[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD), an incurable neurodegenerative disorder, has a complex pathogenesis including protein aggregation and the dysregulation of neuronal transcription and metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) achieves neuroprotection in cellular and invertebrate models of HD. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of SIRT2 in a striatal neuron model of HD resulted in gene expression changes including significant down-regulation of RNAs responsible for sterol biosynthesis. Whereas mutant huntingtin fragments increased sterols in neuronal cells, SIRT2 inhibition reduced sterol levels via decreased nuclear trafficking of SREBP-2. Importantly, manipulation of sterol biosynthesis at the transcriptional level mimicked SIRT2 inhibition, demonstrating that the metabolic effects of SIRT2 inhibition are sufficient to diminish mutant huntingtin toxicity. These data identify SIRT2 inhibition as a promising avenue for HD therapy and elucidate a unique mechanism of SIRT2-inhibitor-mediated neuroprotection. Furthermore, the ascertainment of SIRT2's role in regulating cellular metabolism demonstrates a central function shared with other sirtuin proteins.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2010; 107(17):7927-32. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report that Sir2 activation through increased sir-2.1 dosage or treatment with the sirtuin activator resveratrol specifically rescued early neuronal dysfunction phenotypes induced by mutant polyglutamines in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans. These effects are dependent on daf-16 (Forkhead). Additionally, resveratrol rescued mutant polyglutamine-specific cell death in neuronal cells derived from HdhQ111 knock-in mice. We conclude that Sir2 activation may protect against mutant polyglutamines.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of disease genes for several neurodegenerative illnesses has allowed for the development of disease models in experimental organisms. We discuss our approach to studying Huntington's disease, the best characterized of the polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion disorders. We have developed a system in Caenorhabditis elegans to study the effects of (polyQ)-dependent neuronal dysfunction at the resolution of two neurons in screening for genetic and pharmacological suppression. Our data suggest that C. elegans might be instructive in searching for targets and active compounds against polyglutamine neuronal toxicity.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 02/2004; 23(1-2):61-8. · 2.89 Impact Factor