Edouard Louis

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège , Luik, Walloon Region, Belgium

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Publications (106)934.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease is characterised by recurrent and/or chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract leading to cumulative intestinal tissue damage. Treatment tailoring to try to prevent this tissue damage as well as achieve optimal benefit/risk ratio over the whole disease course is becoming an important aspect of Crohn's disease management. For decades, clinical symptoms have been the main trigger for diagnostic procedures and treatment strategy adaptations. However, the correlation between symptoms and intestinal lesions is only weak. Furthermore, preliminary evidence suggests that a state of remission beyond the simple control of clinical symptoms, and including mucosal healing, may be associated with better disease outcome. Therefore monitoring the disease through the use of endoscopy and cross-sectional imaging is proposed. However, the degree of mucosal or bowel wall healing that needs to be reached to improve disease outcome has not been appropriately studied. Furthermore, owing to their invasive nature and cost, endoscopy and cross-sectional imaging are not optimal tools for the patients or the payers. The use of biomarkers as surrogate markers of intestinal and systemic inflammation might help. Two biomarkers have been most broadly assessed in Crohn's disease: C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin. These markers correlate significantly with endoscopic lesions, with the risk of relapse and with response to therapy. They could be used to help make decisions about diagnostic procedures and treatment. In particular, with the use of appropriate threshold values, they could determine the need for endoscopic or medical imaging procedures to confirm the disease activity state.
    Gut 12/2013; 62(12):1806-16. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation and cancer have a profound yet ambiguous relationship. Inflammation - especially chronic inflammation - has protumorigenic effects, but inflammatory cells also mediate an immune response against the tumor and immunosuppression is known to increase the risk for certain tumors.This article reviews current literature on the role of inflammation in cancer and the cancer risk in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). We discuss the effect on cancer risk of different drug classes used in the treatment of IMIDs treatment, including biologicals such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors.Overall cancer incidence and mortality risk are similar to the general population in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and slightly increased for rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, with risk profiles differing for different tumor types. Increased risk for non-melanoma skin cancer is associated with thiopurine treatment in IBD, with the combination of anti-TNF and methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis and with PUVA, cyclosporine and anti-TNF treatment in psoriasis. Data on the safety of using biologic or immunosuppressant therapy in IMID patients with a history of cancer are scarce.This review provides clinicians with a solid background to help them in making decisions about treatment of immune-mediated diseases in patients with a tumor history.
    Molecular Cancer 08/2013; 12(1):98. · 5.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined whether fecal calprotectin can be used in daily practice as a marker to monitor patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) receiving infliximab maintenance therapy. This prospective multicenter study enrolled adult patients with UC in clinical remission under infliximab maintenance therapy. Fecal calprotectin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Sigmoidoscopies were performed at inclusion and at study end. Relapse was defined as a clinical need for change in treatment or an endoscopic Mayo subscore of ≥2 at week 52. Sustained deep remission was defined as a partial Mayo score <3 at all points and an endoscopic Mayo score 0 at week 52. Full analysis was possible for 87 of 113 included patients with UC (77%). Of these patients, 30 (34.4%) were considered to be in sustained deep remission and 13 (14.9%) to have relapsed. Calprotectin levels in patients with sustained deep remission remained very low (median < 40 mg/kg at all time points). Patients who flared had significantly higher calprotectin levels (median > 300 mg/kg) already 3 months before the flare. Further receiver operator curve analysis suggested that a calprotectin level >300 mg/kg had a reasonable sensitivity (58.3%) and specificity (93.3%) to model flare. Two consecutive calprotectin measurements of >300 mg/kg with 1-month interval were identified as the best predictor of flare (61.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Fecal calprotectin can be used in daily practice to monitor patients with UC receiving infliximab maintenance therapy. Two consecutive measurements >300 mg/kg is more specific than a single measurement for predicting relapse.