[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT
Mosquito species trappability is related to the capturing techniques used. They show a different attractiveness and capturing rate by the techniques used. CDC attracts different species of mosquito compared to the HLC and RC. Some species trend to be captured with all the three techniques. In order to see and compare the species of mosquitoes in relation with the capturing techniques used, a study was undertaken to classify the mosquito species by these techniques from May to August, 2011. CDC technique was used in almost all the study stations, HLC was used only in Kucove (Kozare); Lushnje (Divjake), and Tirana, meanwhile RC other than these three stations has been performed in Vlore (Panaja); Saranda; Korce (Dishnice and Goskove); Pogradec; Durres (Shenpjeter), and Malesi e Madhe (Rapsh). CDC-s was set in stations of cattle shelters, horses, chickens pen, turkey’s pen, ducks, and human houses. Only one person was involved in the HLC and RC collection. In total 1219 individuals of adult mosquitoes were collected with all the three techniques. 567/1219 (46.51%) were collected with CDC; 320/1219 (26.25%) with RC, and 324/1219 (26.58%) with HLC. The most predominant species captured with CDC were Ae. vexans (226/567; 39.35%), Cx. pipiens (119/567; 20.99%), and Cx. impudicus (86/567; 15.17%). The predominant species collected with RC were Cx. pipiens (168/320, 52.5%), and Oc. caspius (85/320, 26.56%). The predominant species collected with HLC were Cx. pipiens (144/324, 43.44%), and Ae.albopictus (85/324, 26.24%). Our results showed that Cx. pipiens were attracted by the three techniques; Oc. caspius trended to be captured only with RC; Ae. albopictus was captured only with HLC; Cx. impudicus and Ae. vexans were collected better with CDC.
Key Words: Mosquito, trappability, attractiveness, CDC light traps (CDC), resting catch (RC), human landing catch (HLC), Albania.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sandflies were collected in two districts of Albania and tested for a probable phlebovirus infection. A novel phlebovirus, provisionally named Adria virus, was detected in 2/12 pools, both trapped in a region close to the Adriatic Sea. The new virus is genetically closer (similarity 77.1% at nucleotide level) to Arbia virus, which belongs to the Salehabad serocomplex. Its distribution and probable pathogenicity to humans remain to be elucidated.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 04/2011; 17(4):585-7. · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic in Albania. Ticks collected from cattle grazing in the endemic areas of Albania were tested for presence of CCHFV RNA, while serum samples collected from goats, cattle, hares, and birds were tested for the presence of specific IgG antibodies to CCHFV. One of the 31 pools prepared, consisting of four female Hyalomma spp. ticks, was found to carry CCHFV RNA with 99.2-100% homology to sequences detected in patients from the same region. Antibodies were not detected in cattle, hares, and birds, but 2/10 goats presented high titers of IgG antibodies. The shepherd of that flock was a member of a family affected by CCHF 10 days before the collection of goats' sera, and he presented a mild form of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During 2003 to 2006 samples from 34 Albanian patients with suspected Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) were tested by serology and PCR for CCHF virus; negative samples were further tested for hantaviruses, Leptospira spp. and Rickettsia spp. CCHF virus was detected in 38.2% of cases, hantaviruses in 11.7%, and leptospirosis and rickettsiosis were diagnosed in 29.4% and 2.9% of cases, respectively. There is a seasonal and clinical overlapping among the 4 diseases in Albania, suggesting that testing for these agents is necessary in cases with fever and haemorrhagic manifestations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe disease in humans with a mortality reaching 30%. A CCHF outbreak took place in Albania in 2003. As in other viral hemorrhagic fevers cytokines may be involved and play a role in the pathogenesis and outcome of the disease.
To investigate the levels of TNF-alpha, sTNF-R, IL-6 and IL-10 in serum samples obtained from laboratory confirmed CCHF cases and relate them to the severity of the disease.
A study population of 51 was divided into three groups: group A, consisting of PCR-positive cases; group B, consisting of PCR-negative and serology-positive cases; group C, consisting of doubly negative cases. Concentrations of serum TNF-alpha, sTNF-R, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured during the illness.
High levels of all cytokines tested were present in one fatal case. Statistically significant differences between the groups were obtained for TNF-alpha and IL-6: TNF-alpha was detected in 3 cases in group A, and in none of the other groups, while IL-6 was elevated in 10/16 patients in group A, 4/9 in group B, and 4/26 in group C. sTNF-R was not significantly different for the three groups. High concentration of IL-10 was detected only in the fatal case.
TNF-alpha and IL-6 are the cytokines most often detected during a CCHF viral infection. TNF-alpha was associated with the severe form of CCHF, while IL-6 was elevated in both severe and mild cases.
Journal of Clinical Virology 09/2006; 36(4):272-6. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An entomological survey was carried out in two districts of central (Kruje) and northern (Lezhe) Albania. Six collecting sites, showing a variety of diurnal resting sites, were monitored for adult sandflies from June through October 2002. Flies were collected with CDC miniature light traps, sticky traps and mechanical or hand aspirators in peridomestic sites, in bedrooms and inside cow barns, chicken coops and pigpens. All collecting sites monitored were found positive for sandflies. A total of 849 specimens were caught (29.2% males) belonging to five Phlebotomus species. Phlebotomus neglectus (75.6%) was the most abundant species followed by P. perfiliewi (14.4%), P. papatasi (4.6%), P. tobbi (3.6%) and P. similis (1.8%). The first adult of P. neglectus appeared on June 11 and the last one was collected on October 16. The highest density for this species was observed at the end of July. A total of 111 blood-fed females were caught from the two areas studied. P. neglectus was the only species found blood fed in Lezhe and the same species was prevalent (56.1%) in Kruje followed by P. perfiliewi (30.3%), P. tobbi (10.6%); P. papatasi was represented by only two specimens. Blood meal origin was determined in 45/66 (68.2%) of the females tested from Kruie district. P. neglectus was found fed on four hosts, showing the following feeding patterns: cow (71.4%), dog (117.1%), chicken (5.7%) and human (5.7%); P. perfiliewi was found fed on cow (80.0%) and chicken (20.0%), P. tobbi on cow (50.0%), chicken (25.0%) and dog (25.0%). One specimen of P. papatasi was found fed on cow. When such prevalences were analysed by the available biomass for each host present at the collecting site, P. neglectus resulted to be an opportunistic feeder rather than exhibiting preferences for any specific animal. PCR analysis of 39 P. neglectus from the Lezhe district gave negative results for the presence of Leishmania DNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevalence data for tick-borne pathogens are used to assess the risk for human health. In this study the presence and identity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia species in Bulgarian Ixodes ricinus ticks and in non- Ixodes ticks from Turkey and Albania was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot hybridization. In the adult Bulgarian ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was approximately 40%, while Borrelia afzelii was the predominant species, representing more than half of all Borrelia-positive ticks. Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species were detected in 35% of the adult Ixodes ricinus ticks and in 10% of the nymphs. Sequence analysis of PCR products reacting with the Anaplasma phagocytophila probe revealed a 16S rRNA gene identical to that of the Anaplasma phagocytophila prototype strain. Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species were found in approximately 7% of the non- Ixodes ticks. Sequence analysis of some of these samples revealed the presence of Anaplasma ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and a species closely resembling Ehrlichia chaffeensis. About half of all adult ticks examined and approximately 20% of all nymphs were infected with Rickettsia species. In Ixodes ricinus ticks, Rickettsia helvetica and a Rickettsia species designated as IRS3 were found in high prevalence. Rickettsia conorii was found in virtually all non- Ixodes tick species from Albania and Turkey. The results of this study show that many tick-borne diseases are most probably endemic in the Balkan area. Furthermore, the results suggest that there is a considerable chance for simultaneous transmission of tick-borne pathogens to human beings.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2003; 22(9):535-42. · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidemiological status of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is almost unknown to international health organizations and to the scientific community. Results from a retrospective analysis of recent VL cases, and from an entomological survey carried out in summer 2001 are reported here. From January 1997 to December 2001, 867 parasitologically confirmed VL cases were recorded in 35 of 36 Albanian districts with an average of 173 cases/year and a cumulative morbidity of 2.8/10000 population. The temporal distribution of cases showed an increasing trend (from 144 to 209), indicating that cases have almost doubled during the past 10 years. A high proportion of the patients (67.6%) was children aged < 5 years. The entomological survey confirmed Phlebotomus neglectus as the probable vector, being the most abundant and widespread species. The increase in VL morbidity, 20-40-fold higher than in other southern European countries, could be attributed to increased susceptibility of infants to clinical disease or to variations in Leishmania infection associated with changes in canine reservoir and/or vector populations.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 01/2003; 97(3):288-90. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the spring and summer of 2001, an outbreak of eight cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) occurred in Albania. The epidemiological investigation, the clinical presentation of the cases, and the course of the disease are described. Seven of the cases were laboratory confirmed. A nosocomial infection and a cluster of cases within a family were observed. Genetic analysis of the CCHF virus strain that caused the outbreak showed that it was clustered together with other European CCHF virus strains except the Greek one (strain AP92). The Greek strain, which forms an independent clade, differed from the causative strain by 25.3% at the nucleotide level.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 09/2002; 21(8):603-6. · 3.02 Impact Factor