previous studies of stellar chemical compositions. However, a handful of metal-poor stars with large deficiencies in Mg (e.g. [Mg/Fe] ∼ -0.2) show severe departures from this α-enhancement trend. The sub-solar [Mg/Fe] ratios of these anomalous stars indicate that they possess different chemical enrichment histories than the majority of Galactic metal-poor stars. In previous work, we presented a method to select Mg-poor metal-poor stars from low-resolution SDSS spectra based on a spectral matching technique. In this paper, a similar method is applied to low-resolution (R ∼ 1800) LAMOST spectra. Stellar [Mg/Fe] abundances are determined by using stellar parameters delivered by the LAMOST Data Release 2 catalog. From a sample of ∼ 60 000 stars with atmospheric parameters in the range Teff = [5500, 6500] K and [Fe/H] = [-2.4, +0.5], we select 15 candidate Mg-poor metal-poor stars. © 2015 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2015; 15(8):1275-1281. DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/15/8/012 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have compared stellar parameters, including temperature, gravity and metallicity, for common stars in the LAMOST DR2 and SDSS DR12/APOGEE datasets. It is found that the LAMOST dataset provides a more well-defined red clump feature than the APOGEE dataset in the Teff versus log g diagram. With this advantage, we have separated red clump stars from red giant stars, and attempt to establish calibrations between the two datasets for the two groups of stars. The results show that there is a good consistency in temperature with a calibration close to the one-to-one line, and we can establish a satisfactory metallicity calibration of [Fe/H]APOGEE = 1.18[Fe/H]LAMOST + 0.11 with a scatter of ~ 0.08 dex for both the red clump and red giant branch samples. For gravity, there is no correlation for red clump stars between the two datasets, and scatters around the calibrations of red giant stars are substantial. We found two main sources of scatter in log g for red giant stars. One is a group of stars with 0.00253 × Teff − 8.67 < log g < 2.6 located in the forbidden region, and the other is the contaminated red clump stars, which could be picked out from the unmatched region where stellar metallicity is not consistent with position in the Teff versus log g diagram. After excluding stars in these two regions, we have established two calibrations for red giant stars, log gAPOGEE = 0.000615 × Teff,LAMOST + 0.697 × log gLAMOST − 2.208 (σ = 0.150) for [Fe/H] > −1 and log gAPOGEE = 0.000874 × Teff,LAMOST+0.588 × log gLAMOST −3.117 (σ = 0.167) for [Fe/H] < −1. The calibrations are valid for stars with Teff = 3800 − 5400 K and log g = 0 − 3.8 dex, and are useful in work aiming to combine the LAMOST and APOGEE datasets in a future study. In addition, we find that an SVM method based on asteroseismic log g is a good way to greatly improve the accuracy of gravity for these two regions, at least in the LAMOST dataset.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2015; 15(8):1125-1136. DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/15/8/003 · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • Xiao-Wei Liu · Gang Zhao · Jin-Liang Hou ·
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    ABSTRACT: By the time of this writing, the ongoing LAMOST Galactic surveys have collected approximately 4.5 million stellar spectra with signal-to-noise ratios better than 10 per pixel. This special issue is devoted to early results from the surveys, mostly based on the LAMOST Data Release 1 (DR1; Luo et al., this volume) that contains data secured by May 2013, the end of the first year of regular surveys, although a few studies have made use of data collected in the second year of regular surveys. LAMOST DR1 was released to the Chinese astronomical community and international partners in August 2013 and made public to the whole world in March 2015. Here we briefly review the scope and motivation, data reduction and release, as well as early results of the surveys. As the project advances, one can expect that these surveys will yield an exquisite description of the distribution, kinematics and chemistry of Galactic stellar populations, especially those within a few kpc of the Sun, a robust measurement of the local dark matter density, and, consequently, shed light on how our Galaxy, and other galaxies in general, form and evolve. © 2015 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2015; 15(8):1089-1094. DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/15/8/001 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel method of initiating nuclear fusion reactions in a full plasma environment was suggested, and a proof-of-concept experiment was carried out with the \(\hbox {D}+\hbox {D } \rightarrow \hbox { n}\,+\,^3\)He reaction. In this new approach, two plasma jets generated by high-intensity lasers collide head-on-head. The center-of-mass energy of the nuclei increases accordingly, and therefore, reaction products can be significantly enhanced, especially in the sub-Coulomb barrier ranges. As a result of the fusion reaction, up to \(\sim 7.6\times 10^{5}\) neutrons had been observed. This new type of “plasma collider” could provide an innovative tool to study nuclear reactions under astrophysical conditions.