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 07/2013; · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Using clinical symptoms alone to inform treatment decisions in Crohn's disease (CD) may increase the risk of disease progression and complications. Treatment beyond symptoms may offer improved outcomes. METHODS:: We explore alternative definitions of remission, beyond traditional clinical remission, incorporating more objective parameters of inflammation control, which may support prevention or delay the disease progression. These definitions could serve as a platform for future clinical research, evaluating whether treating beyond symptoms alters the natural history of CD. RESULTS:: Proposed definitions may include endoscopic remission (mucosal healing), normalization of serologic or fecal markers of inflammation, and even radiographic remission, in addition to clinical remission (symptom control). Endoscopic remission is the leading candidate for inclusion because it is the best studied. The definition should include considerations for both early and late disease given that in late disease, which may be associated with operation-related symptoms or irreversible bowel damage, symptomatic remission may not achievable. Desired outcomes in early disease are complete absence of symptoms, no disease progression, no complications or disability, and normal quality of life. In late disease, there are stabilization of noninflammatory symptoms, no progression of damage or disability, and improved quality of life. CONCLUSIONS:: Over time, we anticipate that a working definition of remission that includes both biological remission and clinical remission will evolve and be evaluated in clinical trials. Our proposed definition is a possible starting point for that evolution. Ultimately, the goal in evolving the definition of remission is to improve the outcomes in patients with CD.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 04/2013; · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of Crohn's disease has traditionally placed high value on subjective symptom assessment; however, it is increasingly appreciated that patient symptoms and objective parameters of inflammation can be disconnected. Therefore, strategies that objectively monitor inflammatory activity should be utilised throughout the disease course to optimise patient management. Initially, a thorough assessment of the severity, location and extent of disease is needed to ensure a correct diagnosis, identify any complications, help assess prognosis and select appropriate therapy. During follow-up, clinical decision-making should be driven by disease activity monitoring, with the aim of optimising treatment for tight disease control. However, few data exist to guide the choice of monitoring tools and the frequency of their use. Furthermore, adaption of monitoring strategies for symptomatic, asymptomatic and post-operative patients has not been well defined. The Annual excHangE on the ADvances in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD Ahead) 2011 educational programme, which included approximately 600 gastroenterologists from 36 countries, has developed practice recommendations for the optimal monitoring of Crohn's disease based on evidence and/or expert opinion. These recommendations address the need to incorporate different modalities of disease assessment (symptom and endoscopic assessment, measurement of biomarkers of inflammatory activity and cross-sectional imaging) into robust monitoring. Furthermore, the importance of measuring and recording parameters in a standardised fashion to enable longitudinal evaluation of disease activity is highlighted.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 04/2013; · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anti TNF therapy induces mucosal healing in patients with Crohn's disease, but the effects on transmural inflammation in the ileum are not well understood. Magnetic resonance-enteroclysis (MRE) offers excellent imaging of transmural and peri-enteric lesions in Crohn's ileitis and we aimed to study its responsiveness to anti TNF therapy. METHODS: In this multi-center prospective trial, anti TNF naïve patients with ileal Crohn's disease and with increased CRP and contrast enhanced wall thickening received infliximab 5mg/kg at weeks 0, 2 and 6, and q8 weeks maintenance MRE was performed at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months and assessed based on a predefined MRE score of severity in ileal Crohn's Disease. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included; of those, 18 patients underwent MRE at week 2 and 15 patients at weeks 2 and 26 as scheduled. Inflammatory components of the MRE index decreased by ≥2 points and by ≥50% at week 26 (primary endpoint) in 40% and 32% of patients (per protocol and intention to treat analysis, respectively). The MRE index improved in 44% at week 2 and in 80% at week 26. Complete absence of inflammatory lesions was observed in 0/18 at week 2 and 13% (2/15) at week 26. The obstructive elements did not change. Clinical and CRP improvement occurred as early as wk 2, but only CDAI correlated with the MRE index. CONCLUSION: Improvement of MRE occurs from 2 weeks after infliximab therapy onwards and correlates with clinical response but normalization of MRE is rare.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 02/2013; · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the findings and outputs of an international expert opinion process to develop a definition of early Crohn's disease (CD) that could be used in future disease-modification trials. Nineteen experts on inflammatory bowel diseases held an international expert opinion meeting to discuss and agree on a definition for early CD to be used in disease-modification trials. The process included literature searches for the relevant basic-science and clinical evidence. A published preliminary definition of early CD was used as the basis for development of a proposed definition that was discussed at the expert opinion meeting. The participants then derived a final definition, based on best current knowledge, that it is hoped will be of practical use in disease-modification trials in CD.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2012; 107(12):1770-6. · 7.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD.
