[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experiments were designed to investigate the role of IL-16 in a mouse model of allergic asthma. OVA-sensitized mice were repeatedly exposed to OVA or saline aerosols. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected after the last aerosol, and the presence of IL-16 was evaluated using a migration assay with human lymphocytes. Migration of lymphocytes was significantly increased in the presence of cell-free BALF from OVA-challenged mice compared with BALF from saline-challenged controls. This response was significantly inhibited after addition of antibodies to IL-16, demonstrating the presence of IL-16 in BALF of OVA-challenged animals. Immunohistochemistry was performed and revealed IL-16 immunoreactivity particularly in airway epithelial cells but also in cellular infiltrates in OVA-challenged mice. IL-16 immunoreactivity was absent in nonsensitized animals; however, some reactivity was detected in epithelial cells of sensitized but saline-challenged mice, suggesting that sensitization induced IL-16 expression in airway epithelium. Treatment of mice with antibodies to IL-16 during the challenge period significantly suppressed up-regulation of OVA-specific IgE in OVA-challenged animals. Furthermore, antibodies to IL-16 significantly inhibited the development of airway hyper-responsiveness after repeated OVA inhalations, whereas the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage or airway tissue was not affected. In conclusion, IL-16 immunoreactivity is present in the airways after sensitization. After repeated OVA inhalation, IL-16 immunoreactivity is markedly increased and IL-16 is detectable in BALF. Furthermore, IL-16 plays an important role in airway hyper-responsiveness and up-regulation of IgE but is not important for eosinophil accumulation in a mouse model of allergic asthma.
The Journal of Immunology 03/1998; 160(6):2998-3005. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelium-derived Fas ligand is believed to modulate inflammation within various tissues. In this paper, we report findings that suggest a similar immunoregulatory role for Fas ligand in the lung. First, Fas ligand was localized to nonciliated, cuboidal airway epithelial cells (Clara cells) throughout the airways in the normal murine lung by employing nonisotopic in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Second, gld mutant mice, which express a dysfunctional Fas ligand protein, were noted to develop prominent infiltration of inflammatory cells in submucosal and peribronchial regions of the upper and lower airways. Third, during allergic airway inflammation induced by ovalbumin in mice, cell-associated staining for Fas ligand mRNA and protein was markedly reduced in the airway epithelium. These data suggest that Clara cell-derived Fas ligand may control immune activity in the airway; thus alterations in this protective mechanism may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain inflammatory conditions of the airway, such as asthma.
The American journal of physiology 03/1998; 274(3 Pt 1):L444-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study the role of interleukin (IL)4, IL5, interferon (IFN) gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammatory cell infiltration was investigated using a murine model for allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin and subsequently challenged repeatedly with ovalbumin aerosols. During the challenge period, mice were treated with monoclonal antibodies directed against IL4, IL5, IFN gamma, or TNF alpha. Control antibody-treated mice showed airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and the presence of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Treatment with antibodies to IFN gamma completely abolished development of airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin-challenged animals. After treatment with antibodies to TNF alpha, airway hyperresponsiveness in the ovalbumin-challenged animals was partially but not significantly inhibited. Antibodies to IL4 or IL5 did not inhibit airway hyperresponsiveness. The presence of eosinophils in BAL of ovalbumin-challenged mice was completely inhibited after treatment with antibodies to IL5. Treatment with antibodies to IL4, IFN gamma, or TNF alpha had no effect on eosinophilia. Because IFN gamma and IL5 have either an effect on the induction of airway hyperresponsiveness or on the development of eosinophil infiltration, our results suggest that the two phenomena are differentially regulated.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 04/1997; 16(3):325-34. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Mice were sensitized by 7 intraperitoneal injections of ovalbumin without adjuvant (10 micrograms in 0.5 ml of sterile saline) on alternate days and after 3 weeks exposed to either ovalbumin (2 mg ml-1 in sterile saline) or saline aerosol for 5 min on 8 consecutive days. One day before the first challenge, animals were injected intraperitoneally on a daily basis with vehicle (0.25 ml sterile saline), dexamethasone (0.5 mg kg-1) or metyrapone (30 mg kg-1). 2. In vehicle-treated ovalbumin-sensitized animals ovalbumin challenge induced a significant increase of airway responsiveness to metacholine both in vitro (27%, P < 0.05) and in vivo (40%, P < 0.05) compared to saline-challenged mice. Virtually no eosinophils could be detected after saline challenge, whereas the numbers of eosinophils were significantly increased (P < 0.01) at both 3 and 24 h after the last ovalbumin challenge (5.48 +/- 3.8 x 10(3) and 9.13 +/- 1.7 x 10(3) cells, respectively). Furthermore, a significant increase in ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E level (583 +/- 103 units ml-1, P < 0.05) was observed after ovalbumin challenge compared to saline challenge (201 +/- 38 units ml-1). 3. Plasma corticosterone level was significantly reduced (-92%, P < 0.001) after treatment with metyrapone. Treatment with metyrapone significantly increased eosinophil infiltration (17.4 +/- 9.93 x 10(3) and 18.7 +/- 2.57 x 10(3) cells, P < 0.05 at 3 h and 24 h, respectively) and potentiated airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine compared to vehicle-treated ovalbumin-challenged animals. Dexamethasone inhibited both in vitro and in vivo hyperresponsiveness as well as antigen-induced infiltration of eosinophils (0, P < 0.05 and 0.7 +/- 0.33 x 10(3) cells, P < 0.05 at 3 h and 24 h, respectively). Metyrapone as well as dexamethasone did not affect the increase in ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E levels after ovalbumin challenge (565 +/- 70 units/ml-1; P < 0.05; 552 +/- 48 units ml-1, P < 0.05 respectively). 4. From these data it can be concluded that exogenously applied corticosteroids can inhibit eosinophil infiltration as well as airway hyperresponsiveness. Vise versa, endogenously produced corticosteroids play a down-regulating role on the induction of both eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness.