    07/2015; 60(13). DOI:10.1007/s11434-015-0821-0
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the observations of two ultra metal-poor (UMP) stars with [Fe/H]~-4.0 including one new discovery. The two stars are studied in the on-going and quite efficient project to search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with LAMOST and Subaru. Detailed abundances or upper limits of abundances have been derived for 15 elements from Li to Eu based on high-resolution spectra obtained with Subaru/HDS. The abundance patterns of both UMP stars are consistent with the "normal-population" among the low-metallicity stars. Both of the two program stars show carbon-enhancement without any excess of heavy neutron-capture elements, indicating that they belong to the subclass of CEMP-no stars, as is the case of most UMP stars previously studied. The [Sr/Ba] ratios of both CEMP-no UMP stars are above [Sr/Ba]~-0.4, suggesting the origin of the carbon-excess is not compatible with the mass transfer from an AGB companion where the s-process has operated. Lithium abundance is measured in the newly discovered UMP star LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1, making it the second UMP turnoff star with Li detection. The Li abundance of LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1 is slightly lower than the values obtained for less metal-poor stars with similar temperature, and provides a unique data point at [Fe/H]~-4.2 to support the "meltdown" of the Li Spite-plateau at extremely low metallicity. Comparison with the other two UMP and HMP (hyper metal-poor with [Fe/H]<-5.0) turnoff stars suggests that the difference in lighter elements such as CNO and Na might cause notable difference in lithium abundances among CEMP-no stars.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 06/2015; 67(5). DOI:10.1093/pasj/psv053 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of an extremely metal-poor (EMP) giant, LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8, which exhibits large excess of r-process elements with [Eu/Fe] ~ +1.16. The star is one of the newly discovered EMP stars identified from LAMOST low-resolution spectroscopic survey and the high-resolution follow-up observation with the Subaru Telescope. Stellar parameters and elemental abundances have been determined from the Subaru spectrum. Accurate abundances for a total of 23 elements including 11 neutron-capture elements from Sr through Dy have been derived for LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8. The abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 in the range of C through Zn is in line with the "normal" population of EMP halo stars, except that it shows a notable underabundance in carbon. The heavy element abundance pattern of LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 is in agreement with other well studied cool r-II metal-poor giants such as CS 22892-052 and CS 31082-001. The abundances of elements in the range from Ba through Dy well match the scaled Solar r-process pattern. LAMOST J110901.22+075441.8 provides the first detailed measurements of neutron-capture elements among r-II stars at such low metallicity with [Fe/H]<-3.4, and exhibits similar behavior in the abundance ratio of Zr/Eu as well as Sr/Eu and Ba/Eu as other r-II stars.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2015; 15(8). DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/15/8/011 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to stellar rotation, the observed radial velocity of a star varies during the transit of a planet across its surface, a phenomenon known as the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect. The amplitude of the RM effect is related to the radius of the planet which, because of differential absorption in the planetary atmosphere, depends on wavelength. Therefore, the wavelength-dependent RM effect can be used to probe the planetary atmosphere. We measure for the first time the RM effect of the Earth transiting the Sun using a lunar eclipse observed with the ESO HARPS spectrograph. We analyze the observed RM effect at different wavelengths to obtain the transmission spectrum of the Earth's atmosphere after the correction of the solar limb-darkening and the convective blueshift. The ozone Chappuis band absorption as well as the Rayleigh scattering features are clearly detectable with this technique. Our observation demonstrates that the RM effect can be an effective technique for exoplanet atmosphere characterization. Its particular asset is that photometric reference stars are not required, circumventing the principal challenge for transmission spectroscopy studies of exoplanet atmospheres using large ground-based telescopes.