    Nature 11/2012; 491(7422):119-24. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients' and physicians' perceptions of ulcerative colitis and its management are important for developing and guiding appropriate therapies. This study explored national differences in patients' and physicians' experiences, expectations, and beliefs about ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Structured, cross-sectional, online surveys evaluating various indices were completed by 775 adult patients with ulcerative colitis and 475 physicians actively managing ulcerative colitis patients from France, Germany, Ireland, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Canada. RESULTS: Patients' classification of their symptom severity differed across countries (mild, 16%-45%; moderate, 46%-58%; severe, 4%-36%). Expectations of disease control also varied, with 26% (Ireland) to 65% (Spain) describing that remission realistically involves "living without symptoms." Within each country, more patients (45%-69%) than physicians (28%-45%) considered ulcerative colitis symptoms to affect patients' quality of life. Mean number of patient-reported flares during the past year ranged from 2.5 in Ireland to 8.0 in France. Self-reported adherence with oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (during remission) was highest in Spain (91% vs 50%-73% across other countries). Spanish patients were more likely to self-adjust their medications (54% vs 2%-5%), but reported the most dissatisfaction with therapy (42% vs 9%-27%). Irish patients were least likely to arrange physician/specialist nurse visits (14% vs 36%-49%) and least open to discussion of their condition. CONCLUSIONS: Important national differences in ulcerative colitis patients' attitudes and perceptions were observed, which may help physicians improve patient care based on country-specific needs and influence self-assessments in clinical trials. The results suggest a need for structured patient education to improve adherence and outcomes.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 08/2012; · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the differing perspectives and perceptual gaps relating to ulcerative colitis (UC) symptoms and their management between patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs). METHODS: Structured, cross-sectional, Web-based questionnaires designed to assess a variety of disease indices were completed by adult patients with UC and HCPs involved in the care of patients with UC from Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 775 patients, 475 physicians, and 50 nurses. Patient self-reported classification of disease severity revealed generally greater severity (mild, 32 %; moderate, 53 %) compared with physician and nurse estimates of UC severity among their caseloads (mild, 52 % and 49 %; moderate, 34 % and 37 %, respectively). Patients reported that an average of 5.5 (standard deviation, 11.0) flares (self-defined) occurred over the past year, compared with 3.4 and 3.8 flares per year estimated by physicians and nurses. Perceived flare triggers differed between patients (stress ranked first) and HCPs (natural disease course ranked first). Fifty-five percent of patients stated that UC symptoms over the past year had affected their quality of life, while physicians and nurses estimated that 35 % to 37 % of patients would have a reduced quality of life over the same period. Patients ranked urgency and pain as the most bothersome symptoms, while physicians and nurses ranked urgency and stool frequency highest. About half of patients (47 %) defined remission as experiencing no symptoms; by comparison, 62 % to 63 % of HCPs defined remission as requiring the complete absence of symptoms. HCPs (doctors/nurses in general practice and/or hospital) were regarded by patients as their main source of UC information by 72 %; however, 59 % reported not arranging regular visits to see their HCPs. CONCLUSIONS: This large survey identified important differences between patients' and HCPs' perceptions of the impact of UC symptoms on patients' lives. Notably, HCPs may underestimate the effect of specific UC symptoms on patients and may fail to recognize issues that are important to patients.
    BMC Gastroenterology 08/2012; 12(1):108. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are progressive diseases associated with a high risk of complications over time including strictures, fistulae, perianal complications, surgery, and colorectal cancer. Changing the natural history and avoiding evolution to a disabling disease should be the main goal of treatment. In recent studies, mucosal healing has been associated with longer-term remission and fewer complications. Conventional therapies with immunosuppressive drugs are able to induce mucosal healing in a minority of cases but their impact on disease progression appears modest. Higher rates of mucosal healing can be achieved with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapies that reduce the risk of relapse, surgery and hospitalization, and are associated with perianal fistulae closure. These drugs might be able to change the natural history of the disease mainly when introduced early in the course of the disease. Treatment strategy in inflammatory bowel diseases should thus be tailored according to the risk that each patient could develop disabling disease.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2012; 18(29):3823-7. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NOD2 is one of the best characterized members of the cytosolic NOD-like receptor family. NOD2 is able to sense muramyl dipeptide, a specific bacterial cell wall component, and to subsequently induce various signaling pathways leading to NF-κB activation and autophagy, both events contributing to an efficient innate and adaptive immune response. Interestingly, loss-of-function NOD2 variants were associated with a higher susceptibility for Crohn disease, which highlights the physiological importance of proper regulation of NOD2 activity. We performed a biochemical screen to search for new NOD2 regulators. We identified a new NOD2 partner, c-Jun N-terminal kinase-binding protein 1 (JNKBP1), a scaffold protein characterized by an N-terminal WD-40 domain. JNKBP1, through its WD-40 domain, binds to NOD2 following muramyl dipeptide activation. This interaction attenuates NOD2-mediated NF-κB activation and IL-8 secretion as well as NOD2 antibacterial activity. JNKBP1 exerts its repressor effect by disturbing NOD2 oligomerization and RIP2 tyrosine phosphorylation, both steps required for downstream NOD2 signaling. We furthermore showed that JNKBP1 and NOD2 are co-expressed in the human intestinal epithelium and in immune cells recruited in the lamina propria, which suggests that JNKBP1 contributes to maintain NOD2-mediated intestinal immune homeostasis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2012; 287(35):29213-26. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease affecting mainly young people in their reproductive years. IBD therefore has a major impact on patients' family planning decisions. Management of IBD in pregnancy requires a challenging balance between optimal disease control and drug safety considerations. This article aims to provide a framework for clinical decision making in IBD based on review of the literature on pregnancy-related topics. Medline searches with search terms 'IBD', 'Crohn's disease' or 'ulcerative colitis' in combination with keywords for the topics fertility, pregnancy, congenital abnormalities and drugs names of drugs used for treatment of IBD. IBD patients have normal fertility, except for women after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) and men under sulfasalazine treatment. Achieving and maintaining disease remission is a key factor for successful pregnancy outcomes in this population, as active disease at conception carries an increased risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight. Clinicians should discuss the need for drug therapy to maintain remission with their patients in order to ensure therapy compliance. Most IBD drugs are compatible with pregnancy, except for methotrexate and thalidomide. If possible, anti-TNF therapy should be stopped by the end of the second trimester and the choice of delivery route should be discussed with the patient. Disease control prior to conception and throughout pregnancy is the cornerstone of successful pregnancy management in IBD patients.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 05/2012; 6(8):811-23. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adalimumab is efficacious in inducing and maintaining remission in Crohn's disease but dose escalation is needed in 30-40% after 1year. Attempts for dose de-escalation have not been studied. This study aimed to assess the need for, predictors, and outcome of dose escalation and de-escalation in a large cohort of adalimumab treated Crohn's patients. METHODS: All consecutive patients treated with open label adalimumab for active Crohn's disease from the participating centres were included in this cohort study. A detailed retrospective chart review was performed to look for possible factors predicting outcome. RESULTS: Eighty four percent of 720 patients had a primary response and were followed up for a median of 14months. Thirty four percent needed escalation after a median of 7months (0-55months). Multivariate predictors for dose escalation were the following: prior anti-TNF use (p<0.0001), no concomitant azathioprine or <3m (p<0.02) and abnormal CRP at start (p<0.05). Dose escalation re-induced response for at least 6months in 67%. Only abnormal CRP at start correlated with failure of dose escalation (p=0.02). Dose de-escalation was attempted in 54% and was successful in 63%. After a median follow-up of 14m adalimumab was discontinued in 29% of patients. CONCLUSION: In this study real life nationwide cohort of Crohn's patients treated with adalimumab dose escalation was needed in 34% and was successful in 67%. Dose de-escalation was attempted in 54% and was successful in 63%. Overall 71% of patients maintained long term response on adalimumab.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 04/2012; · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease negatively affects patients' quality of life and ability to work. We investigated the impact of adalimumab on work productivity, daily activities, and quality of life in an open-label trial (N=945). The population comprised both infliximab-naïve and -exposed patients, including infliximab primary non-responders. METHODS: Patients received adalimumab induction therapy (160mg/80mg at Weeks 0/2), followed by adalimumab 40mg every other week for up to 20weeks (patients with flares/non-response could receive 40mg weekly at/after Week 12). The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire and Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire were assessed. Indirect cost savings were estimated based on the average work productivity improvements at Week 20. RESULTS: Mean baseline scores indicated severe productivity impairment and poor quality of life. At Week 20, 60% of infliximab-naïve and 47% of infliximab primary non-responders achieved clinically important improvements (≥9 points) on the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, and 51% and 43%, respectively, achieved the minimum clinically important difference (improvement ≥7 percentage points) for total work productivity impairment (non-responder imputation). At Week 20, 64% of infliximab-naïve and 55% of infliximab primary non-responders achieved clinically important improvements in total activity impairment. Estimated 20-week total indirect productivity-related cost savings were €3070 per infliximab-naïve patient and €2059 per infliximab-exposed patient. CONCLUSIONS: Adalimumab therapy significantly improved work productivity and disease-specific quality of life for patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease. Patients who failed prior infliximab therapy and patients naïve to infliximab benefited from adalimumab, with potentially greater benefits for infliximab-naïve patients (NCT00409617).
