[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1967, Starzl et al performed the first successful liver transplantation for a patient diagnosed with hepatoblastoma. In the following, liver transplantation was considered ideal for complete tumor resection and potential cure from primary hepatic malignancies. Several reports of liver transplantation for primary and metastatic liver cancer however showed disappointing results and the strategy was soon dismissed. In 1996, Mazzaferro et al introduced the Milan criteria, offering liver transplantation to patients diagnosed with limited hepatocellular carcinoma. Since then, liver transplantation for malignant disease is an ongoing subject of preclinical and clinical research. In this context, several aspects must be considered: (1) Given the shortage of deceased-donor organs, long-term overall and disease free survival should be comparable with results obtained in patients transplanted for non-malignant disease; (2) In this regard, living-donor liver transplantation may in selected patients help to solve the ethical dilemma of optimal individual patient treatment vs organ allocation justice; and (3) Ongoing research focusing on perioperative therapy and anti-proliferative immunosuppressive regimens may further reduce tumor recurrence in patients transplanted for malignant disease and thus improve overall survival. The present review gives an overview of current indications and future perspectives of liver transplantation for malignant disease.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2014; 20(18):5331-5344. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in enhancement effects of liver parenchyma between normal and cirrhotic livers on dynamic, Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI at 3T.
93 patients with normal (n=54) and cirrhotic liver (n=39; Child-Pugh class A, n=18; B, n=16; C, n=5) underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with liver specific contrast media at 3T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before contrast injection, in the arterial phase (AP), in the late arterial phase (LAP), in the portal venous phase (PVP), and in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) after 20min. The relative enhancement (RE) of the signal intensity of the liver parenchyma was calculated for all phases.
Mean RE was significantly different among all evaluated groups in the hepatobiliary phase and with increasing severity of liver cirrhosis, a decreasing, but still significant reduction of RE could be shown. Phase depending changes of RE for each group were observed. In case of non-cirrhotic liver or Child-Pugh Score A cirrhosis mean RE showed a significant increase between AP, LAP, PVP and HBP. For Child-Pugh B+C cirrhosis RE increased until PVP, however, there was no change in case of B cirrhosis (p=0.501) and significantly reduced in case of C cirrhosis (p=0.043) during HBP.
RE of liver parenchyma is negatively affected by increased severity of liver cirrhosis, therefore diagnostic value of HBP could be limited in case of Child Pugh B+C cirrhosis.
European journal of radiology 06/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We investigate the frequency of esophageal tissue injury (ETI) following ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) using the pulmonary vein ablation catheter (PVAC) ascertained by esophageal endoscopy (ESE) and corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: A total of 41 patients with symptomatic AF presenting for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) were included consecutively in two observational groups. Group A received MRI the day before and ESE plus MRI within 3-4 weeks following the ablation procedure using the PVAC. Group B received MRI the day before and ESE plus MRI within 2 days after PVI. MRI included T2-weighted and T1-weighted postcontrast with fat suppression (fs) and late-enhancement scans to demonstrate postprocedural edema and contrast enhancement of the esophageal wall. RESULTS: A total of 13 (32%) patients were enrolled in Group A (26 ± 11 days post-PVI), and 28 (68%) patients in Group B (2 ± 0.6 days post-PVI). ETI was found by ESE in one (2%) patient (Group B) and resolved under conservative therapy. Corresponding MRI showed a false negative result with no alterations of esophageal structures using T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and late enhancement scans. In addition, false positive results were demonstrated by late-enhancement MRI in five (12%) patients (three patients in Group A and two patients in Group B), which could not be verified by corresponding ESE. CONCLUSIONS: Endoluminal ETI is a rare but possible complication, which should be considered following PVAC procedures. MRI of the esophagus is currently not a reliable screening method due to false positive and negative findings compared to ESE.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 02/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reports on a patient who needed intensive care treatment because of multiple trauma. The patient had no preexisting liver disease but developed secondary sclerosing cholangitis and finally died. The etiology, diagnosis and therapeutic options of this clinical picture are discussed and a review of the literature is presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the development of biliary epithelial damage between organ retrieval and transplantation and its clinical relevance for patients. METHODS: Common bile duct samples during donor hepatectomy, after cold storage, and after reperfusion were compared to healthy controls by H&E staining and immunofluorescence for tight junction protein 1 and Claudin-1. A bile duct damage score to quantify biliary epithelial injury was developed and correlated with recipient and donor data and patient outcome. RESULTS: Control (N=16) and donor hepatectomy bile ducts (N=10) showed regular epithelial morphology and tight junction architecture. After cold storage (N=37; P=.0119) and even more after reperfusion (N=62; P=.0002), epithelial damage, as quantified by the bile duct damage score, was markedly increased, and both tight junction proteins were detected with inappropriate morphology. Patients with major bile duct damage after cold storage had a significantly increased risk of biliary complications (relative risk 18.75; P<.0001) and graft loss (P=.0004). CONCLUSIONS: In many cases, the common bile duct epithelium shows considerable damage after cold ischemia with further damage occurring after reperfusion. The extent of epithelial damage can be quantified by our newly developed bile duct damage score and is a prognostic parameter for biliary complications and graft loss. Possibly, in an intraoperative histological examination this bile duct damage score may influence decision-making in transplantation surgery.
