G Walz

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (36)191.71 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte binding to endothelial surface adhesion molecules is an important early step in inflammation, which is mediated initially by P-selectin and E-selectin. We tested the hypothesis that lymphocyte binding to the selectin adhesion molecules induces intracellular signaling by tyrosine phosphorylation. We used an adhesion assay, which relied on cell binding to chimeric proteins consisting of the extracellular domains for P-selectin and E-selectin. Tyrosine phosphorylation was determined using anti-phosphotyrosine Abs by confocal microscopy and Western blot. Binding to P-selectin induced a significant increase in anti-phosphotyrosine immunoreactivity. The P-selectin effect was time dependent with an early response after 10 min and a maximum effect at 30 min. Western blot showed a time-dependent phosphorylation of two distinct 68- and 125-kDa proteins. These proteins were pp125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin, as shown by immunoprecipitation and colocalization. Phosphorylation of pp125 FAK was time dependent reaching a maximum after 30 min. Incubation with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, and, to a lesser extent, with the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine, resulted in decreased pp125 FAK phosphorylation. Our results are the first to demonstrate that lymphocyte binding to P-selectin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of distinct proteins. Thus, lymphocyte activation may occur already at the initial contact with surface adhesion molecules.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/1997; 158(3):1061-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays a pivotal role in the cellular and humoral immune responses directed against foreign antigens. We characterized the in vitro and in vivo properties of a chimeric protein consisting of mouse IL-2 fused to the mouse IgG2b Fc domains. This fusion protein binds to IL-2 and Fc receptors and supports IL-2-dependent cell proliferation but does not mediate lysis of IL-2 receptor-positive cells in the presence of murine complement in vitro. However, in vivo the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein suppresses both cellular and humoral immune responses after immunization with sheep erythrocytes. Surprisingly, delayed hypersensitivity is inhibited despite a dramatic increase of splenic CD3+ and NK1.1+ lymphocytes, indicating that altered homing of IL2-IgG2b-activated lymphocytes rather than cytolysis prevents these cells from accumulating in areas of inflammation. Although in vitro the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein does not alter proliferation of B cells in response to mitogenic stimulation, IgM production in response to sheep erythrocytes is profoundly inhibited in mice treated with the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein. Since no side effects are observed, the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein may expand the therapeutic repertoire of reagents used for the treatment of allograft rejection and autoimmune diseases.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 04/1996; 97(5):1204-10. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adhesion molecules E-selectin (ELAM-1) and P-selectin (GMP-140/CD62) recognize the carbohydrate motives sialyl-Le(x), sialyl-diLe(x), or sialyl-Lea, though with different affinity. We found that the melanoma cell line NKI-4 bound to E-selectin, but not to P-selectin. This melanoma cell line did not express sialyl-Le(x), but was positive for sialyl-diLe(x) and sialyl-Le(a). In contrast, 2 other melanoma cell lines, MeWo and SK-MEL-28, expressing either sialyl-diLe(x) or sialyl-Le(a) on the cell surface, bound neither E-selectin nor P-selectin. Transfection of the fucosyltransferases Fuc-TIII, Fuc-TIV, and Fuc-TV mediates cell surface expression of sialyl-Le(x) in many cell lines. We detected transcripts of the fucosyltransferases Fuc-TIII and Fuc-TV in 4 melanoma cell lines despite the absence of cell surface sialyl-Le(x). Our observations indicate that expression of fucosyltransferases (Fuc-TIII and -TV) and generation of cell-surface sialyl-diLe(x) are not sufficient to permit adherence to E-selectin or P-selectin. Furthermore, it seems possible that a yet undefined ligand different from sialyl-Le(x), sialyl-diLe(x), or sialyl-Le(a) enables melanoma cells to adhere to E-selectin.
