G Reybrouck

University of Leuven, Louvain, Flanders, Belgium

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Publications (25)0.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In order to standardize antifungal disinfectant testing using Candida albicans as a test organism, the morphology of four type strains of C. albicans DSM 1836, ATCC 10231, CNCM 1180-79 and CBS 562, grown on sixteen different media was determined. The incubation was carried out at 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C. The yeast phase was obtained predominantly on TSA medium with all strains. Mixed phases, i. e. true mycelium and yeast cells, were easily obtained in TSB in shaking flasks for three type strains but not for CBS 562. True mycelium was formed on corn meal media (CMA) for all strains, but the growth was very poor. The morphology of the growth was determined more by the type of strain than by the nutritive medium. Therefore C. albicans ATCC 10231 grown on either TSA or CMA was used as a test organism. Its resistance was determined towards four disinfectant standards: benzalkonium chloride, mercuric chloride, phenol and o-phenylphenol. No difference in sensitivity was found for the former disinfectant, but yeast cells grown on TSA were more resistant than C. albicans cultures on CMA in case of mercuric chloride, phenol and o-phenylphenol.
    Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene. Serie B, Umwelthygiene, Krankenhaushygiene, Arbeitshygiene, präventive Medizin 06/1987; 184(2):160-6.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to find out whether more than one test organism is needed for the determination of the activity of disinfectants towards mycelium-forming fungi and yeasts, eight different species of fungi and one yeast-like fungus were submitted to seven different disinfectants in varying concentrations. As Candida albicans was found to be the most resistant, the authors propose that only Candida albicans should be used.
    Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene. 1. Abt. Originale B, Hygiene 06/1984; 179(2):125-9.
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    ABSTRACT: In a collaborative study on a new quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of the bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants, three laboratories performed the in vitro test on a phenol and an aldehyde standard in the critical use dilutions using Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as test organisms. The most striking finding was that the means of the germidical effect of one laboratory were significant lower than those of both others. Nevertheless the dispersion of the results did not differ among the laboratories. The differences could not be attributed to the subculture technique followed, nor to the daily inconstancy of the bacterial suspension resistance. The only feature that could explain the difference was the assessment of the microbiological work in itself. It should be stated, however, that the variance of the germicidal-effect values were rather low for this kind of microbiological work, so that differences between laboratories were significant even if the absolute values differed less than 1 unit.
    Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe B: Hygiene, Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin 07/1979; 168(5-6):463-79.
  • Archives belges de médecine sociale, hygiène, médecine du travail et médecine légale. Belgisch archief van sociale geneeskunde, hygiëne, arbeidsgeneeskunde en gerechtelijke geneeskunde 04/1977; 35(3):168-80.
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    ABSTRACT: Since the earliest days of disinfectant testing two different methods have to be distinguished: one group simulating practical circumstances the other one allowing the determination of germ reduction, disregarding any practical conditions. At present the assessment of disinfectant substances is carried out according to the results of several methods, done in different countries. Usually standardised suspension-tests with no correspondance to-in-use conditions are done. These are for example the determination of the Rideal-Walker and the Chick Martin coefficient and the capacity test by Kelsey and Sykes as well. Results obtained by the use-dilution method (A.O.A.C.) are also just of theoretical value. The British Standard-Test 3286:1960 and the suspension-test of the Committee on Phytopharmacy (Netherlands), to be preferred in order to state germ reductions, do not imitate particulars of practice either. After establishing recommendations for the various disinfectant procedures, the unification of the test methods on international level should be the next aim. Besides evaluation of disinfectant substances (as it is done by suspension-tests) the testing of disinfectant procedures under conditions, copying those of real life ought to be required. The results of such in-use model tests should answer all the questions arising, for instance, what the concentrations or the exposure-time should be. We would plead in favour of testing disinfectant substances and procedures in two steps - preliminary testing and main tests under in-use conditions for each new preparation. The base for all these tests is the selection of a suitable inactivator.
    Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe B: Hygiene, Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin 09/1975; 160(6):590-600.