Journal of Hepatology 01/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dual and triple infections with hepatitis virus C (HCV), B (HBV) and D (HDV) frequently lead to severe liver damage. Hereby we describe a 38-year-old Caucasian male coinfected with HCV (genotype 3a), HBV [positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen; negative hepatitis B e antigen (HbeAg) and antibody to hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe)] and HDV. Laboratory diagnostics revealed increased liver enzymes and histological examination of the liver showed signs of fibrosis with moderate inflammation. On therapy with pegIFN-α2b and ribavirin HCV-RNA was undetectable at week 8. After week 24 the antiviral therapy was stopped because of a HBs-seroconversion, the loss of HbeAg and the detection of anti-HBe. Furthermore the HCV-RNA was negative. Six months after successful treatment of the triple-infection, HCV- and HDV-RNA and HbsAg remained negative and the liver enzymes had been completely normalized. In conclusion, pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin may be an effective therapy for HCV, HBV and HDV-coinfected patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical relevance of colonic bowel wall thickening seen on abdominal CT scans is unknown. Recommendations for further diagnostic procedures are lacking. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate detecting of bowel wall thickening on CT scan and findings that were seen in case of endoscopical evaluation.
The radiological database was retrospectively reviewed for all reports of CT scans from 2003 to 2009 at the University Hospital Regensburg, Germany. Patients with underlying diseases for suspected bowel wall thickening were excluded.
Sixty-two patients with bowel wall thickening were detected. Twenty-one percent (13/62) had generalized bowel wall thickening. In 58%, bowel wall thickening was limited to one segment of the colon (36/62), mostly left sided (25/62). Forty-four percent of patients (27/62) were sent to endoscopy. In 15% (4/27), malignancy was suspected, and it could be histologically confirmed in two patients. Nineteen percent (5/27) had normal endoscopy, and 67% (18/62) showed benign findings.
Colonic bowel wall thickening is not a common finding on CT scan in this study. Consequential endoscopic evaluation was performed in less than 50% of patients. Pathological findings were detected in 80% of these patients. We recommend endoscopical evaluation if bowel wall thickening is reported on CT scan.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 12/2011; 27(5):601-4. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum ferritin (SF) concentration is a widely available parameter used to assess iron homeostasis. It has been described as a marker to identify high-risk patients awaiting liver transplantation (LT) but is also elevated in systemic immune-mediated diseases, metabolic syndrome, and in hemodialysis where it is associated with an inferior prognosis. This study analyzed whether SF is not only a predictor of liver-related mortality prior to LT but also an independent marker of survival following LT. In a dual-center, retrospective study, a cohort of 328 consecutive first-LT patients from Hannover Medical School, Germany (2003-2008, follow-up 1260 days), and 82 consecutive LT patients from Regensburg University Hospital, Germany (2003-2007, follow-up 1355 days) as validation cohort were analyzed. In patients exhibiting SF ≥365 μg/L versus <365 μg/L prior to LT, 1-, 3-, and 5-year post-LT survival was 73.3% versus 81.1%, 64.4% versus 77.3%, and 61.1% versus 74.4%, respectively (overall survival P = 0.0097), which was confirmed in the validation cohort (overall survival of 55% versus 83.3%, P = 0.005). Multivariate analyses identified SF ≥365 μg/L combined with transferrin saturation (TFS) <55%, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the survival after LT (SALT) score as independent risk factors for death. In patients with SF concentrations ≥365 μg/L and TFS <55%, overall survival was 54% versus 74.8% in the remaining group (P = 0.003). In the validation cohort, it was 28.6% versus 72% (P = 0.017), respectively. Conclusion: SF concentration ≥365 μg/L in combination with TFS <55% before LT is an independent risk factor for mortality following LT. Lower TFS combined with elevated SF concentrations indicate that acute phase mechanisms beyond iron overload may play a prognostic role. SF concentration therefore not only predicts pre-LT mortality but also death following LT. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol-toxic liver cirrhosis (ALC) is one of the main indications for liver transplantation (LT). The aim of the study is to define predictors for alcohol recidivism and to identify the outcome and quality of life of such patients.