    Cancer Research 03/1994; 54(4):1109-12. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A crucial step in an effective immune response is the adhesion of circulating lymphocytes. Lymphocytes must attach to endothelial cells before they can migrate into the graft. It has been shown that T cells bind to ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Additionally, certain T cell subsets bind to ELAM-1. We now report that resting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as individual CD4+ T cell clones and CD8+ T cell lines bind to GMP-140 in an adhesion assay using protein chimeras consisting of the extracellular domain of GMP-140 linked to the hinge domain of human IgG1. Whereas resting T cells bound similarly to ELAM-1 IgG and GMP-140 IgG, activated T cells represented by CD4+ T cell clones and CD8+ T cell lines bound to GMP-140 IgG, but not to ELAM-1 IgG. Neither the binding to immobilized GMP-140 IgG, nor to immobilized ELAM-1 IgG could provide T cells with costimulatory signals for proliferation in the presence of submitogenic concentrations of anti-CD3 antibodies. The binding of T cells to the endothelial adhesion receptor GMP-140 might be important during the initial adhesion process of lymphocytes in rejecting grafts.
    Transplantation 12/1993; 56(5):1213-7. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 01/1993; 56(5):1213-1217. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The etiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) remains enigmatic. Infiltrating intestinal macrophages are capable of producing the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). We investigated the presence of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA transcripts in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), normal, and other inflammatory intestinal specimens utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). TNF-alpha mRNA levels did not very between inflammatory bowel disease and control specimens. IL-1 beta mRNA levels were highest in active UC and noninflammatory bowel disease inflammatory specimens while IL-6 mRNA levels were highest in active IBD specimens. Infiltrating T cells, macrophages, and B cells were identified as sources of IL-6 protein in inflammatory bowel disease specimens by immunofluorescent staining. IL-6 transcripts were elevated only in active inflammatory bowel disease specimens, suggesting that IL-6-mediated immune processes are ongoing in the inflammatory mucosal environment of CD and UC.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 07/1992; 37(6):818-26. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The etiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) remains enigmatic. Infiltrating intestinal macrophages are capable of producing the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). We investigated the presence of IL-6, TNF- and IL-1 mRNA transcripts in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), normal, and other inflammatory intestinal specimens utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). TNF- mRNA levels did not vary between inflammatory bowel disease and control specimens. IL-1 mRNA levels were highest in active UC and noninflammatory bowel disease inflammatory specimens while IL-6 mRNA levels were highest in active IBD specimens. Infiltrating T cells, macrophages, and B cells were identified as sources of IL-6 protein in inflammatory bowel disease specimens by immunofluorescent staining. IL-6 transcripts were elevated only in active inflammatory bowel disease specimens, suggesting that IL-6-mediated immune processes are ongoing in the inflammatory mucosal environment of CD and UC.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 05/1992; 37(6):818-826. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely believed that calcium antagonists such as diltiazem exert immunosuppressive effects in kidney graft recipients--however, the mechanism is unclear. In a randomized controlled trial, kidney graft recipients who received diltiazem during transplantation and for an average of 12 months thereafter experienced significantly fewer rejection episodes than patients treated with cyclosporine and steroids alone. Furthermore, 1-year (97% vs. 85%) and 4-year (80% vs. 70%) graft survival rates were higher in diltiazem-treated patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. In vitro, diltiazem had little immunosuppressive activity. Concentrations of diltiazem which blocked the proliferation of PHA-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or prevented activation-associated accumulation of interleukin-2 mRNA, or p50- and p70-IL-2 receptor mRNA exceeded pharmacological concentrations by more than 100-fold. Both, CsA and high doses of diltiazem caused an increase of IL-6 mRNA. In contrast to these findings, the IL-6 plasma concentrations were comparable in both groups, whereas the serum concentration of soluble IL-2 receptors was decreased in patients treated with diltiazem. Administration of diltiazem caused an alteration of CsA metabolism. The whole-blood concentration of CsA metabolite 17 was significantly increased in diltiazem-treated patients, resulting in a five-times-higher concentration of this metabolite in the cellular blood compartment compared with the parent drug. Changes in metabolites 1, 8, and 18 levels were less pronounced. Although direct immunosuppressive properties of diltiazem are unlikely, diltiazem could support immunosuppression by altering CsA metabolism, and promoting accumulation of certain metabolites.
