[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy in the multimodality treatment of osteosarcoma has improved survival. Reported outcomes on adult patients are limited. Poor necrosis rates post neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is considered an adverse prognostic factor and attempts have been made to improve survival in this group.
Adult and young adult patients diagnosed with osteosarcoma between January 1986 and August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients identified were stratified according to stage (localised or metastatic) and age (≤40 and >40 years). Event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) outcomes were determined. In patients with localised disease ≤40 years, survival was assessed according to necrosis rates post NAC (<90 and ≥90%). NAC consisted of two cycles of methotrexate alternating with doxorubicin/cisplatin (MAP) followed by definitive surgery. Those with ≥90% tumour necrosis continued on MAP. Patients with <90% necrosis received ifosfamide and etoposide (IE) post operatively.
A total of 108 patients were reviewed and 97 were included. Median age was 23 years (range 16-75) and 70% of patients were male. Five year EFS and OS across all groups was 57% and 63% respectively. Of the patients with localised disease (N = 81), 5-year overall survival (OS), with a median follow up of 7 years (2-26) was 70% (p < 0.0001). Patients aged 16-40 (N = 68) with localised osteosarcoma had a significantly improved 5-year OS (74%) compared to those >40 years (N = 13) (42%) (p = 0.004). Of the 68 patients with localised osteosarcoma ≤40 years, 62 were evaluated according to necrosis rates post MAP. In 33 patients who achieved ≥90% necrosis and continued MAP, 5-year OS was 82%. In 29 patients who had <90% tumour necrosis and received adjuvant IE, 5-year OS was 68% (p = 0.15). Multivariate analysis confirmed age and stage as prognostic factors but not poor necrosis rates in our treated population.
Long-term survival outcomes in a predominantly adult Irish population are similar to large reported trials. Age and stage at diagnosis are prognostic. Postoperative ifosfamide/etoposide alone in patients with poor necrosis rates is a feasible regimen, but its role in the adjuvant setting remains uncertain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Groin pain is a common symptom in athletes, particularly in sports requiring sudden changes in speed and direction and those involving kicking. Despite a high prevalence of groin pain in this patient cohort, the diagnosis and management of the underlying pathological processes remains a challenge for surgeons and radiologists alike.
The aim of this paper is to review the imaging findings and management of the common pathological processes which produce groin pain in athletes.
The anatomy of the groin region will be defined as a basis for further discussion. The common pathological processes underlying groin pain such as adductor dysfunction, rectus abdominus injury, osteitis pubis, and femuro-acetabular impingement will then be reviewed and correlating radiological imaging findings presented. Current management options will also be considered.
This paper will aid surgeons and radiologists in navigating the challenging diagnostic and management dilemma of groin pain in athletes.
Surgical technology international 05/2015; 26:275-82.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The study aimed to determine the acceptability of the iPad 3 as a display option for American Board of Radiology (ABR) examinations.
Subjects and methods:
A set of 20 cases for each of nine specialties examined by the ABR was prepared. Each comprised between one and seven images and case information and had been used in previous ABR Initial Certification examinations. Examining radiologists (n = 119) at the ABR oral Initial Certification examinations reviewed sets from one or more specialties on both a 2 MP LED monitor and on the iPad 3 and rated the visibility of the salient image features for each case. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to compare ratings. In addition, a thematic analysis of participants' opinions was undertaken.
When all specialties were pooled, the iPad 3 ratings were significantly higher than the monitor ratings (p = 0.0217). The breast, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and nuclear medicine specialties also returned significantly higher ratings for the visibility of relevant image features for the iPad 3. Monitor ratings were significantly higher for the vascular and interventional specialty, although no images were rated unacceptably poor on the iPad in this specialty.
The relevant image features were rated more visible on the iPad 3 than on the monitors overall. The iPad 3 was well accepted by a large majority of examiners and can be considered adequate for image display for examination in most or all specialties.
American Journal of Roentgenology 11/2014; 203(5):1028-33. DOI:10.2214/AJR.13.12274 · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in HIV-positive patients, although the role played by HIV infection versus sociodemographic and metabolic factors remains unclear.
Understanding the Pathology of Bone Disease in HIV-infected individuals (HIV UPBEAT) is a prospective cohort study, enrolled HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants from similar demographic backgrounds. Dual X-ray absorptiometry at femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine and blood tests were performed. Associations between BMD and factors of interest were assessed using multivariable linear regression.
