[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mental disorders are prevalent during pregnancy, affecting 10% of women worldwide. To improve triage of a broad spectrum of mental disorders, we investigated the decision impact validity of: 1) a short set of currently used psychiatric triage items, 2) this set with the inclusion of some more specific psychiatric items (intermediate set), 3) this new set with the addition of the 10-item Edinburgh Depression Scale (extended set), and 4) the final set with the addition of common psychosocial co-predictors (comprehensive set).
This was a validation study including 330 urban pregnant women. Women completed a questionnaire including 20 psychiatric and 10 psychosocial items. Psychiatric diagnosis (gold standard) was obtained through Structured Clinical Interviews of DSM-IV axis I and II disorders (SCID-I and II). The outcome measure of our analysis was presence (yes/no) of any current mental disorder. The performance of the short, intermediate, extended, and comprehensive triage models was evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, by analysis of the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and through associated performance measures, including, for example, sensitivity, specificity and the number of missed cases.
Diagnostic performance of the short triage model (1) was acceptable (Nagelkerke's R(2)=0.276, AUC=0.740, 48 out of 131 cases were missed). The intermediate model (2) performed better (R(2)=0.547, AUC=0.883, 22 cases were missed) including the five items: ever experienced a traumatic event, ever had feelings of a depressed mood, ever had a panic attack, current psychiatric symptoms and current severe depressive or anxious symptoms. Addition of the 10-item Edinburgh Depression Scale or the three psychosocial items unplanned pregnancy, alcohol consumption and sexual/physical abuse (models 3 and 4) further increased R(2) and AUC (>0.900), with 23 cases missed. Missed cases included pregnant women with a current eating disorder, psychotic disorder and the first onset of anxiety disorders.
For a valid detection of the full spectrum of common mental disorders during pregnancy, at least the intermediate set of five psychiatric items should be implemented in routine obstetric care. For a brief yet comprehensive triage, three high impact psychosocial items should be added as independent contributors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is increasing. Regional variation may be attributed to variation in provision of care, and as such contribute to this increasing incidence. We assessed reasons for regional variation in severe PPH in the Netherlands.
We used the Netherlands Perinatal Registry and the Dutch Maternal Mortality Committee to study severe PPH incidences (defined as blood loss ≥ 1000 mL) across both regions and neighborhoods of cities among all deliveries between 2000 and 2008. We first calculated crude incidences. We then used logistic multilevel regression analyses, with hospital or midwife practice as second level to explore further reasons for the regional variation.
We analyzed 1599867 deliveries in which the incidence of severe PPH was 4.5%. Crude incidences of severe PPH varied with factor three between regions while between neighborhoods variation was even larger. We could not explain regional variation by maternal characteristics (age, parity, ethnicity, socioeconomic status), pregnancy characteristics (singleton, gestational age, birth weight, pre-eclampsia, perinatal death), medical interventions (induction of labor, mode of delivery, perineal laceration, placental removal) and health care setting.
In a nationwide study in The Netherlands, we observed wide practice variation in PPH. This variation could not be explained by maternal characteristics, pregnancy characteristics, medical interventions or health care setting. Regional variation is either unavoidable or subsequent to regional variation of a yet unregistered variable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a national perinatal health programme, we observed striking heterogeneity in the explanation of the most prominent risks across municipalities. Therefore we explored the separate contribution of several socio-demographic risks on perinatal health inequalities between municipalities and neighbourhoods. The study aims to identify perinatal health inequalities on the neighbourhood level across the selected municipalities, and to objectify the contribution of socio-demographic risk factors on pregnancy outcomes in each municipality by the application of the population attributable risk concept.
Population based cohort study (2000-2008). Perinatal outcomes of 352,407 single pregnancies from 15 municipalities were analysed. Odds ratios and population attributable risks were calculated. Main outcomes were combined perinatal morbidity (small-for-gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies, and low Apgar score), and perinatal mortality.
Perinatal health inequalities existed on both the municipal and the neighbourhood level. In municipalities, combined perinatal morbidity ranged from 17.3 to 23.6 %, and perinatal mortality ranges from 10.1 to 15.4 ‰. Considerable differences in low socio-economic status between municipalities were apparent, with prevalences ranging from 14.4 to 82.5 %. In seven municipalities, significant differences between neighbourhoods existed for perinatal morbidity (adjusted OR ranging from 1.33 to 2.38) and for perinatal mortality (adjusted OR ranging from 2.06 to 5.59). For some municipalities, socio-demographic risk factors were s a strong predictor for the observed inequalities, but in other municipalities these factors were very weak predictors. If all socio-demographic determinants were set to the most favourable value in a predictive model, combined perinatal morbidity would decrease with 15 to 39 % in these municipalities.
Substantial differences in perinatal morbidity and mortality between municipalities and neighbourhoods exist. Different patterns of inequality suggest differences in etiology. Policy makers and healthcare professionals need to be informed about their local perinatal health profiles in order to introduce antenatal healthcare tailored to the individual and neighbourhood environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health systems' responsiveness encompasses attributes of health system encounters valued by people and measured from the user's perspective in eight domains: dignity, autonomy, confidentiality, communication, prompt attention, social support, quality of basic amenities and choice. The literature advocates for adjusting responsiveness measures for reporting behaviour heterogeneity, which refers to differential use of the response scale by survey respondents. Reporting behaviour heterogeneity between individual respondents compromises comparability between countries and population subgroups. It can be studied through analysing responses to pre-defined vignettes – hypothetical scenarios recounting a third person's experience in a health care setting. This paper describes the first comprehensive approach to studying reporting behaviour heterogeneity using vignettes. Individual-level variables affecting reporting behaviour are grouped into three categories: (1) sociodemographic, (2) health-related and (3) health value system. We use cross-sectional data from 150 000 respondents in 64 countries from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (2002–03). Our approach classifies effect patterns for the scale as a whole, in terms of strength and in relation to the domains. For the final eight variables selected (sex; age; education; marital status; use of inpatient services; perceived health (own); caring for close family or friends with a chronic illness; the importance of responsiveness), the strongest effects were present for education, health, caring for friends or relatives with chronic health conditions, and the importance of responsiveness. Patterns of scale elongation or contraction were more common than uniform scale shifts and were usually constant for a particular factor across domains. The dependency of individual-level reporting behaviour heterogeneity on country is greatest for prompt attention, quality of basic amenities and confidentiality domains.
Social Science [?] Medicine 06/2015; 138:152-160. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.04.022 · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study question:
Do in vitro fertilization (IVF) multiples generate higher hospital costs than IVF singletons, from birth up to age 5?
Hospital costs from birth up to age 5 were significantly higher among IVF/ICSI multiple children compared with IVF/ICSI singletons; however, when excluding the costs incurred during the birth admission period, hospital costs of multiples and singletons were comparable.
What is known already:
Concern has risen over the long-term outcome of children born after IVF. The increased incidence of multiple births in IVF as a result of double-embryo transfer predisposes children to a poorer neonatal outcome such as preterm birth and low birthweight. As a consequence, IVF multiples require more medical care. Costs and consequences of poorer neonatal outcomes in multiples may also exist later in life.
Study design, size, duration:
All 5497 children born from IVF in 2003-2005, whose parents received IVF or ICSI treatment in one of five participating Dutch IVF centers, served as a basis for a retrospective cohort study. Based on gestational age, birthweight, Apgar and congenital malformation, children were assigned to one of three risk strata (low-, moderate- or high-risk).
Participants/materials, setting, methods:
To enhance the efficiency of the data collection, 816 multiples and 584 singletons were selected for 5-year follow-up based on stratified (risk) sampling. Parental informed consent was received of 322 multiples and 293 singletons. Individual-level hospital resource use data (hospitalization, outpatient visits and medical procedures) were retrieved from hospital information systems and patient charts for 302 multiples and 278 singletons.
Main results and the role of chance:
The risk of hospitalization (OR 4.9, 95% CI 3.3-7.0), outpatient visits (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.8-3.6) and medical procedures (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.2) was higher for multiples compared with singletons. The average hospital costs amounted to €10 018 and €2093 during the birth admission period (P < 0.001), €1131 and €696 after the birth admission period to the first birthday (not significant (n.s.)) and €1084 and €938 from the second to the fifth life year (n.s.) for multiples and singletons, respectively. Hospital costs from birth up to age 5 were 3.3-fold higher for multiples compared with singletons (P < 0.001). Among multiples and singletons, respectively, 90.8 and 76.2% of the total hospital costs were caused by hospital admission days and 8.9 and 25.2% of the total hospital costs during the first 5 years of life occurred after the first year of life.