    Transplantation 09/1991; 52(2):280-4. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 07/1991; 51(6):1312-5. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been documented that interleukin-6 (IL-6) supports the proliferation of purified, anti-CD3-stimulated murine T cells. We found that stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with anti-CD3 induced a significant accumulation of IL-6 mRNA, indicating that antigen-mediated T-cell activation may involve IL-6 release from accessory cells. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) had little effect upon IL-6 gene expression. In keeping with these findings, anti-IL-6 reduced but did not abolish anti-CD3-mediated proliferation of PBMCs, but had no significant effect upon PHA-stimulated proliferation. The addition of recombinant (r) IL-6 enhanced the proliferation of anti-CD3-stimulated PBMCs and increased the accumulation of IL-2 mRNA in PHA-stimulated PBMCs during the first 5 hr of culture. Nuclear run-off experiments did not reveal significant changes in IL-2 transcription in PHA plus rIL-6-treated PBMCs attempting to assume that IL-6 mediates stabilization of IL-2 mRNA. However, monitoring of partially spliced IL-2 mRNA by polymerase chain reaction revealed a clear increase in IL-2 heteronuclear RNA. Thus IL-6 increases the rate of IL-2 transcription which was not detectable by conventional in vitro transcription assays. We conclude that anti-CD3 triggers T-cell proliferation through a process that is partially but not entirely dependent upon release of IL-6. IL-6, in turn, supports IL-2 transcription. Insofar as anti-CD3 mimics antigen-triggered activation of the T-cell receptor complex, IL-6 appears to support the early immune response by augmenting antigen-triggered IL-2 gene expression.
    Cellular Immunology 06/1991; 134(2):511-9. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Northern blot analysis and a highly sensitive methodology for mRNA phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were used to explore the basis for the synergism between CD3/alpha beta T cell receptor (TCR) and the CD2 antigen-derived signals in promoting proliferation of T cells. Northern blotting of RNA isolated from highly purified normal human T cells revealed that crosslinking of anti-TCR-1 (a mAb directed at a framework determinant of the TCR) and OKT11 (a mAb directed at the SRBC-binding epitope of the CD2 antigen) induced the expression of the interleukin-2 gene and the gene for IL-2 receptor alpha, mRNA phenotyping by PCR revealed that crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, and not independent crosslinking of TCR or the CD2 antigen, results in the induction of IL-2, IL-2 receptors alpha and beta, and IL-4-specific transcripts. Highly purified CD4+ T cells, as well as CD8+ T cells proliferated by crosslinking TCR with CD2 antigen. Moreover, crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen and not of either antigen with the CD4 antigen (on the surface of CD4+ T cells) or the CD8 antigen (on the surface of CD8+ T cells) resulted in marked proliferation. Our demonstration that the CD2 antigen-derived signal(s) contribute to the expression of growth promoting genes elicited via the TCR, and that the CD2 antigen is more efficient compared with the CD4 or CD8 antigen in evoking T cell proliferation, suggests that autoimmunity as well as alloimmunity might be regulated by targeting the CD2 antigen.