    06/2015; 806(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/806/2/L23
  • Dongdong Cao · Jiaxing Zhang · Hongyu Wang · Gang Zhao ·
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    ABSTRACT: A novel family of dipeptide-based multifunctional quaternary phosphonium salts has been developed as chiral phase-transfer catalysts, which feature ready accessibility and structure modularity, allowing easy fine-tunings of activity. They demonstrated high efficiency in catalyzing the tandem asymmetric Michael addition/intramolecular SN 2 reaction between 6 or 7-substituted conjugate enones and malonates, providing synthetically important five or six-membered carbocycles and heterocycles in good yields and with good to excellent enantioselectivities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; 21(28). DOI:10.1002/chem.201501806 · 5.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyper-velocity stars are believed to be ejected out from the Galactic center through dynamical interactions between (binary) stars and the central massive black hole(s). In this paper, we report 19 low mass F/G/K type hyper-velocity star candidates from over one mil- lion stars of the first data release of the LAMOST general survey. We determine the unbound probability for each candidate using a Monte-Carlo simulation by assuming a non-Gaussian proper-motion error distribution, Gaussian heliocentric distance and radial velocity error dis- tributions. The simulation results show that all the candidates have unbound possibilities over 50% as expected, and one of them may even exceed escape velocity with over 90% probabili- ty. In addition, we compare the metallicities of our candidates with the metallicity distribution functions of the Galactic bulge, disk, halo and globular cluster, and conclude that the Galactic bulge or disk is likely the birth place for our candidates.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2015; 15(8). DOI:10.1088/1674-4527/15/8/018 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    Xiaoshu Wu · Liang Wang · Jianrong Shi · Gang Zhao · Frank Grupp ·
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    ABSTRACT: Palladium (Pd) and silver (Ag) are the key elements for probing the weak component in the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) of stellar nucleosynthesis. We performed a detailed analysis of the high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio near-UV spectra from the archive of HIRES on the Keck telescope, UVES on the VLT, and HDS on the Subaru Telescope, to determine the Pd and Ag abundances of 95 stars. This sample covers a wide metallicity range with -2.6 $\lesssim$ [Fe/H] $\lesssim$ +0.1, and most of them are dwarfs. The plane-parallel LTE MAFAGS-OS model atmosphere was adopted, and the spectral synthesis method was used to derive the Pd and Ag abundances from Pd I {\lambda} 3404 {\AA} and Ag I {\lambda} 3280/3382 {\AA} lines. We found that both elements are enhanced in metal-poor stars, and their ratios to iron show flat trends at -0.6 < [Fe/H] < +0.1. The abundance ratios of [Ag/H] and [Pd/H] are well correlated over the whole abundance range. This implies that Pd and Ag have similar formation mechanisms during the Galactic evolution.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2015; 579. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201525679 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new simple mechanism due to cold electron flow to produce strong magnetic field is proposed. A 600-T strong magnetic field is generated in the free space at the laser intensity of 5.7x10^15 Wcm^-2. Theoretical analysis indicates that the magnetic field strength is proportional to laser intensity. Such a strong magnetic field offers a new experimental test bed to study laser-plasma physics, in particular, fast-ignition laser fusion research and laboratory astrophysics.