Limitations, reasons for caution:
Resource use and costs outside the hospital were not included in the analysis.
Wider implications of the findings:
This study confirms the increased use of healthcare resources by IVF/ICSI multiples compared with IVF/ICSI singletons. Single-embryo transfer may result in substantial savings, particularly in the birth admission period. These savings need to be compared with the extra costs of additional embryo transfers needed to achieve a successful pregnancy. Besides costs, health outcomes of children born after single-embryo transfer should be compared with those born after double-embryo transfer.
Study funding/competing interests:
This study was supported by a research grant (grant number 80-82310-98-09094) from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw). There are no conflicts of interest in connection with this article.
Trial registration number:
Human Reproduction 05/2015; 30(6):1481-90. DOI:10.1093/humrep/dev059 · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting.
A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers.
The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined.
The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.
International journal of integrated care 03/2015; 15:e002. · 1.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternity care is an integrated care process, which consists of different services, involves different professionals and covers different time windows. To measure performance of maternity care based on clients' experiences, we developed and validated a questionnaire.
We used the 8-domain WHO Responsiveness model, and previous materials to develop a self-report questionnaire. A dual study design was used for development and validation. Content validity of the ReproQ-version-0 was determined through structured interviews with 11 pregnant women (≥28 weeks), 10 women who recently had given birth (≤12 weeks), and 19 maternity care professionals. Structured interviews established the domain relevance to the women; all items were separately commented on. All Responsiveness domains were judged relevant, with Dignity and Communication ranking highest. Main missing topic was the assigned expertise of the health professional. After first adaptation, construct validity of the ReproQ-version-1 was determined through a web-based survey. Respondents were approached by maternity care organizations with different levels of integration of services of midwives and obstetricians. We sent questionnaires to 605 third trimester pregnant women (response 65%), and 810 women 6 weeks after delivery (response 55%). Construct validity was based on: response patterns; exploratory factor analysis; association of the overall score with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), known group comparisons. Median overall ReproQ score was 3.70 (range 1-4) showing good responsiveness. The exploratory factor analysis supported the assumed domain structure and suggested several adaptations. Correlation of the VAS rating and overall ReproQ score (antepartum, postpartum) supported validity (r = 0.56; 0.59, p<0.001 Spearman's correlation coefficient). Pre-stated group comparisons confirmed the expected difference following a good vs. adverse birth outcome. Fully integrated organizations performed slightly better (median = 3.78) than less integrated organizations (median = 3.63; p<0.001). Participation rate of women with a low educational level and/or a non-western origin was low.
The ReproQ appears suitable for assessing quality of maternity care from the clients' perspective. Recruitment of disadvantaged groups requires additional non-digital approaches.
PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117031. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117031 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Promotion of healthy pregnancies has gained high priority in the Netherlands because of relatively unfavorable perinatal outcomes. In response, a nationwide study, 'Healthy Pregnancy 4 All' (HP4ALL), has been initiated. Part of this study involves systematic and broadened antenatal risk assessment (the Risk Assessment substudy). Risk selection in current clinical practice is mainly based on medical risk factors. Despite the increasing evidence for the influence of nonmedical risk factors (social status, lifestyle or ethnicity) on perinatal outcomes, these risk factors remain highly unexposed. Systematic risk selection, combined with customized care pathways to reduce or treat detected risks, and regular and structured consultation between community midwives, gynecologists and other care providers such as social workers, is part of this study.
Neighborhoods in 14 municipalities with adverse perinatal outcomes above national and municipal averages are selected for participation. The study concerns a cluster randomized controlled trial. Municipalities are randomly allocated to intervention (n = 3,500 pregnant women) and control groups (n = 3,500 pregnant women). The intervention consists of systematic risk selection with the Rotterdam Reproductive Risk Reduction (R4U) score card in pregnant women at the booking visit, and referral to corresponding care pathways. A risk score, based on weighed risk factors derived from the R4U, above a predefined threshold determines structured multidisciplinary consultation. Primary outcomes of this trial are dysmaturity (birth weight < p10), prematurity (birth <37 weeks), and efficacy of implementation.
