Farooq Mirza

Weill Cornell Medical College, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (10)39.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background In patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), previous studies have shown a prognostic benefit of maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax) values on positron emission tomography (PET). Because tumor size is also prognostic and is associated with SUVmax, we sought to better characterize their relationship. We hypothesize that the ratio of SUVmax to tumor size is a clinically useful measurement. Methods A retrospective review was performed for patients (tumors ≥ 1 cm) undergoing resection of NSCLC. Patients were placed into quartiles (SUVmax and SUVmax to tumor size ratio) and compared for clinical and pathologic factors. Predictors of SUVmax and SUVmax to tumor size ratio on survival were evaluated. Results Among 530 patients, increasing tumor size (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; confidence interval [CI], 1.68–2.47; p < 0.001) was an independent predictor of higher SUVmax. Patients in quartiles by the ratio of SUVmax to tumor size demonstrated no significant difference in median tumor size. Those patients with the highest ratios (QR4, 3.21–27.5) more frequently had poorly differentiated tumors (51%; p < 0.001), were likely to have lymph node metastases (30%; p < 0.001), and had poor 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) (58%; p = 0.013). On multivariate analysis, as a continuous variable SUVmax to tumor size ratio was a stronger independent predictor of survival than SUVmax alone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.06; CI, 1.00–1.13 versus HR, 1.02; CI, 0.99–1.06). Using cutpoint analysis, a high SUVmax to tumor size ratio was also a stronger predictor of survival than was high SUVmax alone, particularly for tumors 1–3 cm (HR, 1.53; CI, 0.93–2.53 versus HR, 1.15; CI, 0.69–1.93). Conclusions The ratio of SUVmax to tumor size may be a more important indicator of prognosis than SUVmax alone in patients with NSCLC. In particular, the use of the ratio may be appropriate for identifying patients with small tumors who are at high risk for lymph node metastases and poor survival.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 02/2013; 95(2):397–404. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.07.038 · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal endoscopy 07/2012; 76(1):185-6. DOI:10.1016/j.gie.2012.02.019 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Worldwide Oesophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC) reported recommendations regarding the optimum number of lymph nodes to be removed during oesophagectomy based upon patients undergoing surgery alone. We sought to determine whether these recommendations are relevant in the case of oesophageal cancer (EC) patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by transthoracic en bloc oesophagectomy were reviewed. Patients were grouped by optimal versus suboptimal lymphadenectomy per WECC recommendations (pTis/T0/T1 ≥ 10; pT2 ≥ 20; pT3/T4 ≥ 30). Cohorts were compared for factors predicting optimal lymphadenectomy and for overall survival (OS). During the time period, 135 patients (adeno = 100, squamous = 35) met the study criteria, of whom 94 patients (70%) had optimal lymphadenectomy. Optimal lymphadenectomy was more likely for tumours with lower ypT (P ≤ 0.001). Optimal lymphadenectomy predicted the OS (0.50, confidence intervals 0.29-0.85, P = 0.011), although it was collinear with ypT classification, which was also predictive. Patients not down-staged in ypT (n = 66, 49%) particularly experienced a trend towards improved 3-year survival with optimal lymphadenectomy (51 versus 29%, P = 0.144). Similarly, of patients with persistent nodal disease (n = 79, 59%), those who had optimal lymphadenectomy (n = 51) experienced improved 3-year OS compared with those with suboptimal lymphadenectomy (n = 28), (55 versus 36%, P = 0.087). WECC recommendations regarding lymphadenectomy for EC may be applicable to patients undergoing oesophagectomy following neoadjuvant therapy, particularly those who are not down-staged by pathological tumour depth (T) classification and those with persistent nodal metastases. Techniques to enhance the extent of LAN should be pursued in this patient population.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 04/2012; 42(4):659-64. DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezs105 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation dose from diagnostic imaging procedures is not monitored in patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer. Evidence suggests an increased lifetime risk of malignancy of 1.0% per 100 millisieverts (mSv). As such, recommendations are to restrict healthcare and radiation workers to a maximum dose of 50 mSv per year or to 100 mSv over a three-year period. The purpose of this study was to estimate cumulative effective doses of radiation in patients undergoing lung cancer resection and to determine predictors of increased exposure. We identified 94 consecutive patients undergoing resection for non-small cell lung cancer. Radiologic procedures performed from one year prior to resection until two years postresection were recorded. Estimates of effective doses (mSv) were obtained from published literature and institutional records. Predictors of dose greater than 50 mSv per year and greater than 100 mSv per three years were examined statistically. The majority of patients (median age = 67 years) had stage IA cancer (52%). In the three-year period, patients had 1,958 radiologic studies (20.8/patient) including 398 computed tomographic (CT) scans (4.23/patient) and 211 positron emission tomography (PET) scans (2.24 per patient). The three-year median estimated radiation dose was 84.0 mSv (interquartile range, 44.1 to 123.2 mSv). The highest dose was in the preoperative year. In any one year, 66% of patients received more than 50 mSv, while 19% received over 100 mSv. Over the three-year period, 43.6% of patients exceeded 100 mSv. The majority of the radiation (89.8%) was from CT or PET scans. On multivariate analysis, a history of previous malignancy (odds ratio [OR] 3.8; confidence interval [CI] 1.14 to 12.7), postoperative complications (OR 6.16; CI 1.42 to 26.6), and postoperative surveillance with PET-CT (OR 13.2; CI 4.34 to 40.3) predicted exposure greater than 100 mSv over the three-year period. This study demonstrates that lung cancer patients often receive a higher dose of radiation than that considered safe for healthcare and radiation workers. The median cumulative dose reported in this study could potentially increase the individual estimated lifetime cancer risk by as much as 0.8%. Although risk-benefit considerations are clearly different between these groups, strategies should be in place to decrease radiation doses during the preoperative workup and postoperative period.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 07/2011; 92(4):1170-8; discussion 1178-9. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.03.096 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: No consensus exists on the optimal treatment strategy for clinical T2-T3N0M0 esophageal cancer. This study was conducted to determine rates of nodal positivity (N+) and to evaluate results of treatment strategies in this cohort. Surgically treated patients with cT2-T3N0M0 esophageal cancer were reviewed. Adequacy of lymph node dissection was assessed by guidelines applied to clinical stage. Survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for predictors of N+ and survival. We identified 102 patients, 51 cT2N0 and 51 cT3N0, 39 (38%) of whom had induction therapy. Despite being clinically node negative, 61 patients (60%) had nodal metastases. Applied to cT classification, adequate nodal dissection was achieved in 64 patients (63%). Transthoracic esophagectomy was more likely than transhiatal esophagectomy to achieve adequate nodal dissection (69% versus 31%, p=0.005). Adequate nodal dissection was more likely to document pN+ disease in both the surgery alone group (70% versus 50%, p=0.13) and induction therapy group (71% versus 33%, p=0.02). Five-year overall survival was 44% with surgery alone and 55% with induction therapy. On multivariate analysis, pN+ was the strongest predictor of overall survival (relative risk 2.73, confidence interval: 1.29 to 5.78). Most cT2-T3N0M0 patients have pN+ disease. Despite induction therapy, more than 50% have persistent nodal disease. Transthoracic esophagectomy is more likely to detect pN+ disease and more likely to meet criteria of adequate nodal dissection than is transhiatal esophagectomy. Therefore, the majority of patients with cT2-T3N0M0 should be considered for neoadjuvant protocols and should be treated by transthoracic resection whenever possible.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2011; 92(2):491-6; discussion 496-8. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.04.004 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study was to determine the rate of pathological response after preoperative celecoxib and concurrent taxane-based chemotherapy in patients with cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this single-arm, phase II clinical trial. Patients were administered daily celecoxib in combination with two to three cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel with preoperative intent. Levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in resected tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical outcome measures. Postoperatively, patients were administered daily celecoxib for 1 year or until documented tumor recurrence. All patients received two to three cycles of chemotherapy plus celecoxib 800 mg/d. Toxicities were as expected. A major clinical response (complete response + partial response) was noted in 22 patients (56%); six patients (15%) had a complete clinical response. Thirty-seven patients underwent esophagectomy. Five patients had a major pathological response (12.8%). Four-year overall and disease-free survivals were 40.9% and 30.3%, respectively. Patients with tumors expressing COX-2 demonstrated a higher likelihood of a major clinical response response (62% versus 50%) and an improved overall survival, compared with patients with COX-2-negative tumors. Preoperative celecoxib with concurrent chemotherapy demonstrated sufficient effect on pathologic response to warrant further study. Patients with tumors expressing COX-2 demonstrated trends toward improved response to preoperative therapy and improved overall survival compared with nonexpressors.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 06/2011; 6(6):1121-7. DOI:10.1097/JTO.0b013e31821529a9 · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognosis for patients with esophageal cancer is poor, even among those who undergo potentially curative esophagectomy. The neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is hypothesized to reflect the systemic inflammatory response created by a tumor and is possibly predictive of tumor aggressiveness and propensity for metastasis. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of esophageal cancer patients who underwent attempted curative esophagectomy at Weill Cornell Medical Center between 1996 and 2009. We collected data on patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and receipt of neoadjuvant treatment. Preoperative blood tests were used to calculate NLR. Elevated NLR was defined a priori as ≥5.0. Logistic regression modeling was performed to analyze characteristics associated with elevated NLR. We conducted Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox regression modeling to determine estimates and predictors of disease-free and overall survival. We identified a total of 295 patients who underwent esophagectomy. The median duration of follow-up was 31 months (interquartile range [IQR] 13-61). There were 56 patients (18.9%) who had elevated NLR preoperatively. Receipt of neoadjuvant therapy was independently associated with high NLR (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02-4.51). In multivariable analyses, elevated NLR was associated with significantly worse disease-free (hazard ratio [HR] 2.26, 95% CI 1.43-3.55) and overall survival (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.53-3.50). Preoperative NLR is a potential prognostic marker for recurrence and death after esophagectomy. It is unclear whether NLR reflects the degree of inflammatory response to the primary tumor or other patient-specific or tumor characteristics that predispose to recurrence. Further investigation is warranted to clarify the mechanisms explaining the observed associations between elevated NLR and poor outcomes in esophageal cancer.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2011; 18(12):3362-9. DOI:10.1245/s10434-011-1754-8 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In clinical stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer, the role of surgical resection, particularly pneumonectomy, after induction therapy remains controversial. Our objective was to determine factors predictive of survival after postinduction surgical resection. We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected database of 136 patients who underwent surgical resection after induction chemotherapy (n = 119) or chemoradiation (n = 17) from June 1990 to January 2010. One hundred five lobectomies or bilobectomies and 31 pneumonectomies were performed. There was 1 perioperative death (pneumonectomy). Seventy-one patients had downstaging to N0 or N1 nodal status (52%). There were 2 complete pathologic responses. Median follow-up was 42 months (range, 0.69-136 months). Overall 5-year survival for entire cohort was 33% (36% lobectomy, 22% pneumonectomy, P = .001). Patients with pathologic downstaging to pN0 or pN1 had improved 5-year survival (45% vs 20%, P = .003). For patients with pN0 or pN1 disease, survival after lobectomy was better than after pneumonectomy (48% vs 27%, P = .011). In patients with residual N2 disease, there was no statistically significant survival difference between lobectomy and pneumonectomy (5-year survival, 21% vs 19%; P = .136). Multivariate analysis showed as independent predictors of survival age (hazard ratio, 1.05; P = .002), extent of resection (hazard ratio, 2.01; P = .026), and presence of residual pN2 (hazard ratio, 1.60; P = .047). After induction therapy for patients with clinical stage IIIA disease, both pneumonectomy and lobectomy can be safely performed. Although survival after lobectomy is better, long-term survival can be accomplished after pneumonectomy for appropriately selected patients. Nodal downstaging is important determinant of survival, particularly after lobectomy.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 01/2011; 141(1):48-58. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.07.092 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although patients with esophageal cancer (EC) often develop lymph node metastases in the cervical and recurrent laryngeal (CRL) distribution, lymphadenectomy in this field is rarely performed. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with CRL node positivity and to determine the appropriate indications to perform a "three field" lymphadenectomy. In a retrospective review, EC patients who underwent three-field lymphadenectomy were analyzed. Predictors of positive CRL nodes were examined univariately, then selected for inclusion in a multivariate logistic regression model. From 1994 to 2009, 185 patients had a three-field lymphadenectomy, of whom 46 patients (24.9%) had positive CRL nodes. Final pathology stages (seventh edition) were I in 24 patients, II in 43, III in 109, and IV in 1 patient. Eight patients had a major pathologic response after induction therapy. On univariate analysis, variables significantly associated with positive CRL nodes included squamous cell histology, proximal location, advanced clinical presentation, the presence of clinical nodal disease, higher pT classification, and higher pN classification. There was no reduction in the rate of positive CRL nodes after induction chemotherapy. On multivariate analysis, higher pN classification (adjusted odds ratio 16.25, 95% confidence interval: 5.40 to 48.87; p < 0.0001) and squamous histology (adjusted odds ratio 6.04, 95% confidence interval: 2.21 to 16.56; p < 0.0001) predicted positive CRL nodes. Complete lymphadenectomy is necessary in esophageal cancer to appropriately stage patients. Low rates of positive CRL nodes are present with early clinical stage, with pT0-2 tumors, and with pN0 classification, particularly in patients with adenocarcinoma and gastroesophageal junction tumors. Dissection of the CRL field should be considered with advanced disease for adenocarcinoma and in all patients with squamous cell cancer.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 12/2010; 90(6):1805-11; discussion 1811. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.06.085 · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • The Annals of thoracic surgery 08/2010; 90(2):e31. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.05.040 · 3.65 Impact Factor