From March 2003 to July 2009, 226 patients underwent LT in our centre. In 53% liver cirrhosis was caused by alcohol abuse (sole/cofactor). Outcome and alcohol recidivism were assessed using patients' records, laboratory tests and interviews (patient, family members and family doctor). Furthermore, patients received an SF-36 quality of life and a self-designed questionnaire anonymously.
Mean follow-up after LT was 31 + 23 months. The 5-year survival rate after LT in patients with ALC was significantly better compared to patients with other indications (78 vs. 64%; p = 0.016). Quality of life of both patient groups was comparable. After LT, alcohol recidivism rate was 16%. Patients with an alcohol abstinence of <3 months before LT had a significantly higher (p = 0.012) rate of alcohol recidivism in comparison to those with an abstinence of >3 months. Another predictor for alcohol recidivism was the patients' non-acceptance of having an alcohol problem before LT (p = 0.001).
ALC is a good indication for LT. An alcohol abstinence of <3 months before LT and a non-acceptance of having an alcohol problem are strong predictors for alcohol recidivism after LT.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2011; 46(10):1257-66. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bolus impaction in the esophagus is a common indication for emergency endoscopy. The aim of this study was to determine the most common causes of esophageal bolus impaction.
In this retrospective study, data of 54 patients (41 male, 13 female) with bolus impaction in the esophagus were analyzed. Type and localization of the bolus and the endoscopic extraction tool used were evaluated. In 48 of 54 patients (89%), biopsy samples were taken of the esophagus for histological examination.
Mean age of the patients was 53 ± 20 years. Fourteen of 54 patients (26%) had experienced bolus impaction previously. Meat bolus (n = 35, 65%) was the most common cause of esophageal obstruction. In most cases, boluses were found in either the distal (n = 31) or the proximal (n = 18) esophagus. In 22 patients (41%), the bolus was pushed into the stomach by the endoscope. In most other cases the bolus, including foreign bodies, could be removed with the 5-arm polyp grasper or alligator forceps. Main causes of bolus impaction were eosinophilic esophagitis (n = 10) or reflux disease with or without peptic stenosis (n = 10), respectively.
Bolus impaction is frequently correlated with eosinophilic esophagitis and reflux esophagitis; therefore, diagnostic workup should include esophageal biopsy sampling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of H. pylori in the pathogenesis of ulcer disease in cirrhotic patients is poorly defined. Therefore, we sought to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the occurrence of gastroduode-nal lesions in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Seroprevalence of H. pylori was tested in 110 patients with liver cirrhosis and 44 asymptomatic patients with chronic hepatitis without cirrhosis using an anti-H. pylori-IgG-ELISA. Cirrhotic patients underwent upper intestinal endoscopy for macroscopic and histological evaluation of gastric mucosa, and for the detection of mucosal colonisation of H. pylori using Giemsa staining and urease test.
There was no significant difference between the H. pylori seroprevalence in patients with liver cirrhosis (76/110; 69%) and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (27/44, 63%, p=0.465). Gastric mucosal colonization with H. pylori in cirrhotic patients was significantly lower than the serologically determined H. pylori prevalence (45% vs. 69%, p=0.001). Etiology of liver cirrhosis did not influence the prevalence of H. pylori infection. 8 of 110 cirrhotic patients had gastric ulcers and 10 had duodenal ulcers. 61% of cirrhotic patients with peptic ulcers were asymptomatic. H. pylori was histologically identified in 61% of gastroduodenal ulcers, and 47% of gastroduodenal erosions.
Patients with liver cirrhosis have a high prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcers. The lack of a firm association between H. pylori prevalence and ulcer frequency in cirrhotic patients argues against a pivotal role of H. pylori in the etiology of ulcers in cirrhotic patients.
