Eduardo B Farfán

University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (39)24.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Savannah River National Laboratory's Environmental Dosimetry Group performs dosimetry assessments for Savannah River Site (SRS) radionuclide air emissions utilizing the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88) code (CAP88 PC Ver. 3.0) and the MAXDOSE-SR Ver. 2011 code, which is an SRS-specific version of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's MAXIGASP code. CAP88 PC and MAXDOSE-SR are used at SRS for demonstrating compliance with Environmental Protection Agency dose standards for radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere and Department of Energy Order 458.1 dose standards, respectively. During a routine comparison of these two assessment models, it was discovered that CAP88 PC Ver. 3.0 was not producing the expected results when using multiple co-located stacks in a single run. Specifically, if the stack heights are considered separately, the results for several radionuclides (but not all) differ from the combined run [i.e., 1 + 2 does not equal (1+2)]. Additionally, when two or more stack heights are considered in a run, the results depend on the order of the selected stack heights. For example, for a two stack-height run of 0 meter and 61 m input produces different results from a 61 m and 0 m input run. This study presents a comparison of CAP88 PC Ver. 3.0 and MAXDOSE-SR Ver. 2011 based on SRS input data and on two-stack release scenarios. The selected radionuclides for this study included gases/vapors (H, C, Kr, and I) and particulates (Sr, Cs, Pu, and Am) commonly encountered at SRS.
    Health physics 08/2013; 105(2 Suppl 2):S158-63. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • John Adamovics, Eduardo B Farfán, J Rusty Coleman
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    ABSTRACT: RadBall is a novel, passive, radiation detection device that provides 3D mapping of radiation from areas where measurements have not been possible previously due to lack of access or extremely high radiation doses. This kind of technology is beneficial when decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear facilities occur. The key components of the RadBall technology include a tungsten outer shell that houses a radiosensitive PRESAGE polymer. The 1.0-cm-thick tungsten shell has a number of holes that allow photons to reach the polymer, thus generating radiation tracks that are analyzed to characterize the radiation sources within the contaminated area being considered. Facilities being mapped frequently have to be shut down to minimize radiation exposures to workers; therefore, reducing the mapping or characterization time is significant. The objective of this study was to reduce the RadBall deployment time by increasing the radiosensitivity of the PRESAGE formulation. The new formulation is four times more radiosensitive than the original formulation. Consequently, RadBall deployment times can be reduced fourfold, which is a considerable improvement.
    Health physics 01/2013; 104(1):63-7. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the U.S. Department of Energy Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide was determined to be 9.4 × 10 Sv Bq, which is less than the DCF for tritiated water. Therefore, the radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.
    Health physics 09/2012; 103(3):249-54. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The overall objective of this study was to demonstrate that a new technology, known as RadBall®, could locate submerged radiological hazards. RadBall® is a novel, passive, radiation detection device that provides a 3-D visualization of radiation from areas where measurements have not been previously possible due to lack of access or extremely high radiation doses. This technology has been under development during recent years, and all of its previous tests have included dry deployments. This study involved, for the first time, underwater RadBall® deployments in hot cells containing 137CsCl capsules at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. RadBall® can be used to characterize a contaminated room, hot cell, or glovebox by providing the locations of the radiation sources and hazards, identifying the radionuclides present within the cell, and determining the radiation sources' strength (e.g., intensities or dose rates). These parameters have been previously determined for dry deployments; however, only the location of radiation sources and hazards can be determined for an underwater RadBall® deployment. The results from this study include 3-D images representing the location of the radiation sources within the Hanford Site cells. Due to RadBall®'s unique deployability and non-electrical nature, this technology shows significant promise for future characterization of radiation hazards prior to and during the decommissioning of contaminated nuclear facilities.
    Health physics 07/2012; 103(1):100-6. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    Vasyl Yoschenko, Timothy Jannik, Eduardo B Farfan
    Health physics 06/2012; 102(6):705. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper provides a summary of recent trials which took place at the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during December 2010. The overall objective for the trials was to demonstrate that a newly developed technology could be used to locate, quantify and characterise the radiological hazards within two separate ORNL hot cells (B and C). The technology used, known as RadBall(®), is a novel, passive, non-electrical polymer based radiation detection device which provides a 3D visualisation of radiation from areas where effective measurements have not been previously possible due to lack of access. This is particularly useful in the nuclear industry prior to the decommissioning of facilities where the quantity, location and type of contamination are often unknown. For hot cell B, the primary objective of demonstrating that the technology could be used to locate, quantify and characterise three radiological sources was met with 100% success. Despite more challenging conditions in hot cell C, two sources were detected and accurately located. To summarise, the technology performed extremely well with regards to detecting and locating radiation sources and, despite the challenging conditions, moderately well when assessing the relative energy and intensity of those sources. Due to the technology's unique deployability, non-electrical nature and its directional awareness the technology shows significant promise for the future characterisation of radiation hazards prior to and during the decommissioning of contaminated nuclear facilities.
    Journal of Radiological Protection 05/2012; 32(2):131-45. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RadBall™ is a novel technology that can locate unknown radioactive hazards within contaminated areas, hot cells, and gloveboxes. The device consists of a colander-like outer tungsten collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer semisphere. The collimator has a number of small holes; as a result, specific areas of the polymer are exposed to radiation, becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer semisphere is imaged in an optical computed tomography scanner that produces a high resolution three-dimensional map of optical attenuation coefficients. A subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data, using a reverse ray tracing technique, provides information on the spatial distribution of gamma-ray sources in a given area, forming a three-dimensional characterization of the area of interest. The RadBall™ technology and its reverse ray tracing technique were investigated using known radiation sources at the Savannah River Site's Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory and unknown sources at the Savannah River National Laboratory's Shielded Cells facility.
    Health physics 02/2012; 102(2):196-207. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified, and the fuel burn-up in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burn-up values based on the cesium isotopes in comparison with other radionuclides was observed. The studies conducted were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of 242Cm and 243Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from 241Am (and going higher) in comparison with the theoretical calculations.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):368-74. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the 90Sr and 137Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The 90Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1-mm-thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is "thick-layered" and contains a comparable quantity of 137Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The 137Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous 90Sr and 137Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape, and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in this paper, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):383-92. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):416-30. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • Eduardo B Farfán
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):336-7. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) located in Slavutych, Ukraine, was created in 1999 under the initiative of the United States Government and the Government of Ukraine in the framework of international cooperation on evaluation and minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) accident. Since the time the IRL was founded, it has participated in a large number of projects, including the following: 1) study of radionuclide accumulation, distribution, and migration in components of various ecological systems of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); 2) radiation dose assessments; 3) study of the effects of radiation influence on biological systems; 4) expert analysis of isotopic and quantitative composition of radioactive contaminants; 5) development of new methods and technologies intended for radioecological research; 6) evaluation of future developments and pathways for potential remediation of the ChEZ areas; 7) assistance in provision of physical protection systems for ionizing irradiation sources at Ukrainian enterprises; 8) reviews of open Russian language publications on issues associated with consequences of the ChNPP accident, radioactive waste management, radioecological monitoring, and ChNPP decommissioning; 9) conduct of training courses on problems of radioecology, radiation safety, radioecological characterization of test sites and environmental media, and research methods; 10) conduct of on-site scientific conferences and workshops on the ChEZ and radioecology problems; participation in off-site scientific conferences and meetings; and 11) preparation of scientific and popular science publications and interactions with mass media representatives. This article provides a brief overview of the major achievements resulting from this cooperation between the IRL and U.S. research centers.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):338-48. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of 60Co, 134,137Cs, 154,155Eu, and 241Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of 137Cs and 241Am was noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain 243Am and 243Ñm. Over the past 10 years, the 241Am/137Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to "fresh" fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):362-7. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, the "Red Forest" site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m(2) was characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants), and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values was close to a logarithmically-normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or "hot spots," including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometric mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometric means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):409-15. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):431-41. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status. The history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described also. This paper addresses the characteristics of radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes in these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):442-85. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):349-61. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 y old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y(-1)) to approximately 7 Gy y(-1) in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified, and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):393-408. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some microscopic fungi found in the area of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone appear to have unique radioadaptive properties associated with their capability to respond positively to the effects of ionizing irradiation. On the one hand, this capability can be used potentially in bio-remediation technologies, and on the other hand, it requires additional, more thorough studies to identify its underlying mechanisms. Practically, no data are currently available on mechanisms for implementation of these radioadaptive properties by microscopic fungi. The objective of the completed study was to evaluate the functioning of the antioxidant system of a microscopic fungus as one of potential mechanisms for implementation of its radioadaptive properties. The study was performed using a model system simulating the soil radioactivity in the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, with the ratio of the radioactive isotopes matching the radionuclide content in the fuel component of the Chernobyl fallout. The completed study was the first ever performed to identify a comprehensive response of the major components of the antioxidant system of the microscopic fungi to ionizing radiation, resulting in an induced melanin synthesis and increased activity of the known enzymes of antioxidant protection. Their response to ionizing radiation depended on the presence or absence of radioadaptive properties and phase of the fungal growth. Fungi with radioadaptive properties have a much higher susceptibility for inducing synthesis of melanin and antioxidant enzymes than fungi without radioadaptive properties (hereinafter referred to as the reference species or strains), which illustrates the contribution of these processes to "radiophilia" of the fungi.
    Health physics 10/2011; 101(4):375-82. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When assessing the feasibility of remediation following the detonation of a radiological dispersion device or improvised nuclear device in a large city, several issues should be considered, including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of resources required for decontamination and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Currently, little is known about radionuclide penetration into construction materials in an urban environment. Knowledge in this area would be useful when considering costs of a thorough decontamination of buildings, artificial structures and roads in an affected urban environment. Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to assess the depth of (90)Sr and (137)Cs penetration into reinforced concrete structures in a highly contaminated urban environment under natural weather conditions. Thirteen reinforced concrete core samples were obtained from external surfaces of a contaminated building in Pripyat. The concrete cores were drilled to obtain sample layers of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 mm. Both (90)Sr and (137)Cs were detected in the entire 0-50 mm profile of the reinforced cores sampled. In most of the cores, over 90% of the total (137)Cs inventory and 70% of the total (90)Sr inventory was found in the first 0-5 mm layer of the reinforced concrete. Strontium-90 ((90)Sr) had penetrated markedly deeper into the reinforced concrete structures than (137)Cs.
    Health physics 09/2011; 101(3):311-20. · 0.92 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

45 Citations
24.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of North Carolina at Charlotte
      Charlotte, North Carolina, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Savannah River National Laboratory
      Aiken, South Carolina, United States
  • 2011
    • National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
      • D. K. Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology
      Kharkiv, Kharkivs'ka Oblast', Ukraine