    Transplantation 03/1991; 51(2):468-74. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 01/1991; 51(2):468-474. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 01/1991; 51:468. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synergy between ionomycin and sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (diC8) was shown at the level of lymphokine gene transcription. Transcriptional activation of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and the protooncogene H-ras was accomplished by signaling highly purified normal human resting T-lymphocytes (T-cells) with diC8, a physiologic regulator of protein kinase C, and the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. Northern blot analysis of mRNA for early T-cell activation genes demonstrated the synergism between diC8 and ionomycin at the gene induction level. To amplify very low levels of IL-2 mRNA, sequential reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of T cell mRNA were used to demonstrate the capacity of the calcium signal (ionomycin) to promote low-level IL-2 transcription in normal human T-cells without additional signals. Cyclosporine (CsA) prevented diC8 and ionomycin-induced expression of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and H-ras genes. The completeness of its inhibitory effect was evident by the absence of IL-2 transcripts in CsA-treated cultures screened by the RT-PCR technique. CsA also prevented IL-2 and IFN-gamma gene expression in accessory cell-depleted T-cells stimulated by cross-linking the CD2 and CD3 antigens on the cell surface. Our observations demonstrate that a physiologic regulator of PKC, diC8, and cell surface crosslinking of the CD2 and CD3 antigen, promote gene expression in normal human quiescent T-cells independently of accessory cells, and that CsA prevents gene expression via a direct effect on T-cells.
    Cellular Immunology 07/1990; 128(1):41-51. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium channel-blocking agents interfere with the initial increase of cytosolic calcium that follows mitogenic stimulation of T lymphocytes. In cultures of mitogen-stimulated PBMC, verapamil also blocked T cell accumulation of cytoplasmic IL-2-encoding mRNA. In sharp contrast, the addition of verapamil to PHA and PMA-stimulated PBMC augmented the mitogen-stimulated increases in nuclear transcription of IL-6-encoding mRNA, steady state levels of IL-6 encoding mRNA, and release of IL-6 bioactivity. These experiments indicated that an increased IL-6 transcriptional rate rather than stabilization of transcripts accounted for the increased cytoplasmic IL-6 mRNA levels and subsequent expression of IL-6 bioactivity. These effects were not produced by nicardipine, another potent calcium channel blocker, or EGTA. We suggest that a non-calcium-dependent, IL-6 regulatory factor, absent or inactive in verapamil-treated cultures, inhibits IL-6 gene activation in mitogen-stimulated PBMC. Failure to express this inhibitory factor would result in IL-6 gene superinduction at a transcriptional level.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/1990; 144(11):4242-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood cyclosporin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using nonspecific polyclonal and specific monoclonal antibodies in 32 kidney transplant patients. Kinetics of cyclosporin concentrations after transplantation (day 0-2) and after long-term dosage (day 7-month 6) were evaluated by nonlinear regression analysis. Elimination and accumulation kinetics were linear and in agreement with one- or two-compartment kinetics. Only in 3 cases were saturable Michaelis-Menten kinetics observed (Vm = 23 ng/ml h-1, Km = 636 ng/ml). Bioavailability was 0.72 as estimated from first-pass extraction. The median values (5-95% CI) for the elimination half-life of nonspecific RIA concentrations increased from 5 h (2.5-6.2) on day 2 after transplantation to 10 h (9.2-11) after long-term dosage. The specific monoclonal antibody data revealed an elimination half-life of 6.4 h (5.6-7.7) for parent cyclosporin, which was unchanged after multiple dosing. After month 6, the elimination half-life of specific monoclonal antibody data was significantly shorter (p = 0.03) than elimination half-life of nonspecific RIA concentrations (6.6 vs 9.1 h). In relation to blood concentrations measured by nonspecific polyclonal antibody RIA, the fraction of parent cyclosporin significantly decreased from 84 percent (49-90) to 30 percent (24-52) after long-term dosage as measured by specific monoclonal antibody (p = 0.01). It is concluded that metabolites of cyclosporin accumulate in a slow compartment and, after long-term cyclosporin administration, nonspecific RIA blood concentrations are mainly contributed by cyclosporin metabolites.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology 05/1990; 28(4):167-75.