  • Yude Bu · Gang Zhao · A-li Luo · Jingchang Pan · Yuqin Chen ·
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used to repair incomplete spectra, to perform spectral denoising, and to reduce dimensionality. Presently, no method has been found to be comparable to PCA on these three problems. New methods have been proposed, but are often specific to one problem. For example, locally linear embedding outperforms PCA in dimensionality reduction. However, it cannot be used in spectral denoising and spectral reparing. Wavelet transform can be used to denoise spectra; however, it cannot be used in dimensionality reduction. Aims. We provide a new method that can substitute PCA in incomplete spectra repairing, spectral denoising and spectral dimensionality reduction. Methods. A new method, restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), is introduced in spectral processing. RBM is a particular type of Markov random field with two-layer architecture, and use Gibbs sampling method to train the algorithm. It can be used in spectral denoising, dimensionality reduction and spectral repairing. Conclusions. The performance of RBM is comparable to PCA in spectral processing. It can repair the incomplete spectra better: the difference between the RBM repaired spectra and the original spectra is smaller than that between the PCA repaired spectra and the original spectra. The denoised spectra given by RBM is similar to those given by PCA. In dimensionality reduction, RBM performs better than PCA: the classification results of RBM+ELM (i.e. the extreme learning machine) is higher than those of PCA+ELM. This shows that RBM can extract the spectral features more efficiently than PCA. Thus, RBM is a good alternative method for PCA in spectral processing.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2015; 576:A96. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424194 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    Bo Han · Feilu Wang · David Salzmann · Gang Zhao ·
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new code, RCF (“Radiative–Collisional code based on FAC”), which is used to simulate steady-state plasmas under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium condition, especially photoinization-dominated plasmas. RCF takes almost all of the radiative and collisional atomic processes into a rate equation to interpret the plasmas systematically. The Flexible Atomic Code (FAC) supplies all the atomic data needed for RCF, which insures calculating completeness and consistency of atomic data. With four input parameters relating to the radiation source and target plasma, RCF calculates the population of levels and charge states, as well as potential emission spectrum. In a preliminary application, RCF successfully reproduced the results of a photoionization experiment with reliable atomic data. The effects of the most important atomic processes on the charge state distribution are also discussed.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 03/2015; 67(2). DOI:10.1093/pasj/psu162 · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • XiaoLing Yang · YuQin Chen · Gang Zhao ·
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    ABSTRACT: We have compiled a list of all planet host star candidates reported in the literature, which are likely to be cluster members, and we checked their memberships by the spatial location, radial velocity, proper motion and photometric criteria. We found that only six stars, BD-13 2130, HD 28305, Kepler-66, Kepler-67, Pr0201 and Pr0211, are planet orbiting stars in open clusters to date. Two stars, HD 70573 and HD 89744, belong to moving groups and one star, TYC 8975-2606-1, may not be a planet host star, while three stars, HD 16175, HD 46375 and HD 108874 are not members of open clusters. We note that all these six planetary systems in the stellar cluster environment are younger than ∼1 Gyr, which might indicate that the planetary system in open cluster can not survive for a long time, and we speculate that close stellar encounters between member stars in open cluster can potentially destroy, or at least strongly affect, the presence of planetary systems.
    Science China: Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy 03/2015; 58(3). DOI:10.1007/s11433-014-5593-z · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Desymmetrization of meso-aziridines with aromatic thiols was realized by using α-amino acids-derived chiral quaternary phosphonium salts catalysts to provide chiral β-amino sulfides with high yields (up to 99%) and in moderate enantioselectivities (up to 70%).
    Tetrahedron 02/2015; 46(27). DOI:10.1016/j.tet.2015.02.001 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A combination of an amino acid derived chiral phosphine catalyst and methyl acrylate efficiently catalyzed the direct Mannich reaction of cyclic β-ketoesters and N-Boc-aldimines. The dual-reagent catalysis was presumed to function through the formation of a zwitterion, which catalyzed the reaction with excellent stereocontrol via a hydrogen-bonding assisted chiral ion-pair pathway.
    Organic Letters 01/2015; 46(26). DOI:10.1021/ol503712m · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan~II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars, and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-process may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2015; 798(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/798/2/110 · 5.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
662.62 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • East China University of Science and Technology
      • School of Pharmacy
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 1999-2015
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • Key Laboratory of Synthetic Chemistry of Natural Substances
      • • Purple Mountain Observatory
      • • Shanghai Astronomical Observatory
      • • National Astronomical Observatories
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Shanghai Research Institute of Chemical Industry
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2014
    • Peking University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007-2013
    • University of Science and Technology of China
      • Department of Chemistry
      Luchow, Anhui Sheng, China
    • Shanghai Institute of Health Sciences
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2012
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2008-2012
    • Shanghai University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2011
    • Shandong University
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
    • Clemson University
      CEU, South Carolina, United States
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      • Earth and Planetary Sciences Department
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2009
    • Xinjiang University
      Hsin-chien, Jiangxi Sheng, China
  • 2006
    • Anhui Normal University
      Wu-hu-shih, Anhui Sheng, China
  • 2001
    • China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 1998
    • Academia Sinica
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan