ABSTRACT: The natural history of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) remains to be described in detail. We seek to describe the natural history of early onset AD and FTD in terms of changes in cognitive assessment and staging, medical history and survival.
Longitudinal prospective cohort analysis.
Neurodegenerative disorders research clinic.
In total, 155 consecutive patients with clinically confirmed sporadic early-onset AD or FTD at a neurodegenerative disorders research clinic in Subiaco, Western Australia (The Artemis Project).
A detailed history was recorded from the patients at baseline, including education, family history and medical history. Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) and total functional capacity (TFC) were determined at each visit from 1994 until 2011. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed.
Patients with FTD were more likely to have a family history of dementia (p=0.026), to develop at least one cerebrovascular risk factor (p=0.003), manifest depression (Fisher's exact p=0.007) and to die during the follow-up period (Pearson χ(2) 8.97, p=0.003). Kaplan-Meier survival estimates revealed a highly significant difference in the proportion of patients surviving the follow-up period (log rank 7.25, p=0.007) with FTD patients experiencing poorer survival than those with AD. The mean MMSE and TFC were consistently lower in those with FTD compared with those with AD over a decade of follow-up; mean GDS was consistently higher in those with FTD over the follow-up period.
We believe that the difference in survival in patients with AD and FTD in our cohort might relate to the development of one or more cerebrovascular risk factors in FTD patients and the severity of the underlying pathology.
BMJ open. 01/2012; 2(5).
ABSTRACT: We compared percent excess body mass index loss (%EBMIL) and resolution of dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the 4 years following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) between patients calibrated with a 40-French (40F) or a 50-French (50F) bougie.
We conducted a longitudinal retrospective descriptive study of routinely collected pre- and post-surgical data from 294 patients who underwent LSG at a single surgical centre (50F--n = 106, 40F--n = 185). Obesity measurements were taken prior to surgery and at regular intervals until 48 months post-surgery. Co-morbidity resolution was also assessed across the 48-month observation period. Multivariate regression modelling was used to control analyses for baseline obesity and sociodemographic variables.
At 48 months post-surgery mean (±SD) %EBMIL was 60.2 ± 27.6% and 45.4 ± 38.4% for those treated with the 40F and 50F bougie, respectively. After controlling for sociodemographic variables and baseline excess weight, mean %EBMIL was 15.5% greater with a 40F bougie compared with a 50F bougie at the end of follow-up. The likelihood of dyslipidaemia resolution within 48 months post-LSG was 19.0 times greater (p = 0.006), hypertension resolution 3.6 times greater (p = 0.005) and type 2 diabetes mellitus resolution 5.2 times greater (p = 0.034) by 4 years post-surgery in patients treated with the 40F bougie compared with a 50F bougie.
Improved obesity reduction and resolution of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus is experienced during the 4 years following surgery by patients treated with a 40F bougie compared with the 50F. These findings remain when controlling for potential confounding clinical and sociodemographic factors.
Obesity Surgery 08/2011; 22(1):97-104. · 3.29 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the largest cause of dementia, affecting 35.6 million people in 2010. Amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 mutations are known to cause familial early-onset AD, whereas apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is a susceptibility gene for late-onset AD. The genes for phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly protein, clusterin and complement receptor 1 have recently been described by genome-wide association studies as potential risk factors for late-onset AD. Also, a genome association study using single neucleotide polymorphisms has identified an association of neuronal sortilin related receptor and late-onset AD. Gene testing, and also predictive gene testing, may be of benefit in suspected familial early-onset AD however it adds little to the diagnosis of late-onset AD and does not alter the treatment. We do not recommend APOE ε4 genotyping.
Neurology International 06/2011; 3(1):e1.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 07/2010; 83(6):666-7. · 4.87 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA), the process by which the cerebral blood flow (CBF) is normally maintained relatively constant despite fluctuations in beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP), is impaired acutely following major ischaemic stroke. It is uncertain if dCA is impaired acutely after mild ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). We assessed dCA in patients acutely and sub-acutely following TIA or mild ischaemic stroke.
Nineteen consecutive mild ischaemic stroke patients and 17 consecutive TIA patients underwent recordings of beat-to-beat BP, cerebral blood flow velocity (bilateral transcranial Doppler insonation of the middle cerebral artery) and heart rate a median of 36 h from onset and again a median of 96 h from onset. Dynamic autoregulatory indices (ARI) were then calculated from these data and the results compared to 22 age-, BP- and gender-matched controls.
ARI was significantly reduced in affected hemispheres of mild stroke patients at baseline compared to controls (4.0 +/- 1.7 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.1, p < 0.01) and remained so after adjustment for significant covariates. ARI was significantly reduced in both affected (4.0 +/- 2.7 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.1, p = 0.03) and unaffected hemispheres (4.2 +/- 1.8 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.1, p = 0.01) of mild stroke patients at follow-up compared to controls. However, after adjustment for significant covariates including ipsilateral carotid stenosis these results were not significant. No reduction in ARI was seen in TIA patients.
The impairment of cerebrovascular haemodynamic control that was observed acutely following mild ischaemic stroke may have implications for the appropriate timing of anti-hypertensive therapy acutely following mild ischaemic stroke. No impairment of cerebrovascular haemodynamic control was seen following TIA.
Cerebrovascular Diseases 01/2010; 29(3):228-35. · 2.72 Impact Factor