[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 5-40 % of patients treated with clopidogrel do not display an adequate antiplatelet response. Clopidogrel resistance may be caused by insufficient drug absorption or impaired metabolic activation of the drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel and its metabolites in plasma samples from patients treated with high and low doses of clopidogrel, to obtain a possible explanation for antiplatelet resistance.
The study included patients receiving either a single 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel (n = 17) or a 75 mg dose (n = 45) for at least 7 days before sample collection. The concentrations of clopidogrel and its metabolites-the inactive H3 and the pharmacologically active H4 isomers of the thiol metabolite and the inactive carboxylic acid metabolite-in plasma samples (stabilized with 2-bromo-3'-methoxyacetophenone) from three patients after 300 mg and from 41 patients after 75 mg of the drug were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with tandem mass spectrometry. The non-stabilized samples from the remaining patients were analysed using a validated capillary electrophoresis method. The calculated concentrations were used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of the analytes. The pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel treatment, expressed as adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation, was measured using a Multiplate analyser.
The pharmacokinetic parameter values for the H3 and H4 isomers determined in the studied group of patients treated with clopidogrel 75 mg (maximum plasma concentration [C max] 5.29 ± 5.54 and 7.13 ± 6.32 ng/mL for H3 and H4, respectively; area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time t [AUC t ] 7.37 ± 6.71 and 11.30 ± 9.58 ng·h/mL for H3 and H4, respectively) were lower than those reported in healthy volunteers, according to the literature data. Platelet aggregation measured with a Multiplate analyser ranged between 37 and 747 AU·min. A significant correlation was found between the C max of the active H4 isomer and platelet aggregation (p = 0.025).
The C max of the active H4 isomer and platelet aggregation measured by the Multiplate analyser may serve as markers of the patient response to clopidogrel therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fast and reproducible HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of clopidogrel (CLP), its carboxylic acid derivative (CLPM), derivatized thiol metabolite isomers MP-H3 and the active MP-H4 in incurred human plasma. CLP, CLPM, MP-H3 and MP-H4 isomers together with the internal standard piroxicam were extracted from plasma samples using a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The analytes were separated on HPLC Zorbax Plus C18 column via gradient elution with water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. Detection of the analytes were performed on a triple-quadrupole MS with multiple-reaction-monitoring via electrospray ionization. Calibration curves of the analytes prepared in 250μL plasma were found to be linear in ranges: 0.25-5.00ng/mL for CLP, 0.25-50.00ng/mL for MP-H3 and MP-H4 isomers and 50-10,000ng/mL for CLPM. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.25ng/mL for CLP, MP-H3, MP-H4 and 50.00ng/mL for CLPM. Intra- and inter-assay precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was ≤18.1% for CLP, ≤15.2% for CLPM, ≤10.1% for MP-H3 and ≤19.9% for MP-H4. Intra- and inter-day accuracy of the method, expressed as relative error, was ≤16%. The analytes were stable in samples stored for 6h in autosampler, in plasma samples for 24h at room temperature and for 3 months at -25°C. Resolution of CLP, CLPM and MP-H3 and MP-H4 isomers of thiol metabolite during one analytical run was reported in patient plasma. The HPLC-MS/MS method was applied for pharmacokinetic studies of CLP and its metabolites in patients treated with daily dose of 75mg CLP.
Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 12/2012; 911C:105-112. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Clopidogrel (CLP) is a second-generation thienopyridine that prevents platelet aggregation by inhibiting the adenosine diphosphate receptor located on the platelet surface. The use of CLP in combination with aspirin has become standard treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes and stent implantation. Data suggests that a significant percentage of individuals treated with CLP do not receive the expected therapeutic benefit because of a decreased platelet inhibition. The clinical consequences of an inadequate platelet response are cardiovascular complications, which can lead to acute myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The mechanism underlying CLP resistance is multifactorial and includes genetic polymorphisms and non-genetic causes (such as drug-drug interactions, co-morbidities, age). AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the so-far accumulated evidence on the role of genetic polymorphisms and non-genetic factors, as determinants of the antiplatelet response to CLP. Pharmacodynamic and clinical aspects of the CLP nonresponsiveness are also presented. Relevant papers were identified by an extensive PubMed search using appropriate keywords. EXPERT OPINION: Impaired platelet inhibition in CLP poor responders is a real problem, as it leads to serious clinical consequences. Therefore, prediction models that include pharmacogenetic knowledge and non-genetic risk factors of low response to the drug are needed in the individualization of antithrombotic therapy. Alternative antiplatelet strategies that should be considered to overcome this problem include dose modification, adjunctive antiplatelet drug usage, and use of newer agents.
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 03/2012; 13(5):663-83. · 2.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen (KTP) enantiomers has been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) following administration of a single oral dose of 100 mg rac-KTP during multidrug therapy taking into consideration the genotype of RA patients Concentrations of (-)-R and (+)-S enantiomers of KTP in plasma, urine and synovial fluid samples were determined using a validated HPCE method. The genotype of the patients was analyzed using PCR-RFLP method to determine the polymorphic variants of genes coding CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 isoenzymes. The levels of KTP enantiomers in synovial fluid at 4 h following administration were insignificantly greater [(-)-R = 1.34 ± 0.91 mg/L; (+)-S = 1.38 ± 0.91 mg/L] than in plasma [(-)-R = 1.15 ± 0.95 mg/L; (+)-S = 1.22 ± 0.95 mg/L]. The values of AUC(0-∞) were 11.89 ± 5.00 and 10.92 ± 4.10 mg h/L for (-)-R and (+)-S enantiomer, respectively, and were lower compared with data obtained in healthy volunteers following administration of the same dose of rac-KTP. But, no statistically significant differences were observed also for C (max), Cl, V (d), t (0.5) and MRT of KTP enantiomers. The total percentage of unchanged KTP eliminated with urine of RA patients was in the range of 30-50% of the administered dose. Though RA patients represented the same wild genotype, quite significant variabilities (Cl((-)-R ) = 2.37-13.50 L/h and Cl((+)-S ) = 2.44-9.90 L/h) existed in the pharmacokinetics parameters of KTP. We concluded that KTP data obtained from healthy volunteers cannot be sufficient to predict disposition of KTP enantiomers in RA patients, especially when undergoing long-term multidrug therapy.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 04/2011; 36(3):167-73. · 0.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fast and reproducible Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE) method for the quantification of (+)-S clopidogrel carboxylic acid metabolite in human fluids was elaborated for the first time. Optimal buffer and CZE conditions were established to obtain the complete separation of clopidogrel, its metabolite and piroxicam (internal standard), during one analytical run. Finally, resolution of the analytes was obtained in an uncoated silica capillary filled with a phosphate buffer of pH 2.5. The analytes were isolated from plasma and urine samples using solid phase extraction (SPE). Validation of the CZE method was carried out. The calibration curve of clopidogrel was linear in the range of 0.5-10.0mg/L in plasma and urine, whereas for (+)-S carboxylic acid metabolite linearity was confirmed in the range of 0.25-20.0mg/L in plasma and 0.25-10.0mg/L in urine. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were repeatable. LOD and LOQ were also estimated. SPE recovery of the analytes from plasma and urine was comparable and greater than 80%. The validated method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic investigations of (+)-S carboxylic acid metabolite of clopidogrel following the oral administration of clopidogrel to patients prior to percutaneous coronary intervention.
Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 03/2010; 878(13-14):1013-8. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A stereospecific CE method was elaborated for the quantification of ibuprofen enantiomers and their major phase I metabolites: 2'-hydroxy-ibuprofen and 2'-carboxy-ibuprofen in plasma and urine. Optimal temperature and pH of BGE were established to obtain complete separation of eight ibuprofen chiral compounds and (+)-S indobufen, applied as an internal standard, during one analytical run. After isolation from biological matrices using SPE on an octadecyl stationary phase, the analytes were separated and resolved up to 10 min in a silica capillary filled with BGE, consisting of heptakis 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-beta-CD in triethanolamine-phosphate buffer, pH 5.0. Complete enantioseparation of the all analytes confirmed specificity of the method. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.1-25.0 mg/L for IBP enantiomers and their chiral metabolites in 0.5 mL of plasma and 1.0-200.0 mg/L in 0.05 mL of urine. Following SPE procedure, recovery of the chiral analytes from the two media was in the ranges of 82-87%, 90-95% and 70-76% for ibuprofen, 2'-hydroxy-ibuprofen and 2'-carboxy-ibuprofen enantiomers, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic investigations of IBP enantiomers as well as free chiral metabolites in reference to the genetic polymorphism of CYP450 2C isoenzymes.