[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidemiologic profiles of chronic urticaria (CU) vary considerably among regions, and few such data are available from China.
We performed a multicenter open questionnaire investigation about the clinical and laboratory features of CU, defined as recurrent wheals with/without angioedema lasting for ≥6 weeks, among 3027 patients.
Female preponderance was observed (female/male ratio, 1.46 : 1). The mean age at diagnosis was 34.7 ± 13.8 years, and the mean disease duration was 18.5 ± 46.1 months (range, 1.5-127 months). Patients were classified as having chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU, 61.0% of patients), physical urticaria (PU, 26.2%), or other urticaria types (OU, 2.3%). Nocturnal attacks were reported by 60% of cases. The Urticaria Activity Score (UAS) in patients with CSU was 3.8 ± 1.4. The mean Dermatology Life Quality Index was 7.3 ± 3.4 (range 0-30). Induction or exacerbation of wheals with alcohol drinking was reported by 55.7% of patients. Chronic hepatitis B was less prevalent in our CU patients compared with the general Chinese population (2.7% vs 7%). Positive autologous serum skin tests (ASSTs) were observed in 66.9% of patients. Patients with positive ASST had higher UAS, greater angioedema frequencies, longer disease durations, and poorer QoL compared with patients with negative ASST (P < 0.05).
In this Chinese population, CU usually affected youth, and CSU was the most common subtype. Autoreactivity and alcohol consumption were the top two triggers for CU, whereas latent infectious and chronic inflammatory diseases were not as common as in previous reports.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is clear that the dermal papilla cell (DPC), which is located at the bottom of the hair follicle, is a special mesenchymal component, and it plays a leading role in regulating hair follicle development and periodic regeneration. Recent studies showed that the Wnt signaling pathway through β-catenin (canonical Wnt signaling pathway) is an essential component in maintaining the hair-inducing activity of the dermal papilla and growth of hair papilla cells. However, the intrinsic pathways and regulating mechanism are largely unknown. In the previous work, we constructed a cDNA subtractive library of DPC and first found that the TCF4 gene, as a key factor of Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed as the upregulated gene of the hair follicle in low-passage DPC. This study was to explore the role of TCF4 in regulating the proliferation and secretory activity of DPC. We constructed a pcDNA3.0-TCF4 expression vector and transfected it into DPC to achieve stable expression by bangosome 2000. Furthermore, we used the method of chemosynthesis to synthesize three pairs of TCF4 siRNA and transfected them into DPC. Meanwhile, we compared the transfection group and non-transfection group. We first proposed that there was expression difference in TCF4 in DPC under different biological condition. This study may have a high impact on the molecular mechanism of follicular lesions and provide a new vision for the treatment of clinic diseases.
The Journal of Dermatology 12/2013; · 1.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the association of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the TNIP1 gene and compare the expression of this gene in cases and controls from a Chinese Han population in this replication study.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to genotype 19 SNP in TNIP1 in Chinese Han patients with SLE (n = 341) and controls (n = 356). Genotypes were analyzed by codominant, dominant, and recessive models. Analysis of allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium was also performed. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to measure the expression of these genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of SLE cases and controls.
Seven SNP loci were significantly associated with SLE in our population (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Two TNIP1 gene haplotypes (ATTGCGC and GTCCTAT) were associated with SLE (p = 0.0246 and p = 0.0024, respectively). Western blotting and qRT-PCR results provide evidence that patients with SLE had significantly reduced expression of TNIP1/ABIN-1 relative to controls.
Analysis of SNP in the TNIP1 gene and expression of this gene in peripheral blood lymphocytes indicated these SNP were associated with the occurrence of SLE in Han Chinese patients. Future studies should examine the roles of these SNP in the pathogenesis of SLE.
