E Louis

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Luik, Walloon Region, Belgium

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Publications (154)425.34 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our goals were to assess the prevalence of biological and tissue remission in routine practice in Crohn's disease, and to evaluate the correlation between biological or tissue remission and clinical or demographic characteristics as well as their impact on disease outcome. We performed a retrospective monocenter study. Biological remission was defined by a CRP < 5 mg/I. Tissue remission was defined by the absence of ulcer at endoscopy and/or absence of signs of acute inflammation at MRI. Association with demographic, clinical and laboratory markers was studied by logistic regression models and rates of relapses, hospitalizations and surgeries were compared using the logrank test. Among the 263 patients included, 147 were in clinical remission; 102/147 (69%) were in biological remission. Fifty-six patients also had morphological evaluation: 37 (66%) were in tissue remission. Biological remission was associated with older age, higher hemoglobin and lower BMI. Tissue remission was associated with older age, lower platelets count, absence of previous surgery, and the use of immunosuppressant. Time-to-relapse was significantly longer in patients with biological remission and in patients with tissue remission as compared to patients without biological or tissue remission. Among the patients in clinical remission seen as outpatients, two thirds were either in biological and/or tissue remission. Biological and/or tissue remission was associated with a better outcome than clinical remission alone.
    Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica 03/2014; 77(1):41-6. · 0.58 Impact Factor
  • J Tack, E Louis, V Persy, D Urbain
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    ABSTRACT: Acid peptic diseases such as peptic ulcer and gastrointestinal reflux disease have a high prevalence; they can have an important impact on the patient's quality of life and generate a considerable health care cost. Proton pump inhibitors are the most potent pharmacological inhibitors of gastric acid secretion currently available and are the mainstay medical therapy for acid peptic diseases. This review provides primary care clinicians with best practice guidelines for optimal use of these drugs.
    Revue médicale de Liège 03/2014; 69(3):139-45.
  • J Tack, E Louis, V Persy, D Urbain
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    ABSTRACT: Heartburn, reflux and epigastric pain are frequently encountered symptoms in primary care medicine. Acid peptic diseases such as peptic ulcer and gastrointestinal reflux disease have a high prevalence, can have important impact on patient quality of life and represent a considerable health care cost. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most potent pharmacological inhibitors of gastric acid secretion currently available and are the mainstay medical therapy for acid peptic diseases. This review summarizes current evidence on treatment of acid-peptic diseases with proton pump inhibitors and provides primary care clinicians with best practice guidelines for optimal use of these drugs.
    Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica 12/2013; 76(4):393-402. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thyrogastric autoimmune syndrome (TAS) was described in patients in whom the serum cross-reacted both with gastric parietal cells antigens and thyroid antigens. We report two cases illustrating the spectrum of pathogical features of TAS. The first case associates Hashimoto's thyroiditis and anemia perniciosa,and develops a gastric neuroendocrine tumor during follow up. The second case presents with a Graves' disease and an autoimmune reversible gastritis, secondary to Helicobacter pylori. Whereas type III autoimmune polyendocrinopathy is rare, TAS is frequent in our experience. Some 13% (32/240) of patients that we have prospectively followed affected with thyroiditis have also autoimmune gastritis. Helicobacter pylori is clearly implicated in 16% of autoimmune gastritis cases. Infection, malabsorption and gastritis are potentially reversible after bacterial eradication treatment. In the other 84% of gastritis patients, no histological or serological proof of Helicobacter pylori is found. Gastric autoimmunity is then irreversible, leading to gastric severe atrophy, hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia. Hypergastrinemia stimulates enterochromaffin cell hyperplasia, possibly progressing to neuroendocrine tumors. We propose a diagnostic approach to improve the characterization of TAS. We review the literature on the subject and discuss some interesting animal models of infectious gastric autoimmunity.
