[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viruses are frequent causes of upper respiratory tract infections in children. We investigated the viral aetiology of community-acquired upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) in young children treated as outpatients in community settings. During November 2008, nasal swab specimens were taken from children with recent onset of upper respiratory tract infections. The patients attended day care or primary schools; the specimens were randomly obtained by pediatricians from schools and childcare institutions and sent for identification by PCR method. A total of 300 specimens were collected. From all samples, 40.67% were positive for at least 1 virus, viz. adenovirus 11.76%, rhinovirus 9.8%, respiratory syncytial virus 6.08%, influenza virus 5.56%, parainfluenza virus 4.9%, enterovirus 2.94% and a combination of 2 viruses 2%. Clinical manifestations of the respiratory infections were as follows: 70.7% of the patients had coryza, 69.3% cough, 26% sneezing, 19.7% sore throat, 2.7% headache, 7.7% fever, 2.3% conjunctivitis, 1.3% abdominal pain and 1% hoarseness. The results of this study demonstrate that adenoviruses and rhinoviruses are the two most common viral agents isolated from pediatric outpatients with acute URIs in autumn in Arak City. Coryza and cough were the most common symptoms in children. Sore throat and hoarseness were more prevalent in infections caused by influenza virus, conjunctivitis in parainfluenza, and coryza in rhinovirus infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bordetella pertussis continues to circulate even in countries with good childhood vaccination coverage. This study was undertaken to define the relationship between documented disease and the clinical criteria proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from previously healthy 6-14-year-old school children in Tehran, presenting with persistent cough of at least 2- week duration. Specimens were examined for Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Out of 6601 students, 328 (5.0%) had been coughing for at least 2 weeks. Of these children with cough, 182 (55.5%) experienced whooping, 194 (59.1%) suffered a paroxysmal cough, and 73 (22.3%) had post-tussive vomiting. Twenty-one (6.4%) samples tested positive for B. pertussis and six (1.8%) for B. parapertussis by PCR. Culture of four (1.2%) specimens was positive for B. pertussis. In comparison to PCR, the sensitivity and the specificity of the WHO clinical criteria (year 2000) were 95.2% and 15.0%, respectively.
Pertussis remains one of the etiologies of prolonged cough, even in communities with high immunization in children. The specificity of the WHO criteria is low in diagnosing pertussis compared with PCR.
International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 10/2010; 14(12):e1072-5. DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2010.07.005 · 2.33 Impact Factor