  • G Reybrouck, H van de Voorde
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    ABSTRACT: The bactericidal activity of three disinfectant standards has been determined by four national methods (the qualitative suspension test of the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology DGHM, the quantitative suspension test of the Dutch Committee on Phytopharmacy, the use-dilution method of the A.O.A.C. and the Kelsey and Sykes' test) in order to compare these four testing techniques. In previous publications the results of these experiments and the degree of standardisation of the four methods have been tested. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate to what extent the results obtained by the four testing techniques do correspond. The bactericidal activity can be expressed as a germicidal effect. In theory (Tab. 1) the values of germicidal effect can be similar for the four testing techniques. In practice (Tab. 2 and 3) it has been found that with the suspension technique of the DGHM systematically higher values are obtained than in the other tests. These can not be compared to each other, because the medication times differ. Although the values of the germicidal effect obtained are widely different, it can happen that the minimum effective concentration determined by the four methods be identical as each of these methods applies different criteria. The authors have therefore calculated the minimum effective concentration which is required for the disinfectant standard by the four disinfectant testing techniques (Tab. 4). Even here, no correspondence has been found between the four methods. The lethal concentration of the disinfectant standards determined by the use-dilution method of the A.O.A.C. is thus 2 to 16 times those required by the Dutch suspension test. The difference in effective concentrations, however, is not constant and is not related to the type of disinfectant or the test organism. In consequence, there is no way of establishing a comparison between the results of the four methods with a view to setting up a conversion table. Each disinfectant testing technique has its own characteristics.
    Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe B: Hygiene, Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin 09/1975; 160(6):541-50.
  • G Reybrouck, H P Werner
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    ABSTRACT: Four methods for the evaluation of the bactericidal property of disinfectants have been compared. These methods are (1) the qualitative suspension test of the directives for the testing of disinfectants of the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology, (2) the quantitative suspension test of the dutch committee on phytopharmacy, (3) the carrier or use-dilution method of the A.O.A.C. and (4) the KELSEY and SYKES' capacity test. Aim of this study has been the evaluation of (1) the repeatability and reproducibility of the test results of the four methods, and of (2) the agreement of the degree of efficiency as determined by the different techniques. At least three dilutions of the three disinfectant standards (a phenolic, an aldehyde solution and an iodophore) have been tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginoas. In this article the authors describe the methods used and the specific difficulties of these techniques. In the suspension technique of the DGHM, the use of only one subculture is stated as not sufficient for exact evaluation of the extinction. In the dutch suspension test, the use of pour plates leads to troubles. The preparative incubation time of the use-dilution method of the A.O.A.C. has been experienced as too long. The structure of the KELSEY and SYKES' test is complicated. Also the results by the two research-teams, are reported and summarized. It has been found that the transition from active to inactive dilution is most marked in the two suspension tests, whereas the distinction between the results of the use-dilution method of the A.O.A.C. is not so clear.
    Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe B: Hygiene, Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin 08/1975; 160(4-5):392-411.
  • H P Werner, G Reybrouck, G Werner
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    ABSTRACT: At present the testing and assessment of disinfectants is carried out according to different methods in different countries. The result of this is that certain preparations or concentrations are allowed for use in some countries while they are not in neighbouring countries. A study was carried out jointly at two universities with the object of testing the reproducibility of these methods and standardizing them. Furthermore, an attempt was to be made to arrive at common test methods. In 2 labortories (A,B) we tested and compared the disinfectant activity of three disinfectant standards (phenol, aldehyde, iodophor) against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1) in the suspension test according to the "Richtlinien für die Prüfung chemischer Desinfektionsmittel" (Directions governing the testing of chemical disinfectants) of the DGHM, (2) in the suspension test of the "Dutch Commission for Phytopharmacy," (3) according to the "Use-Dilution Method" of the A.O.A.C. and (4) in the capacity test according to KELSEY and SYKES. Every individual test was repeated ten times. In addition we determined the reproducibility of the results by repeating the tests several times with one and the same culture and with different cultures (on different days). The exact method is described elsewhere (7). The statistical evaluation of the mean values (Tables 1,3,5 and 7) and variances (Tables 2,4,6 and 8) leads to the following findings: The results obtained with the various methods depend on the lab. technique and were specific to the germs and preparations tested. The reproducibility was best in the DGHM suspension test and the capacity test according to KELSEY and SYKES; the mean values of the two laboratories were closest for the Dutch test of the Commission of Phytopharmacy. The greatest mean value differences and scatter were observed with the A.O.A.C. "Use-Dilution Method." The conclusion of this investigation is that for the preliminary testing of disinfectants a method should be recommended which enables the determination of the acturl germ count reduction after varying periods of action and with well-defined organic challenge. In order to assess the disinfectant action, however, such a test - which answers most of our questions and has optimum reproducibility - must be supplemented by main tests which simulate practical conditions as near as possible.
    Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe B: Hygiene, Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin 08/1975; 160(4-5):368-91.
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    ABSTRACT: Following on from the first publication, (12) concerning the burning of plastics, another 13 chemical pure polymers were burnt in an electric oven to determine the level of solid and gaseous air pollution caused by their stackgases. All 13 polymers are highly combustible but require different burning temperatures (300-900 degrees C) in order to be burnt completely (i.e. without ashrest). With the exception of PMMA and PTFE, all plastics leave a very heavy tar- and soot deposit after burning. At the other end of the scale, burning at low temperature (300 degrees C) gives rise to high concentrations of alipathic aldehyds. The pH of the exhaust-gases, dissolved in water, is neutral to strong acid (PTFE), and will cause a severe corrosion. The nitrogen-containing polymers pollute by forming cyanides, nitrogenoxides and ammonia. PTFE gives off high concentrations of fluorid into the air. PMMA decomposes in its monomer methylmethacrylate and forms large amounts of aliphatic aldehyds. ABS and SBR cause a styrene pollution.
    Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe B: Hygiene, Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin 04/1975; 160(2):139-47.
  • G REYBROUCK, H VANDEVOORDE
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    ABSTRACT: The authors have evaluated the antibacterial activity of twelve commercially available antiseptics for the preoperative disinfection of the surgeon's hands on the total bacterial population of the skin. Therefore sterile gloves were put on for one hour after the disinfection by the tested antiseptic, whereafter the surviving bacterial flora was determined by the finger print plate technique. Only five out of the tested hand disinfectants satisfied the proposed conditions Further it was determined if the action of the antiseptic was not too selective and if it would resist to an accidental contamination. Hexachlorophene preparations showed no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa nor they resisted to a contamination by this germ.
    Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses - MED MAL INFEC. 01/1975; 5(7):385-390.
  • M T Leysen, G Reybrouck, H Van de Voorde
    Acta allergologica 01/1975; 29(6):455-61.
  • H Van de Voorde, G Reybrouck
    Maroc médical 11/1974; 54(583):547-52.
  • Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe B: Hygiene, Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin 05/1974; 158(6):541-51.
  • H Van de Voorde, G Reybrouck
    Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe B: Hygiene, Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin 09/1973; 157(5):542-8.
  • G Reybrouck, H van de Voorde
    Archives belges de médecine sociale, hygiène, médecine du travail et médecine légale. Belgisch archief van sociale geneeskunde, hygiëne, arbeidsgeneeskunde en gerechtelijke geneeskunde 06/1973; 31(5):307-25.
  • Archives belges de médecine sociale, hygiène, médecine du travail et médecine légale. Belgisch archief van sociale geneeskunde, hygiëne, arbeidsgeneeskunde en gerechtelijke geneeskunde 06/1973; 31(5):326-42.
  • G Reybrouck, H Maddens, H Van de Voorde
    Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe B: Hygiene, Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin 01/1973; 156(4):430-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The survival time of different pathogenic bacteria has been determined in sea‐water under stationary conditions. Some pathogens are relatively stable and may develop in the aquatic medium. Only E. coli disappears more quickly in sea‐water than in physiological saline. The survival time of the other micro‐organisms differs little for both waters. The data show that the test for water quality evaluation must be extended to other genera than E. coli.
    International Journal of Environmental Studies 01/1973; 5:27-35.
  • M van Grimbergen, G Reybrouck
    Archives belges de médecine sociale, hygiène, médecine du travail et médecine légale. Belgisch archief van sociale geneeskunde, hygiëne, arbeidsgeneeskunde en gerechtelijke geneeskunde 03/1972; 30(2):90-101.
  • Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe B: Hygiene, Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin 10/1971; 155(2):123-30.