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 04/2012; · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • Edouard Louis, Julián Panés
    Gastroenterology 11/2011; 142(1):176-8. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The healing of the intestine is becoming an important objective in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. It is associated with improved disease outcome. Therefore the assessment of this healing both in clinical studies and routine practice is a key issue. Endoscopy for the colon and terminal ileum and computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for the small bowel are the most direct ways to evaluate intestinal healing. However, there are many unsolved questions about the definition and the precise assessment of intestinal healing using these endoscopic and imaging techniques. Furthermore, these are relatively invasive and expensive procedures that may be inadequate for regular patients' monitoring. Therefore, biomarkers such as C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin have been proposed as surrogate markers for intestinal healing. Nevertheless, the sensitivity and specificity of these markers for the prediction of healing may be insufficient for routine practice. New stool, blood or intestinal biomarkers are currently studied and may improve our ability to monitor intestinal healing in the future.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 10/2011; 5(5):484-98. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is important to determine whether infliximab therapy can be safely interrupted in patients with Crohn's disease who have undergone a period of prolonged remission. We assessed the risk of relapse after infliximab therapy was discontinued in patients on combined maintenance therapy with antimetabolites and identified factors associated with relapse. We performed a prospective study of 115 patients with Crohn's disease who were treated for at least 1 year with scheduled infliximab and an antimetabolite and had been in corticosteroid-free remission for at least 6 months. Infliximab was stopped, and patients were followed up for at least 1 year. We associated demographic, clinical, and biologic factors with time to relapse using a Cox model. After a median follow-up period of 28 months, 52 of the 115 patients experienced a relapse; the 1-year relapse rate was 43.9% ± 5.0%. Based on multivariable analysis, risk factors for relapse included male sex, the absence of surgical resection, leukocyte counts >6.0 × 10(9)/L, and levels of hemoglobin ≤145 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥5.0 mg/L, and fecal calprotectin ≥300 μg/g. Patients with no more than 2 of these risk factors (approximately 29% of the study population) had a 15% risk of relapse within 1 year. Re-treatment with infliximab was effective and well tolerated in 88% of patients who experienced a relapse. Approximately 50% of patients with Crohn's disease who were treated for at least 1 year with infliximab and an antimetabolite agent experienced a relapse within 1 year after discontinuation of infliximab. However, patients with a low risk of relapse can be identified using a combination of clinical and biologic markers.
    Gastroenterology 09/2011; 142(1):63-70.e5; quiz e31. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has long been known that pregnancy and childbirth have a profound effect on the disease activity of rheumatic diseases. For clinicians, the management of patients with RA wishing to become pregnant involves the challenge of keeping disease activity under control and adequately adapting drug therapy during pregnancy and post-partum. This article aims to summarize the current evidence on the evolution of RA disease activity during and after pregnancy and the use of anti-rheumatic drugs around this period. Of recent interest is the potential use of anti-TNF compounds in the preconception period and during pregnancy. Accumulating experience with anti-TNF therapy in other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn's disease, provides useful insights for the use of TNF blockade in pregnant women with RA, or RA patients wishing to become pregnant.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 09/2011; 50(11):1955-68. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of adalimumab on work productivity and indirect costs in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) using a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Study-level results were pooled from all clinical trials of adalimumab for moderate to severe CD in which work productivity outcomes were evaluated. Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire outcomes (absenteeism, presenteeism and total work productivity impairment [TWPI]) were extracted from adalimumab trials. Meta-analyses were used to estimate pooled averages and 95% CIs of one-year accumulated reductions in work productivity impairment with adalimumab. Pooled averages were multiplied by the 2008 United States national average annual salary ($44,101) to estimate per-patient indirect cost savings during the year following adalimumab initiation. The four included trials (ACCESS, CARE, CHOICE and EXTEND) represented a total of 1202 employed adalimumab-treated patients at baseline. Each study followed patients for a minimum of 20 weeks. Pooled estimates (95% CIs) of one-year accumulated work productivity improvements were as follows: -9% (-10% to -7%) for absenteeism; -22% (-26% to -18%) for presenteeism; and -25% (-30% to -20%) for TWPI. Reductions in absenteeism and TWPI translated into per-patient indirect cost savings (95% CI) of $3,856 ($3,183 to $4,529) and $10,964 ($8,833 to $13,096), respectively. Adalimumab provided clinically meaningful improvements in work productivity among patients with moderate to severe CD, which may translate into substantial indirect cost savings from an employer's perspective.
    Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie 09/2011; 25(9):492-6. · 1.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
934.95 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2013
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège
      Luik, Walloon Region, Belgium
    • University of Liège
      • • Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire
      • • Department of Gastroenterology
      Luik, Walloon Region, Belgium
  • 2002–2012
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven
      • Department of Gastroenterology
      Leuven, VLG, Belgium
  • 2011
    • Ospedale Ordine Mauriziano di Torino, Umberto I
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
    • Erasmus MC
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2010
    • Ghent University
      • Rheumatology
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
  • 2009
    • McGill University
      • Division of Gastroenterology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2007
    • University Hospital Brussels
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 2006
    • University of Tours
      Tours, Centre, France