    Revue médicale de Liège 11/2013; 68(11):579-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract AIM: A Belgian registry for pediatric Crohn's disease, BELCRO, was created. This first report aims at describing disease presentation and phenotype and determining associations between variables at diagnosis and registration in the database. METHODS: Through a collaborative network, children with previously established Crohn's disease and newly diagnosed children and adolescents (under 18y of age) were recruited over a 2year period. Data were collected by 23 centers and entered in a database. Statistical association tests analyzed relationships between variables of interest at diagnosis. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-five patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 12.5y (range: 1.6-18y); median duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis was 3m (range: 1-12m). Neonatal history and previous medical history did not influence disease onset nor disease behavior. Fifty three % of these patients presented with a BMI z-score<-1. CRP was an independent predictor of disease severity. Steroids were widely used as initial treatment in moderate to severe and extensive disease. Over time, immunomodulators and biological were prescribed more frequently, reflecting a lower prescription rate for steroids and 5-ASA. A positive family history was the sole significant determinant for earlier use of immunosuppression. CONCLUSION: In Belgium, the median age of children presenting with Crohn's disease is 12.5y. Faltering growth, extensive disease and upper GI involvement are frequent. CRP is an independent predictive factor of disease activity. A positive family history appears to be the main determinant for initial treatment choice.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 04/2013; · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 04/2013; 37(7):752-3. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • J. M. Benitez, E. Louis
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 01/2013; 38(5). · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims In Crohn's disease, correlation between clinical assessment and disease activity at tissue level is weak. Our aim was to evaluate the value of serum calprotectin as a biomarker for Crohn's disease. Methods The STORI trial patients (n = 115) were studied at baseline, in clinical remission before infliximab withdrawal, or at the time of relapse after infliximab withdrawal. Forty healthy controls were also studied. Serum calprotectin level was measured by ELISA. Data were analyzed through correlation analyses, Kaplan Meier curves and Cox model, using available Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS), fecal calprotectin and C-reactive protein levels (hsCRP). Results Median serum calprotectin was 8892 ng/mL (range: 410–125,000 ng/mL) in Crohn disease patients as compared with 1318 ng/mL (range: 215.8–3770 ng/mL) in controls (P < 0.0001). Serum calprotectin was significantly higher for active disease (median = 19,584 ng/mL) than for inactive disease (median = 8353 ng/mL) (P < 0.0001). Serum calprotectin correlated with hsCRP (r = 0.4092, P < 0.0001) and CDAI (r = 0.4442, P < 0.0001), but not with CDEIS, on the contrary to fecal calprotectin (r = 0.6458, 0.5515, 0.2577 with P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, P = 0.019 respectively). In multivariate analysis, serum calprotectin used as a discrete variable (threshold: 5675 ng/ml), appeared complementary to hsCRP (> 5 mg/l) and fecal calprotectin (> 250 μg/g) to predict relapse after infliximab withdrawal (P = 0.0173, 0.0024 and 0.0002; HR: 3.191, 3.561 and 4.120). Conclusions As a CD biomarker, serum calprotectin has a similar profile as hsCRP. It is also complementary to fecal calprotectin and hsCRP for prediction of relapse after infliximab withdrawal.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 01/2013; 7(12):e678–e683. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype occurs in approximately 15 to 24% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and may be sporadic or hereditary. It reflects a mutator phenotype in the tumor due to a lack of mismatch repair system. MSI is indeed one of the characteristics of CRCs occurring in Lynch syndrome and some sporadic cases. CRCs with MSI have a better prognosis than CRCs with microsatellite stability (MSS). This is explained partly by a more important anti-tumor immune response and by apoptosis of tumor cells in which mutations accumulate. However, in some retrospective studies, microsatellite instability in stage II CRCs was associated with no benefit to or even a deleterious effect of 5-FU alone based adjuvant therapy. Nevertheless, results obtained in stage III CRCs with FOLFOX type adjuvant chemotherapy remain favorable in retrospective studies.
    Revue médicale de Liège 12/2012; 67(12):638-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Biologicals have become an important component in the treatment of Crohn's disease in children. Their increased and long term use raises safety concerns. We describe safety and cost of infliximab in Belgian pediatric Crohn's disease patients. All patients on infliximab as part of the present or past treatment for Crohn's Disease until January 1st 2011 were selected from an existing database. Information on disease phenotype, medication and adverse events were extracted. Adverse events occurred in 25.9% of patients exposed to infliximab of which 29.6% were severe. In total 31.7% of patients stopped infliximab therapy. The main reasons for discontinuation were adverse events in 45.4% and loss of response in 30.3%. No malignancies or lethal complications occurred over this 241 patient year observation period. Immunomodulators were concomitant medication in 75% of patients and were discontinued subsequently in 38.4% of them. The cost of infliximab infusions per treated patient per year in the Belgian health care setting is approximately 9 474 euro, including only medication and hospital related costs. Even though infliximab is relatively safe in pediatric CD on the short term, close follow-up and an increased awareness of the possible adverse reactions is highly recommended. Adverse reactions appeared in 25.9% of all patients and were the main reason for discontinuation. Treatment cost has to be balanced against efficacy and modifications in disease course. In the Belgian health care system, the medication is available to all patients with moderate to severe CD.
    Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica 12/2012; 75(4):425-31. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is clear benefit from combination therapy with infliximab and immunosuppressive drugs (IS), but few data are available for adalimumab (ADA). AIM: To assess the efficacy of ADA monotherapy and ADA+IS for induction and maintenance therapy in Crohn's disease. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with Crohn's disease treated with ADA in Oxford, UK or Liège, Belgium. Treatment periods were divided into 6-month semesters. A combination therapy semester was defined as ADA+IS for at least 3 months; successful induction meant clinical response; a semester with flare as ADA dose escalation, starting steroids, perianal complication, or surgery; and ADA failure as ADA withdrawal for secondary loss of response or intolerance. Semesters with and without flares were compared through univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Successful induction was achieved in 171/207 (83%) patients, with no significant difference between ADA+IS and ADA monotherapy (85% vs. 82%, P = 0.50). Five hundred and sixty-two semesters in 181 patients were included for maintenance analysis. ADA+IS was not associated with fewer semesters with flare (34% vs. 35%, P = 0.96), or with ADA failure (6% vs. 8%, P = 0.43). Nevertheless, combination therapy in the first semester was associated with a lower risk of ADA failure (5% vs. 10%, P = 0.04, OR = 0.48) and combination therapy beyond 6 months was associated with fewer semesters with flares (14% vs. 36%, P = 0.02, OR = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: There may be a benefit from adalimumab+immunosuppressive drugs combination therapy during the first semester of initiating adalimumab, with a slight decrease in adalimumab failure and lower need for adalimumab dosage escalation.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 10/2012; · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 09/2012; 36(5):494-6. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After fifteen years of use, the anti-TNF antibodies have become the corner stone of the treatment of moderate and severe Crohn's disease. The skill acquired over the years through experimental trials and clinical experience leads to increased therapeutic efficacy and minimized risks. These antibodies are introduced increasingly earlier in Crohn's disease as well as in a broader range of patients, aiming at changing the natural history of the diseases by avoiding the development of intestinal tissue damage and complications.
    Revue médicale de Liège 01/2012; 67 Spec No:8-13.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of infliximab induction therapy on calprotectin levels in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). In this prospective study 53 patients with active UC from 17 centers were treated with infliximab therapy (5 mg/kg) at baseline, week 2, and week 6. Faecal calprotectin was measured every week. Sigmoidoscopies were performed at baseline, week 6 and week 10. Median calprotectin levels decreased from 1260 (IQR 278.5- 3418) at baseline to 72.5 (IQR 18.5 - 463) at week 10 (p<0.001). After 10 weeks, infliximab therapy induced endoscopic remission and a decrease in calprotectin to<50 mg/kg or at least a 80% decrease from baseline level in 58% of patients. A significant and steep decrease of calprotectin levels was seen at week 2 for patients with an endoscopic remission at week 10 as compared to patients who did not show a remission. (p<0.001). At week 10 an excellent correlation was found between endoscopic remission and clinical Mayo score reflected by an AUC of ROC analyses of 0.94 (0.87-1) and with calprotectin measurements (AUC 0.91 (0.81-1)) : all patients with calprotectin levels <50 mg/kg, and a normal clinical Mayo score (=0) were in endoscopic remission. Infliximab induces a fast and significant decrease of faecal calprotectin levels in anti-TNF naïve patients with ulcerative colitis predictive for remission of disease.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 12/2011; 6(5):557-62. · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • E Louis
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 11/2011; 34(9):1138-9; author reply 1139-40. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesalazine remains the first line treatment for the induction and the maintenance of remission in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Its efficacy as a maintenance treatment after a first flare treated with corticosteroids has not been specifically studied. The aims of our work were to study a cohort of UC patients treated with mesalazine after a course of oral systemic corticosteroids and to identify predictive factors of relapse and of colectomy. We studied retrospectively a cohort of 143 UC patients, who never received immunosuppressive drugs, and treated for the first time with oral corticosteroids for a flare. Among patients responding to corticosteroids, we studied the group