The Journal of Rheumatology 07/2013; · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dowling-Degos disease (DDD), or reticular pigmented anomaly of the flexures, is a type of rare autosomal-dominant genodermatosis characterized by reticular hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation of the flexures, such as the neck, axilla, and areas below the breasts and groin, and shows considerable heterogeneity. Loss-of-function mutations of keratin 5 (KRT5) have been identified in DDD individuals. In this study, we collected DNA samples from a large Chinese family affected by generalized DDD and found no mutation of KRT5. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis of this family and mapped generalized DDD to a region between rs1293713 and rs244123 on chromosome 20p. By exome sequencing, we identified nonsense mutation c.430G>T (p.Glu144(*)) in POFUT1, which encodes protein O-fucosyltransferase 1, in the family. Study of an additional generalized DDD individual revealed the heterozygous deletion mutation c.482delA (p.Lys161Serfs(*)42) in POFUT1. Knockdown of POFUT1 reduces the expression of NOTCH1, NOTCH2, HES1, and KRT5 in HaCaT cells. Using zebrafish, we showed that pofut1 is expressed in the skin and other organs. Morpholino knockdown of pofut1 in zebrafish produced a phenotype characteristic of hypopigmentation at 48 hr postfertilization (hpf) and abnormal melanin distribution at 72 hpf, replicating the clinical phenotype observed in our DDD individuals. At 48 and 72 hpf, tyrosinase activities decreased by 33% and 45%, respectively, and melanin protein contents decreased by 20% and 25%, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that POFUT1 mutations cause generalized DDD. These results strongly suggest that the protein product of POFUT1 plays a significant and conserved role in melanin synthesis and transport.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), are activated by a myriad of signaling molecules including ATP, an excitatory neurotransmitter and neuron-glial signal with both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects. The "microglial dysfunction hypothesis" of neurodegeneration posits that overactivated microglia have a reduced neuroprotective capacity and instead promote neurotoxicity. The chemokine fractalkine (FKN), one of only two chemokines constitutively expressed in the CNS, is neuroprotective in several in vivo and in vitro models of CNS pathology. It is possible, but not yet demonstrated, that high ATP concentrations induce microglial overactivation and apoptosis while FKN reduces ATP-mediated microglial overactivation and cytotoxicity. In the current study, we examined the effects of FKN on ATP-induced microglial apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in the BV-2 microglial cell line. Exposure to ATP induced a dose-dependent reduction in BV-2 cell viability. Prolonged exposure to a high ATP concentration (3 mM for 2 h) transformed ramified (quiescent) BV-2 cells to the amoebic state, induced apoptosis, and reduced Akt phosphorylation. Pretreatment with FKN significantly inhibited ATP-induced microglial apoptosis and transformed amoebic microglia to ramified quiescent cells. These protective effects were blocked by chemical inhibition of PI3 K, strongly implicating the PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway in FKN-mediated protection of BV-2 cells from cytotoxic ATP concentrations. Prevention of ATP-induced microglial overactivation and apoptosis may enhance the neuroprotective capacity of these cells against both acute insults and chronic CNS diseases.
Neurochemical Research 02/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood.
In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST) and skin prick testing (SPT) to house dust mite (HDM) in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded.
The prevalence of positive ASST was 46.3%, and patients aged 30-39 years had the highest positive rate (52.1%). Positive SPT to HDM was seen in 153 patients (17.7%) with the highest positive rate (34.2%) in patients aged 20 or less. Patients with positive ASST had higher urticaria activity scores (UAS) (4.18±0.65 vs. 3.67±0.53) but lower positive rates of HDM (24.6% vs. 37.6%), as compared with those with negative ASST (odds ratio (OR) 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.47). Patients could be categorized into four groups based on the results of ASST and SPT to HDM and patients with positive ASST and positive SPT to HDM had the highest disease activity scores, experienced higher frequencies of angioedema, diseases duration, and required higher dosage of loratadine every month, compared with other subgroups (P<0.0001).
Patients with CSU showed varied responses of positive ASST and varied sensitivity to HDM, Patients with positive ASST and/or positive SPT had more disease activity compared with patients with negative ASST and/or negative SPT. Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e64142. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototype autoimmune disease with a strong genetic involvement and ethnic differences. Susceptibility genes identified so far only explain a small portion of the genetic heritability of SLE, suggesting that many more loci are yet to be uncovered for this disease. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies on SLE in Chinese Han populations and followed up the findings by replication in four additional Asian cohorts with a total of 5,365 cases and 10,054 corresponding controls. We identified genetic variants in or near CDKN1B, TET3, CD80, DRAM1, and ARID5B as associated with the disease. These findings point to potential roles of cell-cycle regulation, autophagy, and DNA demethylation in SLE pathogenesis. For the region involving TET3 and that involving CDKN1B, multiple independent SNPs were identified, highlighting a phenomenon that might partially explain the missing heritability of complex diseases.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 12/2012; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response involved in the pathogenesis of stress-associated alopecia areata (AA) has been reported. A novel polymorphism -2T>C of the adrenocorticotropin receptor (ACTHR) can result in an insufficient HPA response to stress; therefore, the functional polymorphism may underlie a role in stress-associated AA. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and the risk of developing AA and to detect the association between the -2T>C polymorphism of ACTHR and AA. METHODS: Stressful situations were evaluated using Holmes and Rahe's social readjustment rating scale. The ACTHR -2T>C polymorphism was examined in 263 patients with AA and 241 controls. RESULTS: Significant elevation of psychological stress experienced by some patients with AA compared with controls (Z = 6.628, P < 0.01). The frequency of the ACTHR C allele showed a significant difference between patients with AA and controls (P = 0.004). Allele C is the risk allele with a dominant model as the -2C allele occurred more often in patients with AA (P = 0.001). There were significant differences between patients with AA with a severe stress attack versus patients with AA with no obvious stress (P < 0.001), whereas the genotype frequencies were not correlated with the type, duration of disease, and age at onset. Notably, the C allele carrier was significantly associated with stress risk in both AA and controls (P = 0.002, OR = 1.576, 95% CI: 1.148-2.162; P = 0.042, OR = 1.529, 95% CI: 1.022-2.288). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest AA in some patients may be associated with stress. The ACTHR gene -2T>C variant may be one important factor that influences stress perception of patients with AA.
International journal of dermatology 12/2012; · 1.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify susceptibility loci for vitiligo, we extended our previous vitiligo genome-wide association study with a two-staged replication study that included 6,857 cases and 12,025 controls from the Chinese Han population. We identified three susceptibility loci, 12q13.2 (rs10876864, P(combined)=8.07 × 10(-12), odds ratio (OR)=1.18), 11q23.3 (rs638893, P(combined)=2.47 × 10(-9), OR=1.22), and 10q22.1 (rs1417210, P(combined)=1.83 × 10(-8), OR=0.88), and confirmed three previously reported loci for vitiligo, 3q28 (rs9851967, P(combined)=8.57 × 10(-8), OR=0.88), 10p15.1 (rs3134883, P(combined)=1.01 × 10(-5), OR=1.11), and 22q12.3 (rs2051582, P(combined)=2.12 × 10(-5), OR=1.14), in the Chinese Han population. The most significant single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 12q13.2 locus is located immediately upstream of the promoter region of PMEL, which encodes a major melanocyte antigen and has expression loss in the vitiligo lesional skin. In addition, both 12q13.2 and 11q23.3 loci identified in this study are also associated with other autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. These findings provide indirect support that vitiligo pathogenesis involves a complex interplay between immune regulatory factors and melanocyte-specific factors. They also highlight similarities and differences in the genetic basis of vitiligo in Chinese and Caucasian populations.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 6 September 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.320.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 09/2012; · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and primary tolerability of an anti-CD11a monoclonal antibody (CMAB001) in Chinese healthy volunteers and psoriatic patients.
Two open-label studies were conducted. One was a parallel-group, single-center, dose-escalation test, including 24 healthy adult volunteers from 18 to 45 years in age. All subjects randomly received a single subcutaneous injection dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg. The other was a multiple-dose study: 10 adult psoriatic patients were administered weekly subcutaneous injections of 1.0 mg/kg for 7 weeks.
CMAB001 was well tolerated in the single- and multiple-dose studies. Slow absorption was observed in both studies. In the single-dose study, the concentration of CMAB001 reached its highest level 2 d later after the injection, and the C(max) increased in an approximate dose-proportionate manner, while the area under curve (AUC) showed much greater than dose-proportionate increase. In the multiple-dose study, the steady-state serum concentration level was attained following the 4th injection.
CMAB001 exhibited a nonlinear pharmacokinetic profile over the dose range from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/kg, and was well tolerated in healthy volunteers and psoriatic patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic syndromes with dermatologic findings and multisystemic involvement (e.g., visceral cancer predisposition) are underrecognized. Patients may have incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity; some patients may solely exhibit subtle skin signs, which create a diagnostic challenge for physicians. Interdisciplinary diagnostic knowledge is required for the early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with these syndromes. Cutaneous changes in the face-one of the most highly exposed areas-can be easily noticed by patients themselves, their families and friends, and physicians; these changes may serve as early indicators of genetic syndromes with malignancies. In this article, we present examples of genetic syndromes with malignancies for which a thorough faciocutaneous examination is helpful in establishing a diagnosis. These examples include lentiginosis-related syndromes (e.g., Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Carney complex), photosensitivity-related syndromes (Bloom syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome), and hamartoma-related syndromes (Cowden syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, Gardner syndrome, Muir-Torre syndrome). The characteristics of these faciocutaneous clues are summarized and discussed. Objective evaluation of these faciocutaneous clues in combination with other clinical information (e.g., family history, histopathological findings, combination with other concomitant faciocutaneous lesions) is emphasized to narrow the diagnosis. The list of genetic syndromes with faciocutaneous manifestations is still expanding. Increased awareness of faciocutaneous markers can alert physicians to underlying syndromes and malignancies, render earlier screening and detection of associated medical issues, and allow for genetic counseling of family members.
The Oncologist 06/2012; 17(7):930-6. · 4.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In previous studies, HSPC016 was identified as a differentially expressed gene in dermal papilla cells (DPC) with aggregative behaviour. To clarify its role in the regulation of DPC, the recombinant HSPC016 protein was expressed using the Pichia pastoris expression system, and three small interfering ribonucleic acid duplexes (siRNA) were designed and transfected into DPC. Results showed that DPC with the HSPC016 gene inhibited, exhibit non-aggregative behaviour and grow much slower than normal DPC, and that the recombinant HSPC016 protein could promote the proliferation of high-passage DPC and induce its aggregative behaviour.
Australasian Journal of Dermatology 05/2012; 53(2):e26-9. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lupus-related vascular events are becoming a formidable obstacle to the improvement of long-term prognosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the existent findings lack for systematization. Proteomics is a strategic approach but its applications in this regard are rare and primarily involve proteome acquisition or biomarker screening, rather than functional identification. To provide further insight, we investigated the proteomic diversity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in SLE and the possible role of the identified Annexin A5 (AnxA5) in pathogenesis. The study involved 214 SLE and 183 healthy women. The two-dimensional electrophoresis gel images showed 649 ± 25 and 676 ± 19 protein spots from the PBMCs of the patients and controls, respectively. From these protein spots, 30 differentially expressed proteins were chosen, and 16 of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometer. Western blotting confirmed the over-expressed candidate, AnxA5, from the PBMCs of the patients (SLE:control=1.607:1, P=0.0004), but ELISAs indicated decreased levels of sera AnxA5 in the patients compared to healthy donors (SLE vs. control=26.8 ± 3.0 vs. 49.0 ± 3.3 ng/mL, P<0.0001). A positive correlation was demonstrated between the manifestation of thrombosis and AnxA5 (Mann-Whitney Z=-2.084, P=0.037), not anti-AnxA5, while searching for correlations between clinical parameters and the two molecular levels of patient sera. The coagulation assays using plasma from SLE patients revealed that elevated AnxA5 could shorten prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and prolonged thrombin time (P<0.001). Our data demonstrated the proteomic differences in the PBMCs between SLE patients and healthy persons. Moreover, the heterogeneous transcellular distribution, increased intracellular concentrations and decreased serum levels of AnxA5 represent a protective response to lupus-related thrombophilia; AnxA5 mostly participate in the common coagulation pathway in the thrombogenesis of SLE.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2012; 420(2):357-63. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An update of the information about the prevailing trend of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) is important for clinicians.
The objective of the study was to survey the prevalence of CADRs in Southwest China over the past 11 years.
The clinical and laboratory data of all inpatients admitted with a diagnosis of CADRs to the dermatology ward of Southwest Hospital during the past 11 years were retrospectively investigated.
In the 547 recruited patients, the most common clinical pattern was maculopapular eruptions (n = 277), followed by fixed drug eruptions (n = 84) and acute urticaria (n = 44). In 206 cases with single medication intake, the 3 most common culprit drugs were acetaminophen (n = 44), penicillins (n = 44), and cephalosporins (n = 30). The frequency of urticaria in the elderly (≥60 years old) (n = 117) was significantly lower than that in younger patients (<60 years old) (n = 430) (P = 0.046), whereas erythema multiforme was much more common in the elderly (P = 0.038). As compared with younger patients, allopurinol was the most common culprit drug in the elderly.
In contrast to previous studies, our study showed that the prevalence profiles of CADRs in the elderly are quite different from those in younger population. Acetaminophen was the most common culprit drug for total CADRs, which should be alerted as an important public health problem.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis vulgaris (PV) is a common autoimmune disease that involves the dysfunction of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. FOXP3 is a key transcription factor in the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Previous studies have demonstrated a genetic association between the FOXP3 gene and some autoimmune diseases. To elucidate the association between the FOXP3 gene and the risk of PV, 408 patients diagnosed with PV and 363 age and sex-matched healthy controls from a cohort of the Chinese majority Han population were recruited. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2232365, rs3761547, rs3761548 and rs3761549) of the FOXP3 gene were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction and ligase detection reaction. The major allele of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs - rs2232365 A, rs3761547 A and rs3761549 C) were associated with an increased risk of PV in a clinical subgroup of female patients, who were less than 40 yrs of age, had a family history of the disease and did not have disease complications (p < 0.05 for all parameters). The haplotype was structured between rs3761547 and rs3761549. An increased risk of PV was observed in haplotype A/A-T/T (p = 0.0055; adjusted OR = 3.188; 95% CI = 0.4354-23.34) and A/G-C/C (p = 0.0082; adjusted OR = 1.288; 95% CI = 0.1529-10.85) between rs3761547 and rs3761549. A synergistic effect was found among the three SNPs. Subjects with the rs2232365AA- rs3761547 AG + GG genotype were more susceptible to PV (p = 0.0393; OR = 2.90; 95% CI = 1.05-7.97). No correlation was found between rs3761548 and the onset of PV. Therefore, the FOXP3 polymorphisms appear to contribute to the risk of psoriasis among the Chinese majority Han population. These findings may aid in our understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics 02/2012; 49(1):25-35. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nine patients with recrudescent and centrifugally expanded papuloerythematous eruptions were observed in our outpatient department during the recent 8 years. The patients were all young and middle-aged men presenting with characteristic skin lesions and relapsing each year in the warm humid season. Such an observation has not yet been described in the English literature.
The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and explore the possible etiologies of our cases. In addition, differential diagnosis with other common figurate erythemas was also reviewed and discussed.
In 5 of the patients, skin-prick testing was performed with common airborne and food allergens, and skin patch testing with the Chinese baseline series of contact allergens was performed, along with histopathologic examinations.
The skin findings in our patients were conspicuous in their papular characteristics of the borders, semicircular arrangement, male predominance, and yearly crescendo of recurrence in warm seasons. Histopathologic examination showed superficial perivascular dermatitis, whereas skin-prick testing and patch testing showed negative results.
Although the etiology of our cases remains unclear at present, the clinical characteristics make them distinct from other well-described figurate erythemas characterized by annular erythematous lesions. We propose the term erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans to depict a special form of recurrent papuloerythematous figurate erythema of unknown etiology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptide-based vaccines derived from the E7 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 were developed to induce effective T cell responses against established cervical cancer, but have met with limited clinical success. It is necessary to develop novel peptide-based strategies to substantially improve the immune response against HPV16-related cancer. In this study, we aimed to design a novel peptide-based self-assembled nanoparticle HPV16 vaccine by combining the cell-penetrating peptide HIV-1 Tat(49-57) that was fused with the HPV16 E7(49-57) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope and the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene, and to investigate how it improves the immune response and the therapeutic outcome ex vivo and in vivo. Nanoparticles were prepared and identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), gel retardation and DNase I protection assays. This type of vaccine formulation formed the 20-80 nm nanoparticles, and greatly improved epitope-specific immunity both ex vivo and in vivo. Importantly, this vaccine type was associated with decreased tumor growth and enhanced long-term survival in the prophylactic and therapeutic mouse models. The underlying mechanisms were determined to involve priming of enhanced frequency of CD8(+) memory T subtype cells. These results suggest that the nanoparticle Tat-E7/pGM-CSF represents a promising novel approach to enhance the potency of peptide-based cervical cancer vaccines, and this vaccine design strategy may act as a useful reference for research of virus-associated diseases and specific tumor immunotherapies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate diagnosis is critical for effective treatment of the invasive infection by Candida albicans. Here, we investigated whether a (99m) technetium (Tc)-labeled Fab' fragment of the monoclonal antibody specific for the C. albicans germ tube could specifically identify an invasive C. albicans infection. The germ tube of C. albicans was used as an immunogen to obtain monoclonal antibodies and the Fab' fragment of MAb03.2 C1-C2 with highest affinity and specificity was labeled with (99m)Tc. In vitro binding assays showed that the labeled Fab' preferentially bound to the germ tubes of C. albicans (4.23 ± 0.17 × 10(2) Bq per 1 × 10(7) cells). These values were significantly higher than those for blastospores of C. albicans, blastospores of heat-killed C. albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli (P < 0.05). By using in vivo biodistribution and planar imaging with single photon emission computed tomography, we demonstrated a significant specific accumulation of radioactivity in C. albicans-infected tissues. In summary, (99m)Tc-MAb03.2 C1-C2 Fab' is able to specifically accumulate in C. albicans-infected tissues, but not in tissue infected with A. fumigatus or bacteria or in a sterile inflammation. This study provides a new and specific radiopharmaceutical for the diagnosis of invasive C. albicans infections.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2011; 93(5):2099-108. · 3.69 Impact Factor