International journal of clinical and experimental medicine 01/2011; 4(1):26-31.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Giant cell hepatitis is a very rare disease of unknown origin. It has been hypothesized that drugs, viral infections, or autoimmune reactions may play a pathogenetic role. Here, we describe a 33 year old patient with bacterial bronchitis who was treated with doxycycline (100 mg/d) for one week. Furthermore the patient complained of malaise and a distinct jaundice. Liver parameters increased dramatically (AST 4670 U/l, ALT 5350 U/l, bilirubin 226 µmol/l) and liver function was impaired (INR = 1,45). The ultrasound scan showed a hepatomegaly with no signs of cirrhosis, normal spleen size and normal bile ducts; liver perfusion was normal. No evidence of Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, hepatitis A, B, C and E, HIV, CMV, VZV, adenoviral infections, or paracetamol intoxication was found. Subsequently, the patient developed acute liver failure (AST 2134 U/l, ALT 2820 U/l, bilirubin 380 µmol/l, INR 3.0) and a beginning renal failure. Therefore, he was transferred to our transplant center. Due to increasing confusion and somnolence due to cerebral edema mechanical ventilation was needed. Because of an acute renal failure and severe hepatic encephalopathia MARS-hemodialysis was performed. Three weeks after the appearance of the jaundice he underwent liver transplantation (MELD 40). Surprisingly, in the explanted liver the diagnosis of giant cell hepatitis was made. Today--2 years after successful liver transplantation--the patient is in very good condition with normal liver function. In conclusion, giant cell hepatitis is a rare cause of acute liver failure that is often recognized only histologically.
Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 11/2010; 48(11):1293-6. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most patients with high MELD scores have impaired renal function prior to transplantation.
A retrospective case control study was conducted with initial low immunosuppression, which was increased when patients rejected or were clinically stable beyond day 30 ('bottom-up').
Thirty patients with impaired renal function were included. Fifteen were treated with de novo cyclosporine A (CsA; group A), and 15 had 'bottom-up' immunosuppression (group B). Baseline renal function was similar: serum creatinine (SCr) median 1.8 mg/dl (range: 1.5-4.0 mg/dl; group A) versus 2.4 mg/dl (range: 1.5-4.0 mg/dl; group B; p = 0.24). The requirement for renal replacement therapy was significantly lower in group B (p = 0.032). Ten received 'bottom-up' immunosuppression [4 CsA/1 sirolimus (Sir) 'on demand' after rejection, 5 Sir (stable)] beyond day 30. By months 6 and 12 (1.6 mg/dl vs. 1.2 mg/dl), SCr values were significantly better in group B (p = 0.006). Renal function in group B did not differ between patients receiving CsA or Sir. Overall complication rates, survival and biopsy-proven acute rejection were similar, although BANFF scores were higher in group B (p = 0.004).
Successful implementation of 'bottom-up' immunosuppression in liver transplant recipients with high lab-MELD scores and renal dysfunction at the time of transplantation has the potential to substantially improve short- and long-term outcomes.
European Surgical Research 11/2010; 45(3-4):356-67. · 0.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) belongs to the most frequent tumors worldwide with an incidence still rising. Patients with cirrhosis are at the highest risk for cancerogenesis and are candidates for surveillance, and here, as well as for the choice of potential forms of treatment, identification of suitable parameters for estimating the prognosis is of high clinical importance. The aim of this study was to describe the etiology of underlying liver disease and to identify predictors of survival in a large single center cohort of HCC patients in Southern Germany. Clinicopathologi-cal characteristics and survival rates of 458 patients (83.6% male; mean age: 62.5+/-11.2 years) consecutively admitted to a University Hospital between 1994 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The results indicate that chronic alcohol abuse was the most common risk factor (57.2%), followed by infection with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV: 10.9% and HCV: 20.5%). Overall median survival was 19.0 months, and higher OKUDA, CHILD and CLIP scores correlated negatively with prognosis. Of these, only the CLIP Score was an independent predictor in multivariate analysis. We conclude that chronic alcohol abuse is frequently associated with HCC in low hepatitis virus endemic areas, such as Germany. Our study suggests the CLIP score as a valuable prognostic marker for patients' survival, particularly of patients with alcohol related HCC.
International journal of clinical and experimental medicine 01/2010; 3(2):169-79.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The non-operative management of hemodynamically stable patients with liver trauma has become the standard of care. Non-operative treatment has a success rate of >80%. In the majority of cases of hemodynamic instability or high grade liver injuries, however, a surgical approach is necessary. As for conservative treatment of liver trauma the surveillance of patients in the ICU is of utmost importance. Repeat CT scans are only necessary in patients with high grade injuries or in case of complications. Interventional procedures, such as the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in cases of biliary complications or angiography for vascular complications, are increasingly being used in order to avoid surgery. The success rates of non-operative strategies have been improving continuously over the last decades.
Der Chirurg 09/2009; 80(10):908-14. · 0.52 Impact Factor