[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the first detection of adenovirus in a Brazilian Desmodus rotundus bat, the common vampire bat. As part of a continuous rabies surveillance program, three bat specimens were captured in Southern Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from pooled organs and submitted to a nested PCR designed to amplify a 280 bp long portion of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. One positive sample was subjected to nucleotide sequencing, confirming that this DNA fragment belongs to a member of the genus Mastadenovirus. This sequence is approximately 25 % divergent at the nucleotide level from equine adenovirus 1 and two other recently characterized bat adenoviruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A survey was carried out in search for bat coronaviruses in an urban maternity roost of about 500 specimens of two species of insectivorous bats, Molossus molossus and Tadarida brasiliensis, in Southern Brazil. Twenty-nine out of 150 pooled fecal samples tested positive by reverse transcription-PCR contained fragments of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of coronavirus-related viruses. The sequences clustered along with bat alphacoronaviruses, forming a subcluster within this group. Our findings point to the need for risk assessment and continued surveillance of coronavirus infections of bats in Brazil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An immunoperoxidase inhibition assay (IIA) for detection of rabies antibodies in human sera is described. Diluted test sera are added to microplates with paraformaldehyde-fixed, CER cells infected with rabies virus. Antibodies in test sera compete with a rabies polyclonal rabbit antiserum which was added subsequently. Next, an anti-rabbit IgG-peroxidase conjugate is added and the reaction developed by the addition of the substrate 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC). The performance of the assay was compared to that of the "simplified fluorescence inhibition microtest" (SFIMT), an established virus neutralization assay, by testing 422 human sera. The IIA displayed 97.6% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 97.6% accuracy (Kappa correlation coefficient=0.9). The IIA results can be read by standard light microscopy, where the clearly identifiable specific staining is visible in antibody-negative sera, in contrast to the absence of staining in antibody-positive samples. The assay does not require monoclonal antibodies or production of large amounts of virus; furthermore, protein purification steps or specialized equipment are not necessary for its performance. The IIA was shown to be suitable for detection of rabies antibodies in human sera, with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy comparable to that of a neutralization-based assay. This assay may be advantageous over other similar methods designed to detect rabies-specific binding antibodies, in that it can be easily introduced into laboratories, provided basic cell culture facilities are available.
Journal of virological methods 03/2011; 174(1-2):65-8. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is the causative agent of bovine herpetic encephalitis. In countries where BoHV-5 is prevalent, attempts to vaccinate cattle to prevent clinical signs from BoHV-5-induced disease have relied essentially on vaccination with BoHV-1 vaccines. However, such practice has been shown not to confer full protection to BoHV-5 challenge. In the present study, an inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccine prepared with a recombinant BoHV-5 from which the genes coding for glycoprotein I (gI), glycoprotein E (gE) and membrane protein US9 were deleted (BoHV-5 gI/gE/US9(-)), was evaluated in cattle in a vaccination/challenge experiment. The vaccine was prepared from a virus suspension containing a pre-inactivation antigenic mass equivalent to 10(7.69) TCID(50)/dose. Three mL of the inactivated vaccine were administered subcutaneously to eight calves serologically negative for BoHV-5 (vaccinated group). Four other calves were mock-vaccinated with an equivalent preparation without viral antigens (control group). Both groups were boostered 28 days later. Neither clinical signs of disease nor adverse effects were observed during or after vaccination. A specific serological response, revealed by the development of neutralizing antibodies, was detected in all vaccinated animals after the first dose of vaccine, whereas control animals remained seronegative. Calves were subsequently challenged on day 77 post-vaccination (pv) with 10(9.25) TCID(50) of the wild-type BoHV-5 (parental strain EVI 88/95). After challenge, vaccinated cattle displayed mild signs of respiratory disease, whereas the control group developed respiratory disease and severe encephalitis, which led to culling of 2/4 calves. Searches for viral DNA in the central nervous system (CNS) of vaccinated calves indicated that wild-type BoHV-5 did not replicate, whereas in CNS tissues of calves on the control group, viral DNA was widely distributed. BoHV-5 shedding in nasal secretions was significantly lower in vaccinated calves than in the control group on days 2, 3, 4 and 6 post-challenge (pc). In addition, the duration of virus shedding was significantly shorter in the vaccinated (7 days) than in controls (12 days). Attempts to reactivate latent infection by administration of dexamethasone at 147 days pv led to recrudescence of mild signs of respiratory disease in both vaccinated and control groups. Infectious virus shedding in nasal secretions was detected at reactivation and was significantly lower in vaccinated cattle than in controls on days 11-13 post-reactivation (pr). It is concluded that the inactivated vaccine prepared with the BoHV-5 gI/gE/US9(-) recombinant was capable of conferring protection to encephalitis when vaccinated cattle were challenged with a large infectious dose of the parental wild type BoHV-5. However, it did not avoid the establishment of latency nor impeded dexamethasone-induced reactivation of the virus, despite a significant reduction in virus shedding after challenge and at reactivation on vaccinated calves.