British Journal of Pharmacology 12/1996; 119(7):1484-90. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A murine model of allergen-induced airway inflammation and epithelial phenotypic change, and the time-courses of these events, are described. Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin using an adjuvant-free protocol, and challenged by multiple intratracheal instillations of ovalbumin by a non-surgical technique. Many of the characteristic features of human atopic asthma were seen in the mice. A marked eosinophilic infiltration of lung tissue and airways followed allergen challenge, and its severity increased with each challenge, as did the number of eosinophils in the blood. Lymphocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes also invaded the lungs. Airway macrophages showed signs of activation, their appearance resembling those recovered from antigen-challenged human asthmatic airways. The airway epithelium was thickened and displayed a marked goblet cell hyperplasia in terminal bronchioles and larger airways. After repeated challenges, the reticular layer beneath the basement membrane of the airway epithelium showed fibrosis, reproducing a commonly observed histologic feature of human asthma. Goblet cell hyperplasia began to appear before eosinophils or lymphocytes had migrated across the airway epithelium, and persisted for at least 11 days after the third intratracheal challenge with ovalbumin, despite the number of inflammatory cells in the lungs and airways having decreased to near-normal levels by 4 days. Plugs of mucus occluded some of the airways. These results indicate that some of the phenotypic changes in airway epithelium that follow an allergic response in the lung can be initiated before the migration of eosinophils or lymphocytes across the epithelial layer.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 06/1996; 14(5):425-38. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanisms underlying airway hyperresponsiveness a murine model was developed with several important characteristics of human allergic asthma. Mice were intraperitoneally sensitized with ovalbumin and after 4 weeks challenge via an ovalbumin aerosol. After aerosol, lung function was evaluated with a non-invasive forced oscillation technique. The amount of mucosal exudation into the airway lumen and the presence of mast cell degranulation was determined. Tracheal responsiveness was measured at several time points after challenge. At these time points also bronchoalveolar lavage and histology were performed. Sensitization induced high antigen-specific IgE levels in serum. Inhalation of ovalbumin in sensitized mice induced an immediate but no late bronchoconstrictive response. During this immediate phase, respiratory resistance was increased (54%). Within the first hour after ovalbumin inhalation increased mucosal exudation and mast cell degranulation were observed. At 12 and 24 h after ovalbumin challenge, mice showed tracheal hyperresponsiveness (29% and 34%, respectively). However, no apparent inflammation was found in the lungs or bronchoalveolar lavage. From these results it can be concluded that hyperresponsiveness can develop via mechanisms independent of an inflammatory infiltrate. Since mast cell degranulation occurred after ovalbumin exposure, we hypothesize that mast cells are involved in the induction of airway hyperresponsiveness in this model.
European Journal of Pharmacology 01/1996; 293(4):401-12. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A noninvasive forced oscillation technique was used to determine respiratory function in unanesthetized and spontaneously breathing mice. Pseudorandom noise pressure variations in a frequency range of 16-208 Hz were applied to the body surface, and the flow response was measured at the nose. From the pressure-flow relationship, respiratory transfer impedance was calculated. Study of intra-animal variability on a short- and a long-term basis revealed that the real part of respiratory transfer impedance was reproducible within 9%. The imaginary part appeared less reproducible (within 22%). Furthermore, bronchoconstrictive responses were investigated and analyzed by evaluation of respiratory resistance as measured at 16 Hz (Rrs16). During the first 15 min after ovalbumin challenge in ovalbumin-sensitized mice, Rrs16 was significantly increased [49 +/- 7% (SE)]. Inhalation of methacholine in untreated mice induced an increase in Rrs16 of 75 +/- 16% (SE). In saline-challenged animals, no significant changes were observed. This method enables evaluation of long-term respiratory function in mice and appeared to be a sensitive measure for bronchoconstriction.
Journal of Applied Physiology 12/1995; 79(5):1711-6. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to compare the sensitivities of morphological and immunological parameters in a teratology study, effects in day 20 rat fetuses were studied after a single exposure to the immunosuppressive cytostatic agent cyclophosphamide (CP) on either day 11 or day 15 of gestation. Teratological methods included evaluation of external and skeletal morphology. Furthermore histology, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were performed on fetal thymus, liver and spleen. Immune function was assayed using the Trichinella spiralis infection model. Treatment resulted in dose-dependent gross morphological malformations, and in addition in overt skeletal anomalies such as brachygnathia, wavy ribs, and lordosis. In contrast, the immunological parameters tested revealed only minimal differences between treated and control groups. These results suggest either a remarkable recovery of the immune system after treatment, or a relatively high resistance of the immune system to the present treatment.