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Publications (17)0 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is associated with multiple abnormalities, all of which can contribute to vascular disease. The most notable of these abnormalities include obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and renal disease. Although a number of these disorders are often grouped together in an entity termed "metabolic syndrome,” the increased risk for atherosclerotic disease in insulin-resistant patients correlates best with these abnormalities when each is considered individually. These abnormalities promote heart disease by inducing atherosclerosis, endothelial cell dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular remodeling. This review article is focused on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with acute myocardial infarction and to determine whether cardiac markers along with routine biochemical markers measured at admission could be used to diagnose the interrelation between Myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus.
    Int J Cur Bio Med Sci. 01/2011; 1:30-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Clinicopathological correlations, as well as several angiographic studies, suggest that diabetic patients have more extensive atherosclerotic disease, affecting the coronary arteries in particular. We sought to examine the combinational effect of cardiac and biochemical markers in diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease. Method: The study population constituted 50 healthy subjects, 50 cardiovascular subjects with diabetes and 50 cardiovascular subjects without diabetes. The population was subjected to biochemical and cardiac marker analysis and the results were verified. Results and discussion: Studies suggest that glycated hemoglobin values in the abnormal range can identify persons at increased risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, and death before the diagnosis of diabetes, indicating that glycated hemoglobin is a useful marker of cardiovascular risk and death from any cause.
    Int J Cur Bio Med Sci. 01/2011; 1:72-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking is a major cause for several types of cancer. Smoking increases the risk of cancers of the lungs, bladder, cervix, kidney, larynx (voice box), pharynx (upper throat), nose, mouth, oesophagus (foodpipe), pancreas, stomach, liver and some types of leukaemia. And smokers are 7 times more likely to die of these cancer than non-smokers. Scientists have identified about 4,000 different chemicals in tobacco smoke. Chemicals such as nitrosamines, benzo(a)pyrene, benzene, acrolein, cadmium, and polonium-210 can damage DNA.Within this review article we will focus on the correlation between smoking and oxidative stress and the role of smoking in increasing the risk of gastric cancer .
    Int J Biol Med Res. 01/2011; 2:593 - 602.
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    ABSTRACT: Statins clearly confer substantial benefit in people with established cardiovascular (CV) disease. Increased cholesterol levels have been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and statins are therefore used in the prevention of these diseases. Studies have found that the ability of a particular statin to lower or reduce LDL is proportional to the amount it can increase HDL levels. This review article will focus on the effective role of statin in cardiovascular disease and comparison was made between various classes of statin drugs.
    Int J Cur Sci Res. 01/2011; 1:47 - 56.
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is associated with multiple abnormalities, all of which can contribute to vascular disease. The most notable of these abnormalities include obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and renal disease. Although a number of these disorders are often grouped together in an entity termed "metabolic syndrome,” the increased risk for atherosclerotic disease in insulin-resistant patients correlates best with these abnormalities when each is considered individually. These abnormalities promote heart disease by inducing atherosclerosis, endothelial cell dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular remodeling. This review article is focused on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with acute myocardial infarction and to determine whether cardiac markers along with routine biochemical markers measured at admission could be used to diagnose the interrelation between Myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus.
    Int J Cur Bio Med Sci. 01/2011; 1:72 - 81.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Clinicopathological correlations, as well as several angiographic studies, suggest that diabetic patients have more extensive atherosclerotic disease, affecting the coronary arteries in particular. We sought to examine the combinational effect of cardiac and biochemical markers in diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease. Method: The study population constituted 50 healthy subjects, 50 cardiovascular subjects with diabetes and 50 cardiovascular subjects without diabetes. The population was subjected to biochemical and cardiac marker analysis and the results were verified. Results and discussion: Studies suggest that glycated hemoglobin values in the abnormal range can identify persons at increased risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, and death before the diagnosis of diabetes, indicating that glycated hemoglobin is a useful marker of cardiovascular risk and death from any cause.
    Int J Cur Bio Med Sci. 01/2011; 1:30 - 34.
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    ABSTRACT: Statins clearly confer substantial benefit in people with established cardiovascular (CV) disease (secondary prevention). The effectiveness of various statin drugs in hyperlipidaemic patients is evaluated in the present study. This work was undertaken to assess the effective role of statin in hyperlipidaemic patients with cardiovascular disease and comparison was made between various classes of statin drugs. The study population contained 50 subjects with hyperlipidaemia and they were administered with statin class of drugs. The administration of Rosuvastatin and Atrovastatin was found to be more effective in the treatment of hyperlipidaemic patients than that of Simvastatin and Pravastatin. Although flavostatin also had a profound effect, the dosage was high compared to other statins. Hence its effectiveness compared to Rosuvastatin and Atrovastatin need to be further investigated. Rosuvastatin and Atrovastatin can be more effective in reducing hyperlipidemia compared to other classes of statin drugs and thus further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in such patients.In addition to that,Rosuvasatin had less side effects in patients as compared to atrovastatin and can be defined as the most effective among the statin class of drugs.
    Int J Cur Biomed Phar Res. 01/2011; 1:06 - 10.
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    ABSTRACT: High levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), homocysteine (Hcy) and oxidative stress are known to be associated with premature vascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to estimate homocysteine levels and oxidant-antioxidant status and to determine the relationship between them in type 2 diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria. The study population consisted of 75 subjects [age and sex-matched] divided into three groups. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 50 diabetic patients (25 with and 25 without microalbuminuria) and 25 healthy subjects. The level of blood glucose, HbA1C, urea, creatnine and serum lipids were significantly higher in the patients with microalbuminuria compared with patients without microalbuminuria and control subjects, comparatively higher level in patients with microalbuminuria. On the other hand HDL-C was found to be significantly lower in patients with microalbuminuria. The level of hs-CRP and Hcy levels were found to be significantly higher in patients with microalbuminuria compared with patients without microalbuminuria and healthy controls. The level of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was markedly increased and the level of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant was significantly decreased in the patients with microalbuminuria compared with patients without microalbuminuria and control subjects. The present study highlights the occurrence of lipid peroxidation and possible breakdown of antioxidant status in patients with microalbuminuria. Decreased antioxidant levels, increased lipid peroxidation and increased hs-CRP and Hcy levels were observed in patients with microalbuminuria.
    Int J Biol Med Res. 01/2010; 1:04-08.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to determine the effect of atorvastain on C-reactive protein in patients with or at risk for coronary heart disease. The study population consisted of 100 patients with or without CHD was recruited for the study, of which 50 belongs to control (untreated) and 50 were test group (treated) and received daily with 10 mg/day of atorvastatin. The patients were followed for over a period of 3 months. For entire study population, the level of C-reactive protein along with lipid profile, apolipoprotein-A-l (Apo-A-I), apolipoprotein (Apo-B), ALT and AST were measured here1st day of initial visit and at the end of 3rd month of the treatment. There was significantly greater reduction in the levels of both lipid profile, lipoproteins and C-reactive protein were found in test group when compare with control group. No serious adverse events were considered associated with treatment. In summary, there is a need for more effective total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein lowering agents and significantly depressed C-reactive protein concentrations after 3rd month of therapy. These results may be important with respect to the early benefit of statin therapy. These findings suggest that statin-mediated anti-inflammatory effects may contribute to the ability of atorvastatin to reduce risk for coronary heart disease. Atorvastatin should constitute an important independent therapeutic option for patients with hyperlipidemia and anti-inflammatory effect to reduce risk for coronary heart disease.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 01/2010; 1:101-104.
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    ABSTRACT: Millions of patients present annually with chest pain, but only 10% to 15% have myocardial infarction. Lack of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of clinical and conventional markers prevents or delays treatment and leads to unnecessary costly admissions. Comparative data are lacking on the new markers, yet using all of them is inappropriate and expensive. The biochemical marker determination to clinical cardiology and discusses some important developments in this field. Biochemical markers play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), as witnessed by the incorporation of cardiac troponins into new international guidelines for patients with ACS and in the redefinition of myocardial infarction. Despite the success of cardiac troponins, there is still a need for the development of early markers that can reliably rule out ACS from the emergency room at presentation and also detect myocardial ischaemia in the absence of irreversible myocyte injury. The cardiac natriuretic peptides, Laboratory Medicine are also assuming a role in the assessment of cardiac function. Biochemical markers now play an important role in the detection of disease, risk stratification and the monitoring of therapy.
    Journal of Medicine 07/2009; 10(2).
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    ABSTRACT: AimsCigarette smoking is a serious health problem and most important avoidable causes of death in worldwide. The aim of this report is to briefly review describe cigarette smoke composition and carcinogenesis. A second part will discuss the association between tobacco use and high risk of health disorders, existing evidence regarding smoking and cardiovascular risk and other health disorders.Methods and Methods The evidence so far shows that smoking dose-dependently increases the risk of impaired glucose tolerance, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, pulmonary diseases, smoking and cancers and abdominal-type obesity.ResultsTobacco products contain more than 50 established or identified carcinogens and these may increase risk of cancer by causing mutations that disrupt cell cycle regulation, or through their effect on the immune or endocrine systems. Certain factors such as genes, diet and environmental exposures may alter susceptibility to cancer in tobacco user.Conclusions Today at least 20% of all cancers are estimated to be attributable to smoking, but this figure is expected to increase because of the uptake of tobacco use in low-income countries.
    Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Clinical Research and Reviews 06/2009; 3(2):120-127.
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Cigarette smoking is a serious health problem and most important avoidable causes of death in worldwide. The aim of this report is to briefly review describe cigarette smoke composition and carcinogenesis. A second part will discuss the association between tobacco use and high risk of health disorders, existing evidence regarding smoking and cardiovascular risk and other health disorders. Methods and Methods: The evidence so far shows that smoking dose-dependently increases the risk of impaired glucose tolerance, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, pulmonary diseases, smoking and cancers and abdominal-type obesity. Results: Tobacco products contain more than 50 established or identified carcinogens and these may increase risk of cancer by causing mutations that disrupt cell cycle regulation, or through their effect on the immune or endocrine systems. Certain factors such as genes, diet and environmental exposures may alter susceptibility to cancer in tobacco user. Conclusions: Today at least 20% of all cancers are estimated to be attributable to smoking, but this figure is expected to increase because of the uptake of tobacco use in low-income countries.
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 01/2009; 3:120-127.
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    ABSTRACT: We directly evaluate the safety and dose efficacy of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor atorvastatin and simvastatin in hypercholesterolemic patients. Fifty hyperlipidemia patients between the ages of 20 and 75 years with baseline of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (>160 mg/dl) and triglycerides (>400 mg/dl) received once-daily dosing with atorvastatin 10, 20 mg or simvastatin 10, 20 mg. The efficacy end points were mean percent change in plasma LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations from baseline to the end of treatment (week 8). Atorvastatin 10, 20 mg caused significantly greater reductions in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, respectively, than the milligram equivalent doses of simvastatin. On the other hand Atorvastatin 10 mg caused triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were not different between atorvastatin and the other reductase inhibitors except at the 20-mg dose when atorvastatin produced significant changes in triglycerides and HDL cholesterol than simvastatin. No patient in either treatment group had clinically important elevations in creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), or aspartate aminotransaminase (AST). No serious adverse events were considered associated with treatment. In summary, there is a need for more effective total cholesterol and LDL– C-lowering agents to improve treatment aimed at reducing risk of CHD. In this trial, atorvastatin was more effective than simvastatin. Atorvastatin should constitute an important therapeutic option for patients with hyperlipidemia.
    J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. 01/2009; 1:16-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Homocysteine is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the efficacy of homocysteine-lowering treatment with B vitamins for secondary prevention in patients who had had an acute myocardial infarction. Methods: We investigated the possible correlation between deficiency of vitamins B6, B12 or folic acid and homocysteine in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A case control study was carried out involving 50 AMI patients and age matched 50 normal healthy subjects. Results: Mean serum B12 concentration in AMI patients was found to be significantly lower than the mean for controls. Mean serum folate and PLP level in patients was also found to be lower than controls; however, the differences were not statistically significant. Mean plasma homocysteine level in AMI cases was higher than the mean level in controls. Compared to controls, there was significantly greater deficiency of folate, B12 and PLP in AMI patients. Conclusion: Substantial nutritional deficiencies of these three vitamins along with mild hyperhomocysteinemia, perhaps through interplay with the classical cardiovascular risk factors (highly prevalent in this population), could be further aggravating the risk of CAD in the population.
    Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 01/2009; 3:1770-1775.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated lipid peroxidation, cardiac markers and antioxidant status in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to compare with normal subjects. The study population contained 100 subjects divided in two groups, 50 patients with AMI and equal number of age and sex matched healthy subjects were investigated. Lipid peroxidation was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). TBARS, Ceruloplasmin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol, CK, CK-MB, Troponin T, Troponin I, CRP, and BNP levels were found significantly high in patients with AMI as compared to healthy subjects but significantly decreased in HDL-cholesterol in AMI patients as compared to healthy controls. There was no difference in VLDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the AMI patients and the healthy subjects. The activities of antioxidant (vitamin A (β-carotene), vitamin E, vitamin C, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were found significantly decreased in patients with AMI as compared to healthy subjects. AMI is associated with greater than normal lipid peroxidation and with an imbalance in antioxidants’ status. A significant increased level of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol, CK, CK-MB, Troponin T, Troponin I, CRP, and BNP were observed in AMI patients. Therefore these cardiac biomarkers may be useful diagnosis of patients with AMI. These results indicate that low activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH, vitamin C, vitamin E and β-carotene in the circulation of patients with complicating AMI may be due to increased utilization to scavenge lipid peroxides. Decrease in plasma concentrations of GSH, vitamin E and β-carotene seems to be responsible for the elevation of lipid peroxidation in compared with AMI.
    European Journal of Scientific Research. 01/2009; 27:275-285.
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    Pasupathi P, Saravanan G, Farook J.
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of some diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atheroscleorosis. Smoking may enhance oxidative stress not only through the production of reactive oxygen radicals in smoke but also through weakening of the antioxidant defense systems. Cigarette smoke may promote atherogenesis by producing oxygen-derived free radicals that damage lipids. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of cigarette smoking on changes in lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in cigarette smokers. The study population consisted of 200 male subjects divided into two groups; 100 smokers and age- and sex-matched non-smokers 100 subjects were selected. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were found to be significantly higher for smokers than for non-smokers. Biochemical parameters such as cardiac markers, lipid profile, apolipoproteins B and A1 (Apo B and A1), lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E were measured. A highly significant increase in the levels of cardiac markers was found in smokers when compared with non-smokers. Enhanced lipid peroxidation with concomitant depletion of antioxidants was observed smokers as compared to non-smokers. The levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL were found to be significantly high, while HDL was significantly low in smokers compared to non-smokers. In addition, the activity of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were more significantly altered in smokers than non-smokers. These results suggest that the atherogenic effects of smoking are mediated in part by free radical damage to lipids and possible breakdown of antioxidant status in cigarette smoking.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 01/2009; 1:16-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Cigarette smoke may promote atherogenesis by producing oxygen-derived free radicals that damage lipids. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of cigarette smoking on changes in lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) and acute myocardial infarction (MI). The study population contained 80 patients [MI (n=40) and IHD (n=40)] and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters such as cardiac markers creatin kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), troponins T and I, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E) were measured. A highly significant increase in the levels of cardiac markers was found in MI patients when compared with stable IHD and control subjects. Enhanced lipid peroxidation with concomitant depletion of antioxidants was observed MI patients as compared to stable IHD and control subjects. The levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL were found to be significantly high, while HDL was significantly low in MI patients compared to control subjects. In addition, the aforesaid biochemical parameters (cardiac markers, lipids, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants) were more significantly altered in smokers than non-smokers in the MI group. These results suggest that the atherogenic effects of smoking are mediated in part by free radical damage to lipids and possible breakdown of antioxidant status. The study also supports notion
    Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 01/2009; 4:151-159.