[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel method for the combinatorial synthesis of high-density peptide arrays is illustrated by A. Nesterov-Mueller, F. R. Breitling, and co-workers on page 3730. A laser beam melts polymer particles with embedded amino acids and forms perfect hemispheres - the microsized reaction chambers in which the combinatorial chemistry is conducted. In each microreactor, a different reaction can be activated at the same time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combinatorial laser fusing is a new method to produce high-density peptide arrays with feature sizes as small as 10 μm. It combines the high spot densities achieved by lithographic methods with the cost-efficiency of biofunctional xerography. The method is also adapted for other small molecules compatible with solid phase synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensors based on surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) have proven themselves as promising devices for molecular investigations - still there is potential to determine the geometrical parameter set for optimal sensing performance. Here we propose a comprehensive design rule for one-dimensional plasmonic grating structures. We present an analytical approach, which allows for estimation of the grating parameters for best SPR coupling efficiency for any geometry and design wavelength. On the example of sinusoidal gratings, we expand this solution and discuss numerically and experimentally, how the grating modulation depth can be refined to achieve optimal signal resolution. Finally, we propose a benchmark factor to assess the sensor performance, which can be applied to any sensing scheme utilizing resonances, allowing for comparison of different technological platforms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biofunctionalization of surfaces in a microarray format has revolutionized biological assay applications. Here, a microarray system based on a microelectronic chip is presented that allows for a versatile combinatorial in situ molecule synthesis with very high density. Successfully demonstrating an application for peptide array synthesis, the method offers a compact approach, high combinatorial freedom, and, due to the intrinsic alignment, high and reproducible precision. Patterning the chip surface with different microparticle types which imbed different monomers, several thousand different molecule types can be simultaneously elongated layer-by-layer by coupling the particle imbedded monomers to the molecules growing on the chip surface. This technique has the potential for a wide application in combinatorial chemistry, as long as the desired monomeric building blocks are compatible with the chemical process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The behavior of charged bio polymer micro particles when deposited onto a CMOS chip can be analytically modeled in form of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and the electrostatic Poisson equation, as we describe in this article. Based on these models, numerical simulations of depositions can be implemented in COMSOL that lead to improvements in the experimental setup, optimizing the size and charge distribution of the micro particles. Adapting the experiments according to the simulation results, we will show the powerful gain in deposition precision, which is essential for a contamination-free deposition and hence high quality combinatorial deposition.
Aerosol Science and Technology 01/2011; 45(1):65-74. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Today, lithographic methods enable combinatorial synthesis of >50,000 oligonucleotides per cm(2), an advance that has revolutionized the whole field of genomics. A similar development is expected for the field of proteomics, provided that affordable, very high-density peptide arrays are available. However, peptide arrays lag behind oligonucleotide arrays. This is mainly due to the monomer-by-monomer repeated consecutive coupling of 20 different amino acids associated with lithography, which adds up to an excessive number of coupling cycles. A combinatorial synthesis based on electrically charged solid amino acid particles resolves this problem. A computer chip consecutively addresses the different charged particles to a solid support, where, when completed, the whole layer of solid amino acid particles is melted at once. This frees hitherto immobilized amino acids to couple all 20 different amino acids in one single coupling reaction to the support. The method should allow for the translation of entire genomes into a set of overlapping peptides to be used in proteome research.