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    ABSTRACT: The mode of action of glucocorticosteroids as immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory agents is not fully understood. Glucocorticosteroids block synthesis of interleukin 1 by interfering with the transcription of the IL-1 beta gene. Glucocorticosteroids may also induce rapid degradation of IL-1 mRNA. In the presence of antigen, IL-1 is a potent accessory-cell-derived growth and differentiation co-factor for stimulating resting T lymphocytes. The recently defined interleukin 6 protein is even more powerful than IL-1 in promoting T cell growth and differentiation and acts synergistically with IL-1. Like IL-1, IL-6 is produced by accessory cells and exhibits pleiotropic functions. We herein describe the effects of glucocorticosteroids on IL-6 synthesis. We provide evidence that glucocorticosteroids prevent IL-6 gene transcription in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
    Transplantation 02/1990; 49(1):183-5. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of soluble interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) were measured in 65 hemodialysis patients and compared with serum levels of beta 2-microglobulin and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA). Elevated IL-2R levels, found in 85% of examined patients, correlated with elevated TPA serum concentrations (p less than 0.05). Patients with high IL-2R levels were significantly younger (p less than 0.05) than patients with low levels. Primary renal disease and residual renal function had no significant influence on TPA or IL-2R serum concentrations. In 16 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, increased serum concentrations of IL-2R (p less than 0.005) and TPA (p less than 0.001) were found. We conclude that a non-specific dialysis-induced activation of epithelial and lymphoid cells rather than a specific immune response could explain the concomitant elevation of IL-2R and TPA serum concentrations in hemodialyzed patients. Patients with pronounced cell turnover, reflected by elevated IL-2R and TPA levels, may show an increased susceptibility to dialysis-associated amyloidosis.
    Nephron 02/1990; 56(2):157-61. · 13.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central to the immunosuppressive properties of cyclosporine is a drug imposed blockade of the interleukin-2 gene activation. As IL-6 stimulates antigen-activated T cells to release IL-2, we examined the influence of CsA on IL-6 gene expression and IL-6-supported T cell proliferation. Northern blot analysis revealed that CsA failed to abolish IL-6 gene expression in mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In fact, increased IL-6 gene transcription and increased release of IL-6 bioactivity were detected using mitogen-activated PBMCs cultured with CsA doses (200-800 ng/ml) only slightly in excess of the minimal antiproliferative dose. CsA completely abrogated the IL-6-stimulated proliferative responses of macrophage-depleted T cells stimulated with polyvalent anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies. It is interesting that CsA-treated patients evidence an increased incidence of polyclonal lymphoproliferative disorders and B cell lymphomas. As IL-6 fosters B cell activation and growth of EBV-transformed B cells, excessive CsA doses may support development of EBV-transformed B cell lymphomas via superinduction of the IL-6 gene.
    Transplantation 02/1990; 49(1):191-4. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The interleukin-2 diphtheria toxin-related fusion protein (IL-2 toxin) inhibits protein and DNA synthesis IN rIL-2 (10(-10) M) stimulated T lymphoblasts in a dose-dependent fashion. However, prior to target cell death very low concentrations of rIL-2 and IL-2 toxin synergistically stimulate [3H] thymidine incorporation despite inhibition of [14C] leucine uptake. A sequential analysis of [3H] thymidine incorporation shows that high IL-2 toxin concentration (10(-9)-10(-7) M) stimulates DNA synthesis at 18 hr of culture and inhibits [3H] thymidine uptake after 24 hr, while low concentrations of IL-2 toxin (10(-12)-10(-10) M) exhibits stimulatory effects only after 24 hr of culture. Anti-Tac a monoclonal antibody directed against the p55 chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) blocks the stimulatory effects of high-dose IL-2 toxin, thereby proving that these effects are mediated through the IL-2 domain of the fusion protein. At 7 hr following interaction with IL-2R receptor (IL-2R)+ T cells, IL-2 toxin-treated cells evidence augmented transcription of the heat shock protein gene, an effect indistinguishable from those mediated by rIL-2. We conclude that interaction of IL-2 toxin with IL-2R+ T cells initially mimicks the stimulatory effects of IL-2 upon gene transcription and DNA synthesis yet concomitant inhibition of protein synthesis is evident.
    Transplantation 02/1990; 49(1):198-201. · 3.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

586 Citations
191.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1990–1992
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1987–1991
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany