Elias Fernandes de Sousa

Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Publications (48)21.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: tPapaya (Carica papaya, L.) is an important economic crop in tropical and subtropical countries. It is a giantherbaceous species; maintaining adequate tissue turgidity and water availability is necessary to maintainthe rigidity of the stem as well as increase productivity. Water-saving irrigation techniques for papayawill be needed in the future due to the possibility of water shortages related to climate change. The mor-phological and physiological responses of ‘Grand Golden’ papaya to partial root drying (PRD), regulateddeficit irrigation (RDI) and no irrigation followed by re-hydration (NI-gh) in a greenhouse study or noirrigation (NI-field) in a field study were compared with full irrigation (FI). In the greenhouse study, plantswere grown in pot with roots split equally between two soil columns. In the field study, drip emitters onopposite sides of the plant delivered irrigation water. In FI, the whole root system was irrigated at 100% ofwater use; in RDI 50% or 70% of FI water use was supplied to the whole root system (greenhouse and fieldstudy, respectively); in PRD 100% of FI was supplied to half the root zone while the other was allowed todry to 50% or 70% of FI (greenhouse, and field study, respectively). In the field study, PRD was achieved byapplying different amounts of irrigation water to alternate sides of the root system within the plant row.The application of 50% water use in PRD and RDI in the greenhouse study decreased shoot and root dryweight production, with a more pronounced effect on root dry weight compared to FI. This decrease inbiomass was associated with a decrease in the net photosynthetic rate in the day of most intense waterstress for the plants in NI-gh. In the field study, a 30% water deficit in both PRD and RDI treatments didnot significantly reduce vegetative growth or yield components (number fruit plant−1, average weight(g) fruit−1, kg fruit ha−1, kg fruit plant−1), compared to FI. In greenhouse conditions there was evidence ofa non-hydraulic signal in the PRD treatments decreasing Gscompared to RDI at comparable soil watertension but it was insufficient to affect shoot growth or yield components in field conditions. There wasno difference in the instantaneous leaf water use efficiency (WUE, A/E) of PRD or RDI treatments in thegreenhouse or the agronomic water use efficiency (AWUE) (kg fruit L−1and number fruit L−1) in the PRDand RDI treatments in the field but both treatments improved AWUE compared to FI. It appears thatpapaya can tolerate some water deficits without a significant reduction in yield components indicatingthat <100% ET0 irrigation replacement can be scheduled but there is little or no benefit to PRD.
    Scientia Horticulturae 01/2015; 183:13-22. · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia 01/2014; 29(1):47-54.
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    ABSTRACT: Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influences papaya fruit quality. We measured the whole-canopy net CO 2 exchange and transpiration rate in field grown papaya plants (5 months of age, plant leaf area of 3.5 m 2 with drip fertigation) using whole-canopy chambers (3,400 L) of Mylar ® film (97% transmittance PAR). In addition, we measured the relationship between whole-canopy transpiration rate measured with the chamber and measured with the temperature difference between sap flow gauges inserted in the trunk of the plants using the Granier heat coefficient (K). For the conditions of the study, [sunny days (maximum PAR=1,600 µmol m -2 s -1), average air temperature of 23°C and maximum VPD air 3.5 kPa], papaya plants transpired 8.6 L of water/day (8:00 am to 17:00 pm) and assimilated 67 g of CO 2 /day (18.27 g of C/day) with a water use efficiency of 3.2 mmol CO 2 /mol H 2 O. There was no evidence of heat accumulation in the chambers. The mathematical sap flow model proposed by Reis et al. (2006) (forced-flow through a stem section) overestimated whole-canopy transpiration but there was a high correlation (R 2 =0.85) between K and instant whole-canopy transpiration rate measured in the chambers for the data measured after 12:00. However, there was a morning lag phase in sap flow. There was also a high correlation (R 2 =0.89) between hourly transpiration rate measured in the whole canopy chambers and the calculated reference evapotranspiration (ET 0 mm h -1), which may represent a low cost methodology to estimate papaya water demand. INTRODUCTION Soil water availability limits many physiological processes of papaya (Marler et al., 1994; Clemente and Marler, 1996; Mahouachi et al., 2007) therefore irrigation of papaya is recommended during dry periods to increase growth and fruit production (Malo and Campbell, 2006) while incorrect water management can adversely affect several physiological processes (Campostrini and Glenn, 2007). An accurate estimation of transpiration is essential for effective irrigation and fertigation management in papaya while limiting evaporation and drainage losses. Effective irrigation management ensures productivity and reduced groundwater and river contamination (Coelho Filho et al., 2004). In papaya orchards, high water use efficiency can also reduce production costs. The photosynthetic process is an integral part of plant growth and development, and factors that substantially alter the net rate of photosynthesis (A) have the potential to
  • Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias - Brazilian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 12/2012; 7(4):663-670.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to describe the water needs of okra at each stage of its development, through the determination of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc) providing subsidies to irrigated agriculture. The experiment was conducted at Station evapotranspirometers Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro in Campos State, Brazil. The cultivar used was the Santa Cruz 47, planted in a spacing of 0.25 mx 1.00 m in an area of 1024 m2, irrigated by sprinkler. Area was done to determine the evapotranspiration and Kc, using a lysimeter 6 m2 with an electronic scale with weight change of 0,58 kg. The results allowed to quantify the crop evapotranspiration during the period under 314 mm. The Kc of okra in the first stage of development varied between values of 0.8 and 0.5, obtaining the average value of 0.68, the second stage ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, with a mean of 0,79,and the third stage Kc ranged from 1.0 to 0.3, the average being 0.54.
    Revista Ciencia Agronomica 06/2012; 43(2):256-261. · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Images from the MODIS and SEBAL algorithm were used to evaluate two proposals for estimating sensible heat flux (H) based on the selection of anchor pixels used to determine the surface temperature difference (dT). The proposition in which pixels with extreme temperatures were used was called H-CLASSIC. The other one H-PESAGRO adopted for cold pixels the lowest temperature and for the hot pixels the value of H as a residue of the equation of Penman-Monteith FAO 56, using observed data from agrometeorological station. The results showed that the H-PESAGRO required a smaller number of interactions for the stabilization of the aerodynamic resistance (rah) values. H- CLASSIC estimated values were 58.35% higher than the estimated by H-PESAGRO. The estimated H values using Bowen ratio when compared with the sugar cane pixels presented correlation coefficients of r = 0.54 and r = 0.71 for the Propositions H-CLASSIC and H-PESAGRO, respectively.
    Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia 03/2012; 27(1):85-94.
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    Evapotranspiration - Remote Sensing and Modeling, 01/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-808-3
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    ABSTRACT: The knowledge of crop water demand is basic for irrigation management. In recent years, the Heat Dissipation Method (HDM) has received attention for this purpose because its relatively simple physical principles and applicability in field conditions. This study aimed to perform calibration of the HDM for sap flow determination in green-dwarf coconut plants. For calibration, the probe was inserted in a segment of the leaf petiole of a dwarf coconut tree. A steady stream of water was established in the segment of petiole. Measurements of flow rate, volume per unit time and temperature, were taken with the probe. After calibrating HDM in laboratory, field experiments were carried out in the Norte Fluminense, Brazil, where the calibrated model were well coupled to the atmospheric demand. It is concluded that the mathematical model obtained in the HDM calibration is suitable for obtaining the transpiration to green dwarf coconut.
    Bragantia 12/2011; 71(4):558-562. · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate sugarcane growth dynamics occupation in land cultivated at six major cities of the North Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, from 1984 to 2007. Eighteen images of Landsat TM sensor, visual interpretation and linear spectral mixing model (MLME) were used to generate thematic maps of sugar cane plantation spatial distribution and quantification. Based on these maps was possible to analyze the sugarcane field spatial distribution quantifying them in each municipality. The results indicated that between the years 2004 to 2007, there was a decrement in the total area occupied by the culture in 43,308.33 ha and, from 2000 to 2007 and increase of 24,422.72 ha, mainly in the Campos dos Goytacazes, São Francisco de Itabapoana and Cardoso Moreira municipalities. The MLME used allowed a real live mapping of the sugarcane areas.
    Engenharia Agrícola 06/2011; 31(3):561-571. · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to determine the economic viability and cultivation risk in northern Espírito Santo State and compare the economic indices with experimental irrigation data and ammonium sulfate doses. The experiment was carried out at Calima Agricola S.A. farm, in Linhares, ES. Two varieties were evaluated separately, Golden and UENF Caliman 01, in five irrigation levels, combined with four ammonium sulfate doses. The determination of indices and risks of papaya cultivation utilized the calculation of net present value, internal rate of return, sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo method. The irrigation treatments showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.05) in relation to productivity. The ammonium sulfate and its interactions with applied irrigation depths did not present significant differences (p < 0.05) for the same variable. By means of a Monte Carlo simulation (triangular simulation), the probability of obtaining negative net present value is 63.2 and 81.4% for Golden and UENF Caliman 01, respectively.
    Acta Scientiarum Agronomy 09/2010; 32(3):547-554. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • Acta Scientiarum Agronomy 08/2010; 32(3). · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, different methods of determination of pan coefficient (Kp) for a daily estimation of referential evapotranspiration (ETo) using the "Class A" pan method (TCA) were analyzed. Methodologies proposed by Allen et al. (1998), Bernardo et al. (1996), Cuenca (1989) and Snyder (1992) were evaluated, and values of daily ETo estimated using TCA were compared to ones estimated by Penman-Monteith (FAO-56). A ten years historical series of data collected from an automatic station, Thies Clima model, was used installed at evapotranspiration station of Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF). A good fulfillment of Class A pan to estimate daily values of ETo by different ways to calculate Kp (R² > 0.79 and D > 0.90) was verified, with Cuenca (1989), Bernardo et al. (1996), and Allen (1998) methods showing the same concordance index (D = 0.95). The smallest absolute mean error (0.50) was showed by Cuenca (1989) method, which also presented the highest efficiency (EF = 0,81).
    Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental 03/2010; 14(3):274-278. · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to determine the economic viability and cultivation risk in northern Espírito Santo State and compare theeconomic indices with experimental irrigation data and ammonium sulfate doses. The experiment was carried out at Calima Agricola S.A. farm, in Linhares, ES. Two varieties were evaluated separately, Golden and UENF Caliman 01, in five irrigation levels, combined withfour ammonium sulfate doses. The determination of indices and risks of papaya cultivation utilized the calculation of net present value, internal rate of return, sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo method. The irrigation treatments showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.05) in relation to productivity. The ammonium sulfate and its interactions with applied irrigation depths did not present significant differences (p < 0.05) for the same variable. By means of a Monte Carlo simulation (triangular simulation), the probability of obtaining negative net present value is 63.2 and 81.4% for Golden and UENF Caliman 01, respectively.
    Acta Scientiarum Agronomy 01/2010; · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the response coefficient to water stress in the commercial and total yield of papaya fruits grown in the northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The experiment was conducted in an area of UENF/PESAGRO-RIO in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, from 25/04/2006 to 18/05/2007, using the papaya cultivar Hybrid UENF/CALIMAN01. The experiment had a randomized block design with five treatments [replacement of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) by 50% (T1), 75% (T2), 100% (T3), 125% (T4) and 150% (T5)], with four replications. The highest real commercial yield of the crop after 13 months of growth and four harvest months was 38.78 t ha-1 (T3) and the highest total real yield was 49.42 t ha-1 (T5). After 13 months of growth and 4 harvest months of the papaya cultivar Hybrid UENF/CALIMAN01 the response coefficient for commercial fruit yield (ky) was 1.4581 and 0.5674 for total yield.
    Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental 04/2009; 13(2):158-164. · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    Fabrício de Oliveira Reis, Eliemar Campostrini, Elias Fernandes de Sousa
    Bragantia 01/2009; 68(2). · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMO Teve-se como objetivo neste trabalho, determinar o coeficiente de resposta ao déficit hídrico na produção de frutos co-merciais e totais do mamoeiro, cultivado na região Norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O experimento foi realizado na área de convênio UENF/PESAGRO-RIO, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, no período de 25/04/2006 a 18/05/2007, utilizando-se o mamoeiro cultivar Híbrido UENF/CALIMAN01 e um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos, correspondendo às reposições de 50% (T1), 75% (T2), 100% (T3), 125% (T4) e 150% (T5) da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo), com quatro repetições. A máxima produção comercial real da cultura, aos 13 meses de cultivo e com quatro meses de colheita, foi de 38,78 t ha -1 (T3) e a máxima produção total real encontrada foi de 49,42 t ha -1 (T5). O mamoeiro cultivar Híbrido UENF/CALIMAN01 conduzido até os 13 meses de cultivo e com qua-tro meses de colheita, apresentou um coeficiente de resposta de produção (ky) para frutos comerciais de 1,4581 e para produção total um coeficiente igual a 0,5674. Palavras-chave: Carica papaya L., coeficientes de sensibilidade, deficiência hídrica Response coefficient of papaya yield to water stress (ky) in Northern Rio de Janeiro ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the response coefficient to water stress in the commercial and total yield of papaya fruits grown in the northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The experiment was conducted in an area of UENF/PESAGRO-RIO in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, from 25/04/2006 to 18/05/2007, using the papaya cultivar Hybrid UENF/CALIMAN01. The experiment had a randomized block design with five treatments [replacement of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) by 50% (T1), 75% (T2), 100% (T3), 125% (T4) and 150% (T5)], with four replications. The highest real commercial yield of the crop after 13 months of growth and four harvest months was 38.78 t ha -1 (T3) and the highest total real yield was 49.42 t ha -1 (T5). After 13 months of growth and 4 harvest months of the papaya cultivar Hybrid UENF/CALIMAN01 the response coefficient for commercial fruit yield (ky) was 1.4581 and 0.5674 for total yield.
    Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental 01/2009; 13(2). · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leaf area estimation is an important feature in physiological research involving predominantly photosynthesis, transpiration and growth. This study was carried out to develop a practical and nondestructive empirical mathematical model to estimate the area of one leaf and the total leaf area for papaya trees (Carica papaya L.). Two irrigated commercial orchards were evaluated over a period of 50 to 550 days after transplanting, during which the length of the leaf midrib (LM) varied from 0.04 to 0.60 m. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the area of one leaf for the papaya tree, taking into account LM and the age of the plant measured in days after transplanting. The model was considered satisfactory. Based on the average length of the last two leaves of the crown and the total leaf number of the plant, it was possible to satisfactorily estimate the total leaf area of the papaya tree.
    Scientia Agricola 01/2009; 66(4). · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    Fabrício de Oliveira Reis, Eliemar Campostrini, Elias Fernandes de Sousa
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    ABSTRACT: Irrigation management and the use of plants adapted to water stress conditions have been very important to the success of plant production. It is now recognized that fine-tuning irrigation can improve crop water-use efficiency, creating positive impact on quality of products, and on cost of production. The water stress in fruit crops is generally caused by the deficit of water in the soil, in the atmosphere or in both. The environmental variables control the plant water loss. However, high values of leaf to air vapor pressure deficit (VPDleaf-to-air) can cause the stomatal closure and can reduce the transpiration process, mainly in large trees. In this experiment, it was used the heat dissipation method developed by GRANIER (1985) to sap flow measurements. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between xylem sap flow and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) in papaya plants cultivated with and without microspray irrigation over canopy and under field conditions. It was also investigated the relationship between xylem sap flow, photosynthetic photons flux density (PPFD) and air vapor pressure deficit (VPDair) values. There was a delay between the loss of water through the leaves and the movement of water through the trunk (lag phase). From January to March, there was a better relation between xylem sap flow and VPDair, which was not observed from June to August, probably because of this lag phase. From January to March, plants cultivated with microaspersion showed an increase in xylem sap flow, in relation to plants cultivated without microaspersion when, at this stage, the ET0 was higher.
    Bragantia 12/2008; 68(2):285-294. · 0.62 Impact Factor