[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have identified potential beneficial effects of eating nuts, most of which have substantial amounts of monounsaturated fats. Macadamia nuts are 75% fat by weight, 80% of which is monounsaturated.
To examine variations in serum lipid levels in response to a high-monounsaturated fat diet based on macadamia nuts.
A randomized crossover trial of three 30-day diets was conducted in 30 volunteers aged 18 to 53 years from a free-living population. Each was fed a "typical American" diet high in saturated fat (37% energy from fat); an American Heart Association Step 1 diet (30% energy from fat); and a macadamia nut-based monounsaturated fat diet (37% energy from fat) in random order. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured.
Mean total cholesterol level after the typical American diet was 5.20 mmol/L (201 mg/dL). After the Step 1 diet and the macadamia nut diet, total cholesterol level was 4.99 mmol/L (193 mg/dL) and 4.95 mmol/L (191 mg/dL), respectively. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) (typical diet), 3.21 mmol/L (124 mg/dL) (Step 1 diet), and 3.22 mmol/L (125 mg/dL) (macadamia nut diet). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 1.43 mmol/L (55 mg/dL) (typical), 1.34 mmol/L (52 mg/dL) (Step 1), and 1.37 mmol/L (53 mg/dL) (macadamia nut). Lipid values after the Step 1 and macadamia nut diets were significantly different from those after the typical diet (P<.05).
The macadamia nut-based diet high in monounsaturated fat and the moderately low-fat diet both had potentially beneficial effects on cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels when compared with a typical American diet.
Archives of Internal Medicine 04/2000; 160(8):1154-8. DOI:10.1001/archinte.160.8.1154 · 17.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Japanese-American men and compare these findings with rates reported for populations in Japan and elsewhere.
The Honolulu Heart Program is a prospective population-based study of cardiovascular disease established in 1965. Prevalence estimates were computed from cases identified at the 1991 to 1993 examination. Cognitive performance was assessed using standardized methods, instruments, and diagnostic criteria.
Subjects were 3734 Japanese-American men (80% of surviving cohort) aged 71 through 93 years, living in the community or in institutions.
Age-specific, age-standardized, and cohort prevalence estimates were computed for dementia (all cause) defined by 2 sets of diagnostic criteria and 4 levels of severity. Prevalence levels for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia were also estimated.
Dementia prevalence by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised ranged from 2.1% in men aged 71 through 74 years to 33.4% in men aged 85 through 93 years. Age-standardized prevalence was 7.6%. Prevalence estimates for the cohort were 9.3% for dementia (all cause), 5.4% for Alzheimer disease (primary or contributing), and 4.2% for vascular dementia (primary or contributing). More than 1 possible cause was found in 26% of cases. The Alzheimer disease/vascular dementia ratio was 1.5 for cases attributed primarily to Alzheimer disease or vascular dementia.
Prevalence of Alzheimer disease in older Japanese-American men in Hawaii appears to be higher than in Japan but similar to European-ancestry populations. Prevalence of vascular dementia appears to be slightly lower than in Japan, but higher than in European-ancestry populations. Further cross-national research with emphasis on standardized diagnostic methods is needed.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/1996; 276(12):955-60. DOI:10.1001/jama.276.12.955 · 35.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective.
—To determine prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Japanese-American men and compare these findings with rates reported for populations in Japan and elsewhere.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/1996; 276(12):955-960. DOI:10.1001/jama.1996.03540120033030 · 35.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study objective was to determine the association between reported alcohol consumption and total mortality, mortality from selected causes, and incident nonfatal chronic disease events in middle-aged (51 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 75 years old) men during an approximate 15-year follow-up period.
We conducted a prospective epidemiological study of Japanese-American men who were participating in the Honolulu Heart Program and were free from coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cancer at baseline examination and at subsequent reexamination 6 years later. Self-reported alcohol consumption was determined twice: at the baseline examination in 1965 through 1968 and at reexamination approximately 6 years later (1971 through 1974). Four primary alcohol consumption groups who reported similar alcohol intake at the time of these two clinical examinations were considered: abstainers and light (1 to 14 mL of alcohol per day), moderate (15 to 39 mL of alcohol per day), and heavy (> or = 40 mL of alcohol per day) drinkers. Study end points were also determined in very light (1 to 4.9 mL of alcohol per day) drinkers and in men who reported a change in their alcohol intake between examinations. Longitudinal follow-up was carried out through the end of 1988 with determination of selected fatal and nonfatal events according to alcohol intake. After controlling for several potentially confounding factors, total mortality exhibited a J-shaped pattern in relation to alcohol consumption in middle-aged and elderly men. There was a trend for lower rates of occurrence of combined fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease events with increasing alcohol consumption in both middle-aged and elderly men. Increasing alcohol consumption was related to an increased risk of fatal and nonfatal strokes in middle-aged men, whereas elderly light and moderate drinkers were at increased risk for fatal and nonfatal strokes. Heavy drinkers were at increased risk for fatal and nonfatal malignant neoplasms in the two age groups examined.
The results of this long-term prospective study provide a balanced perspective of the health effects of alcohol consumption in middle-aged and elderly men. High levels of alcohol consumption were shown to be related to an increasing risk of diseases of considerable public health importance. These findings suggest that caution be taken in formulating population-wide recommendations for increases in the population levels of alcohol consumed given the associated significant social and biological problems of high consumption levels.