The 'HP4ALL' study introduces a systematic approach in antenatal health care that may improve perinatal outcomes and, thereby, affect future health status of a new generation in the Netherlands.Trial registration: Dutch Trial Registry (NTR-3367) on 20 March 2012.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The concept of responsiveness, introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO), addresses non-clinical aspects of health service quality that are relevant regardless of provider, country, health system or health condition. Responsiveness refers to ¿aspects related to the way individuals are treated and the environment in which they are treated¿ during health system interactions. This paper assesses the psychometric properties of a newly developed responsiveness questionnaire dedicated to evaluating maternal experiences of perinatal care services, called the Responsiveness in Perinatal and Obstetric Health Care Questionnaire (ReproQ), using the eight-domain WHO concept.Methods
The ReproQ was developed between October 2009 and February 2010 by adapting the WHO Responsiveness Questionnaire items to the perinatal care context. The psychometric properties of feasibility, construct validity, and discriminative validity were empirically assessed in a sample of Dutch women two weeks post partum.ResultsA total of 171 women consented to participation. Feasibility: the interviews lasted between 20 and 40 minutes and the overall missing rate was 8%. Construct validity: mean Cronbach¿s alphas for the antenatal, birth and postpartum phase were: 0.73 (range 0.57-0.82), 0.84 (range 0.66-0.92), and 0.87 (range 0.62-0.95) respectively. The item-own scale correlations within all phases were considerably higher than most of the item-other scale correlations. Within the antenatal care, birth care and post partum phases, the eight factors explained 69%, 69%, and 76% of variance respectively. Discriminative validity: overall responsiveness mean sum scores were higher for women whose children were not admitted. This confirmed the hypothesis that dissatisfaction with health outcomes is transferred to their judgement on responsiveness of the perinatal services.Conclusions
The ReproQ interview-based questionnaire demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties to describe the quality of perinatal care in the Netherlands, with the potential to discriminate between different levels of quality of care. In view of the relatively small sample, further testing and research is recommended.
BMC Health Services Research 12/2014; 14(1):622. DOI:10.1186/s12913-014-0622-1 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionAntenatal screening for depressive/anxiety symptoms could be biased by worries surrounding the first ultrasound (US). Therefore, we examined the potential influence of worries surrounding the first US on systematic screening for depressive/anxiety symptoms during pregnancy.Materials and Methods
We obtained data from 573 women screened consecutively in midwifery practices and hospitals in the Netherlands. Data included the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), having had an US, and its perceived influence on women's worries.ResultsIn total, 18% had EDS scores ≥10 (n = 105). Among 392 women who underwent an US, currently existing worries, introduced or unaltered by the US, predicted depressive/anxiety symptoms (aOR: 3.41, P < 0.001). Among 181 women who did not undergo an US, expected continuation of existing worries after the US predicted depressive/anxiety symptoms (aOR: 18.84, P = 0.046), in contrast to worries which were expected to subside.DiscussionIn our cohort, depressive and/or anxiety symptoms were not associated with transient worries, reduced by a first US, suggesting no bias. If true, antenatal screening for anxiety/depressive symptoms should not depend on the timing of this US examination.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 10/2014; 55(1). DOI:10.1111/ajo.12268 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Psychopathology, psychosocial problems and substance use (PPS) commonly occur in pregnant women, and can have a negative impact on the course of pregnancy and the healthy development of the child. As PPS often remains undetected and untreated during pregnancy, we developed and implemented a four-step screen-and-treat protocol in routine obstetric care, with: (i) screening including triage and subsequent confirmation, (ii) indication assessment, (iii) transfer towards care and (iv) utilization of care. Adherence to the protocol and risk factors associated with dropout were examined for 236 Dutch pregnant women in a deprived urban area. Seventy-nine percent of women accepted the screening, 21% dropped out during triage, 15% during confirmation, 3% during transfer and 8% thereafter. Provided reasons for dropout were lack of time and lack of perceived benefit. In particular, smokers, multiparous women, and women of non-Western ethnicity dropout on the way towards mental and psychosocial care. For a successful implementation of the protocol in the future, with improved adherence of pregnant women to the protocol, education of women on PPS risks, motivational skills and compulsory treatment are worth investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To investigate the relation between prenatal ultrasound measurements of viscero-abdominal disproportion and the expected type of postnatal surgical closure of an omphalocele.