treated by mesalazine after the flare. Fifty% (n=52) achieved a complete clinical remission with steroid weaning. In this group, 67% (n=35) received oral mesalazine. Seventy-five % of patients treated by mesalazine relapsed (median 29 months, range: 1-156). Fourteen % required a colectomy (median 11 months, range: 1-24). Kaplan Meier curve showed a relapse rate and a colectomy rate over one year of 26% and 11% respectively. In multivariate analysis, male gender and short duration of disease were predictive factors of the time-to-relapse. No factor was predictive of time-to-colectomy. Maintenance efficacy of mesalazine over one year after a first course of corticosteroids for a disease flare is reasonably high. The longer-term relapse rate becomes higher in male patients with a short disease duration. An immunosuppressive treatment could be discussed in case of further relapse despite improved medication-adherence. Medication-adherence should first be assessed and promoted. An immunosuppressive treatment could be discussed in case of further relapse despite improved medication-adherence.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 06/2011; 5(3):196-202. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This document analyzes the reasons for organizing an abdominal ultrasound training for Belgian trainees in hepatogastroenterology. The hepatogastroenterology speciality should implement, together with the radiology speciality and the national scientific and professional associations, the minimum training requirements which are proposed by the European Board of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Trainees in hepatogastroenterology should acquire the same theoretical and practical training as radiologists, they should be taught and supervised by competent instructors and have their expertise evaluated.
    Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica 03/2011; 74(1):67-9. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients treated with infliximab for Crohn's disease (CD) frequently require intensified dosage due to loss of response. There are scant data regarding the efficacy of shortening the dosing interval to 6 weeks. We sought to investigate the efficacy of a once every 6 weeks' strategy compared with dose-doubling. This work was a multicentre retrospective study of infliximab-treated CD patients who required dose escalation. The clinical outcome of patients treated by intensification to 5 mg/kg/6 weeks (6-week group) was compared with the outcome of patients whose infliximab was double-dosed (10 mg/kg/8 weeks or 5 mg/kg/4 weeks). Ninety-four patients (mean age: 29.8 years) were included in the study, 55 (59%) in the 6-week group and 39 (41%) in the double-dose group. Demographics and disease characteristics were similar between the two groups, although patients with re-emerging symptoms 5-7 weeks postinfusion were more likely to receive 5 mg/kg/6 weeks dosing (OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.4-8.8, P < 0.01). Early response to dose-intensification occurred in 69% of patients in the 6-week group and 67% in the double-dose group (P = N.S.). Regained response was maintained for 12 months in 40% compared with 29% of the patients respectively (P = N.S.). In CD patients who lost response to standard infliximab dose, especially when symptoms re-emerge 5-7 weeks postinfusion, shortening the dosing interval to 6 weeks appears to be at least as effective as doubling the dose to 10 mg/kg or halving the infusion intervals to once in 4 weeks.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 02/2011; 33(3):349-57. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 01/2011; 70(6):1144-1152.
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association study datasets, comprising 6,687 cases and 19,718 controls, and followed up the top association signals in 9,628 cases and 12,917 controls. We identified 29 additional risk loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)), increasing the number of ulcerative colitis-associated loci to 47. After annotating associated regions using GRAIL, expression quantitative trait loci data and correlations with non-synonymous SNPs, we identified many candidate genes that provide potentially important insights into disease pathogenesis, including IL1R2, IL8RA-IL8RB, IL7R, IL12B, DAP, PRDM1, JAK2, IRF5, GNA12 and LSP1. The total number of confirmed inflammatory bowel disease risk loci is now 99, including a minimum of 28 shared association signals between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
    Nat Genet. 01/2011;

Publication Stats

2k Citations
425.34 Total Impact Points


  • 1999–2013
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège
      Luik, Walloon Region, Belgium
  • 1990–2013
    • University of Liège
      • • Department of Gastroenterology
      • • Unit of Rheumatology
      • • Department of Pneumology
      Liège, WAL, Belgium
  • 2011
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Ghent
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium