[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study used hair and nails to biomonitor heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu) from geological source and exposure through regular fish consumption among children in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Concentration of Pb and Cu in water reflected anthropogenic pathways, while Cd and Cr reflected accumulation from the catchment basin. Higher concentration of heavy metals in the nails samples than the hair samples suggested longer term exposure. The estimated intake of Cd and Cr from fish in one site associated with high concentration of the metals from geological source was appreciably above the respective recommended daily allowance, signifying possible health risks to humans. Significant correlations between Pb, Cd and Cu in hair, nails and heavy metals from fish consumed suggested fish consumption as possible pathway of heavy metals in humans. Possible health risks from heavy metals were likely due to consumption of higher quantities of fish and from geological basins.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 10/2010; 73(7):1797-803. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Specific power consumption and reduction of BOD, COD, TS, pH, and chemical elements were used to determine the treatment efficiency of Fe, graphite and Al electrodes with alum and wood ash as supporting electrolytes on the effluent from a Kraft pulp and paper mill in Kenya. Five sampling points were selected along mill's effluent treatment system: primary settling tank (SP1), first aerated lagoon (SP2), second aerated lagoon (SP3), stabilization pond (SP4), and at discharge point (SP5). Operating costs were also compared between treatments. Graphite electrodes combined with alum showed the lowest power consumption (0.5 to 3.9 mWh/m³), followed by Al and Fe. All the electrodes reduced color from a maximum of 3,200°H to the minimum local standard of 15°H. However Al electrode with alum was the most effective method for BOD and COD reduction by over 60% and 58.8% respectively and generated less sludge at all sampling points. The cost of treatment was lowest with graphite electrode (US$0.006 to 0.0008 per m³ of effluent), but highest with Al electrodes combined with wood ash (US$31.74 to 8.34 per m³). Further study is required for the effectiveness of increasing the concentration of wood ash leachate at higher concentration and current density.
Water Science & Technology 10/2010; 62(7):1526-35. · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytoplankton and macroinvertebrate assemblages were used to assess the impact of a kraft pulp and paper mill effl uent in Kenya, on River Nzoia downstream of the discharge point in relation to changes in water quality during May to June and November 2008 (rainy and dry seasons, respectively). Total phosphorus concentration increased from 0.027 mg·L -1 upstream to 0.04 mg·L -1 downstream. Ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N) concentration was 0.51 mg·L -1 upstream and 0.86 mg·L -1 downstream. Nitrate concentration stood at 1.18 mg·L -1 upstream compared with the 2.23 mg·L -1 downstream. The pH changed from 4.5 to 5.0 upstream to 5.5 to 6.0 downstream, while DO increased from 6.57 to 7.03 mg·L -1 downstream. The BOD 5 (biochemical oxygen demand after fi ve days) values remained almost unchanged from 4.63 mg·L -1 upstream to 4.67 mg·L -1 downstream. Taxon composition of phytoplankton and macroinvertebrates correlated with adverse environmental gradients resulting from the mill's effl uent discharge. Overall, there was a shift in composition and abundance of both phytoplankton and macroinvertebrates, with the downstream site recording high numbers of tolerant taxa (i.e., Microcystis sp. and Chironomus sp.). It was recommended that water quality monitoring with effl uents of this nature be done using a combination of chemical analysis and biological indicators such as phytoplankton and macroinvertebrates.
Water Quality Research Journal of Canada 01/2010; 45(2-2):235-250. · 0.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study was undertaken to remove colour from a kraft mill's treated effluent in Kenya and determine the suitability of phosphate rock to replace wood ash during the electrochemical process. The electrochemical method alone, electrochemical combined with alum (ELCAL), wood ash leachate (ELCAS) and phosphate rock (ELPHOS) solutions at a rate of 165 to 1000 g/m3 were tested. Effluent characteristics were determined after complete removal of colour. Same reduction rates of TS (85%) and TSS (89%) were recorded by ELCAS and ELPHOS. However, ELPHOS removed more COD (86 to 91%) and more BOD (85 to 92%) than ELCAS. Furthermore, the pH of ELPHOS treated solution was 9.3, within the Kenya Local Government's allowable limit. Power reduction with ELCAS and ELPHOS varied between 53 to 73% and 49 to 69% respectively but the difference was not statistically significant. Overnight aeration further improved the quality of ELCAS and ELPHOS treated effluent, reducing BOD and COD values to 0 mg/l. ELPHOS cost ($0.29/m3) was nevertheless three times higher than that of ELCAS ($0.10/m3), mainly because of free wood ash. ELPHOS did not also increase effluent phosphorus. It was therefore recommended that various ways be explored in making ELPHOS more economical to replace ELCAS.
Water Science & Technology 02/2007; 55(6):15-22. · 1.10 Impact Factor