Retrospectively, 24 fetuses diagnosed with an isolated omphalocele in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy were selected (period 2003-2013). An image of the axial plane of the abdomen at the level of the defect was retrieved. The ratio of omphalocele circumference to abdominal circumference (OC/AC), and the ratio of defect diameter to abdominal diameter (DD/DA) were calculated. Prognostic outcome was primary closure. Sensitivity and specificity and the corresponding area under the ROC curve of these ratios were calculated as measurements of prognostic accuracy.
Primary closure was achieved in 15/24 cases. For the OC/AC-ratio a cut-off value of 0.82 successfully predicted outcome in 23/24 cases with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99. A cut-off value of 0.61 for the DD/DA-ratio successfully predicted type of closure in 20/24 cases with an area under the ROC curve of 0.88. In all cases without eviscerated liver tissue, the defect was primarily closed.
In prenatal isolated omphalocele cases, the OC/AC-ratio is better at predicting postnatal surgical closure than the DD/DA-ratio and can be used as a prognostic tool for expected type of closure in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy.
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 08/2014; 181C:294-299. DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.08.009 · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Depressive symptoms during pregnancy are associated with preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA). Depressive symptoms and PTB and SGA, however, share similar demographic and psychosocial risk factors. Therefore, we investigated whether depressive symptomatology is an independent risk factor, or a mediator in the pathway of demographic and psychosocial risks to PTB and SGA.
Multicentre follow-up study.
Participants and setting
Pregnant women (n=1013) from midwifery practices, secondary hospitals and a tertiary hospital in three urban areas in the Netherlands.
Initial risk factors and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Mind2Care instrument, including Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) during early pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes were extracted from medical records. A formal mediation analysis was conducted to investigate the role of depressive symptoms in the pathway to PTB and SGA.
A univariate association between depressive symptoms and PTB (OR:1.04; 95% CI:1.00–1.08) was observed. After adjusting for the risk factors educational level and smoking in the mediation analysis, this association disappeared. One educational aspect remained associated: low education OR: 1.06; 95%CI: 1.02-1.10.
Depressive symptomatology appeared no mediator in the pathway of demographic and psychosocial risks to PTB or SGA. The presumed association between depressive symptoms and PTB seems spurious and may be explained by demographic and psychosocial risk factors.
Implications for practice
For the prevention of PTB and SGA, interventions directed at demographic and psychosocial risk factors are likely to be of primary concern for clinicians and public health initiatives. As depressive symptoms and PTB and SGA share similar risk factors, both will profit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To study in routine care the feasibility and inter-rater reliability of the Rotterdam Reproductive Risk Reduction risk score card (R4U), a new semi-quantitative score card for use during the antenatal booking visit. The R4U covers clinical and non-clinical psychosocial factors and identifies overall high risk pregnancies, qualifying for intensified antenatal care.
A population-based cross-sectional study (feasibility) and a cohort study (inter-rater reliability).
Feasibility was studied in six midwifery practices and two hospitals; the reliability study was performed in one midwifery practice.
1096 pregnant women in the feasibility study and a subsample of 133 participants in the inter-rater reliability study.
Feasibility was expressed as a) time needed to complete the R4U and b) the missing rate at the item and client level. For inter-rater reliability (IRR) an independent, blinded, caregiver completed a re-test R4U during a second visit; inter-rater agreement for each item and all domain sum scores were computed.
Completion of the R4U took 5 minutes or less in 63%; and between 5 and 10 minutes in another 33%. On the participant level 0.2% of women had >20% missing values (below 4% threshold, P<0.001). One of 77 items had a >10% missing rate. The per item IRR was 100% in 20% of the items, and below the predefined 80% threshold in 13% of the items (n=9). The domain sum scores universally differed less than the predetermined +/−15% margin.
The R4U risk score card is a feasible and reliable instrument.
Implication for practice
The R4U is suitable for the assessment of clinical and non-clinical risks during the antenatal booking visit in a heterogeneous urban setting in routine practice.