A total of 474 participants were recruited. Two hundred and ten were HIV-positive, of whom, 59% were male, 40% African and median (interquartile range) age was 39 (33, 46) years. HIV acquisition risks were heterosexual sex (46.9%), homosexual sex (25.4%) and intravenous drug use (18.7%). Of the HIV-negative participants, 44% were male, 25% were African and median (interquartile range) age was 42 (34-49) years. HIV infection was independently associated with a 0.062 (P < 0.0001), 0.078 (P < 0.0001) and 0.060 g/cm (P = 0.0002) lower BMD at femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine, respectively, after adjustment for demographic/ lifestyle factors and BMI. After further adjustment for bone biomarkers, HIV remained independently associated with reduced BMD at each site, although effect sizes were reduced. The HIV-positive group had significantly higher bone turnover (all between-group P < 0.0001). Treatment variables and cumulative exposure to antiretroviral therapy were not associated with lower BMD at femoral neck or total hip, but acquisition of HIV infection via intravenous drug use and longer time since HIV diagnosis were independently associated with lower lumbar spine BMD.
HIV is independently associated with lower BMD, and its effect is likely mediated, in part, by alterations in bone metabolism.
AIDS (London, England) 09/2014; 28(14):2051-60. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000353 · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection.
Materials and methods:
Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina.
Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected.
Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are the most common calcium-containing crystals associated with rheumatic disease. Clinical manifestations of calcium crystal deposition include acute or chronic inflammatory and degenerative arthritides and certain forms of periarthritis. The intra-articular presence of BCP crystals correlates with the degree of radiographic degeneration. Calcium crystal deposition contributes directly to joint degeneration. Vascular calcification is caused by the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the arterial intima. These deposits may contribute to local inflammation and promote further calcification, thus aggravating the atherosclerotic process. Calcium crystal deposition results in substantial structural consequence in humans.
Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America 05/2014; 40(2):311-328. DOI:10.1016/j.rdc.2014.01.007 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that serum lipids, which experimental data suggest may be key initiators of carotid plaque inflammation, would be associated with plaque inflammation on (18)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET in patients with acutely symptomatic carotid stenosis.
In this cohort study, consecutive patients with acute symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis (≥50%) underwent carotid PET-CT. We quantified plaque FDG uptake as follows: (1) average maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) across 10 regions of interest (ROI); (2) highest single ROI SUV measure (SUVROImax); (3) averaged mean SUV across 10 ROIs (SUVmean).
Sixty-one patients were included. Plaque inflammatory FDG SUVmax was associated with increasing tertiles of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (trend p = 0.004), total cholesterol (p = 0.009), and triglycerides (p = 0.01), and with lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.005). When analyzed as a continuous variable, LDL was associated with symptomatic ICA SUVmean (Spearman rho 0.44, p = 0.009), SUVROImax (rho 0.33, p = 0.01), and SUVmax (rho 0.35, p = 0.06). Total cholesterol was associated with SUVmean (rho 0.33, p = 0.009), with trends for SUVmax (rho 0.24, p = 0.059) and SUVROImax (rho 0.23, p = 0.08). Triglycerides were associated with SUVmax (rho 0.32, p = 0.01) and SUVROImax (rho 0.35, p = 0.005). HDL was associated with lower SUVmax (rho -0.37, p = 0.004) and SUVROImax (rho -0.44, p = 0.0004). On multivariable linear regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, degree of carotid stenosis, statins, and smoking, LDL (p = 0.008) and total cholesterol (p = 0.04) were independently associated with SUVmax.
Serum LDL and total cholesterol were associated with acutely symptomatic carotid plaque FDG uptake, supporting experimental data suggesting lipids may promote plaque inflammation, mediating rupture and clinical events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 51-year-old man presented with a prodrome of arthralgia, intermittent oral ulceration, and raised inflammatory markers. He was extensively investigated; however, no firm diagnosis could be established, and he remained under regular surveillance by rheumatology and infectious disease services. After 12 months, he presented with painful ear swelling. Clinical examination revealed a swollen tender ear (Figure 1) and a soft diastolic heart murmur. Serum inflammatory markers were raised, with a c-reactive protein (CRP) of 28 mg/L and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 25 mm/h.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathological conditions of the anatomical spaces of the hand and wrist can cause significant morbidity. A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of these subfascial spaces is essential in order to correctly diagnose potentially serious conditions such as compartment syndrome or infection. This pictorial study aims to define and describe the anatomy of the subfascial spaces of the hand and wrist using 3Telsa MRI and MR arthrography.