[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To correlate subclinical conjunctival inflammation and trabeculectomy results. Methods: Prospective case series of 28 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (28 eyes) under topical anti-glaucoma medication who underwent trabeculectomy. During surgery, a sample from the inferior bulbar conjunctiva was collected and the expression of HLA-DR together with the presence of inflammatory cells was correlated with trabeculectomy outcomes after 24 months. Surgical success was defined as intraocular pressure between 6 and 20 mmHg irrespective of the use of anti-glaucoma medication. Results: Five patients missed follow-up visits and were removed from the study. Ten eyes (43.5%) were HLA-DR(+), but no significant differences were observed between eyes with successful and failed surgeries (p = 0.214). There was no significant association between the number of neutrophils and surgical outcomes (p = 0.353). Conclusions: The presence of inflammatory cells and expression of the inflammation marker HLA-DR in the conjunctiva did not correlate with the prognosis of trabeculectomy in this study.
Ocular immunology and inflammation 01/2014; · 0.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: HLA-G is a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex molecule that has well-recognized immunomodulatory properties. The expression of HLA-G in tumor cells has been considered to be detrimental, permitting tumor spreading and decreased survival. We evaluated the expression of HLA-G in histologically normal thyroid tissue, goiter, benign and malignant thyroid tumors, and studied the relationship between HLA-G expression and patient clinical variables. Patients and Methods: The immunohistochemistry expression of HLA-G was performed on 72 specimens of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 19 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), 22 follicular adenomas (FA), 22 colloid goiters (CG) and 14 histologically normal thyroid glands (NT). The percentage of HLA-G staining was graded from absent (-) to intense (+++). Results: HLA-G was faintly expressed in areas of hyperplasia in NT and CG. In PTC, FTC and FA, the percentage of cell staining was significantly higher than in NT and CG (P<0.001, for each comparison). The tumor area with HLA-G expression was greater in FTC (P=0.0059) and PTC (P=0.0330) compared to FA. According to the magnitude of HLA-G staining, PTC tumors larger than 1cm exhibited increased HLA-G staining when compared to smaller tumors (P=0.03). Aggressive histologic subtypes of PTC have higher median stained tumor area. No association was found between HLA-G expression and tumoral staging or patient disease-free survival. Conclusions: The gradual increase of HLA-G expression from hyperplasia areas to carcinoma areas and the association of strong HLA-staining with some variables implicated on poor prognosis corroborate the unfavorable role of HLA-G in tumor thyroid cells, inhibiting cytotoxic immune system cells and facilitating tumor evasion and progression.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 10/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considering that downregulation of HLA expression could represent a potential mechanism for breast carcinogenesis and metastasis, the aim of the present study was to use immunohistochemical methods to analyze the expression of HLA-Ia, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-E, and HLA-G in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and to relate this HLA profile to anatomopathological parameters. Fifty-two IDC from breast biopsies were stratified according to histological differentiation (well, moderately, and poorly differentiated) and to the presence of metastases in axillary lymph nodes. The expression of HLA molecules was assessed by immunohistochemistry, using a computer-assisted system. Overall, 31 (59.6%) out of the 52 IDC breast biopsies exhibited high expression of HLA-G, but only 14 (26.9%) showed high expression of HLA-E. A large number (41, 78.8%) of the biopsies showed low expression of HLA-Ia, while 45 (86.5%) showed high expression of HLA-DQ and 36 (69.2%) underexpressed HLA-DR. Moreover, 24 (41.2%) of 52 biopsies had both low HLA-Ia expression and high HLA-G expression, while 11 (21.2%) had low HLA-Ia expression and high HLA-E expression. These results suggest that, by different mechanisms, the downregulation of HLA-Ia, HLA-E, and HLA-DR and the upregulation of HLA-G and HLA-DQ are associated with immune response evasion and breast cancer aggressiveness.
International journal of breast cancer. 01/2013; 2013:250435.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that the ethanolic extract of Lafoensia pacari inhibits eosinophilic inflammation induced by Toxocara canis infection, and that ellagic acid is the secondary metabolite responsible for the anti-eosinophilic activity seen in a model of β-glucan peritonitis. In the present study, we investigated the preventive and curative effects of L. pacari extract and ellagic acid on allergic lung inflammation using a murine model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, preventive (22-day) treatment with L. pacari (200 mg/kg) and ellagic acid (10 mg/kg) inhibited neutrophil counts (by 75% and 57%) and eosinophil counts (by 78% and 68%). L. pacari reduced IL-4 and IL-13 levels (by 67% and 73%), whereas ellagic acid reduced IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 (by 67%, 88% and 85%). To investigate curative anti-inflammatory effects, we treated mice daily with ellagic acid (0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg), also treating selected mice with L. pacari (200 mg/kg) from day 18 to day 22. The highest ellagic acid dose reduced neutrophil and eosinophil numbers (by 59% and 82%), inhibited IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 (by 62%, 61%, and 49%). Neither L. pacari nor ellagic acid suppressed ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness or cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis in lung homogenates. In mice treated with ellagic acid (10 mg/kg) or L. pacari (200 mg/kg) at 10 min after the second ovalbumin challenge, eosinophil numbers were 53% and 69% lower, respectively. Cytokine levels were unaffected by this treatment. L. pacari and ellagic acid are effective eosinophilic inflammation suppressors, suggesting a potential for treating allergies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the frequency of conjunctival HLA-DR expression (a surrogate marker for inflammation) in eyes treated with topical prostaglandin analogues versus eyes treated with other topical antiglaucomatous drugs.
Patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma presenting indication for trabeculectomy were divided in groups according to the use or not of prostaglandin analogues. All subjects were treated with the maximum tolerated dose of antiglaucomatous drugs until the date of the surgery. At the beginning of the surgical procedure, a 5 x 5 mm biopsy of the bulbar conjunctiva was collected, incubated with monoclonal anti-HLA-DR antibody and processed for histological analysis.
Of the 31 eyes included (31 patients), 25 were under topical prostaglandin analogues (Group 1) and six under other topical pharmacological agents (Group 2). Fourteen eyes of Group 1 (56%) and three of Group 2 (50 %) were positive for the inflammatory marker HLA-DR (P=1.0). The percentage of stained cells ranged from 15.49 to 48.09% (median: 27.61) in Group 1, and from 18.35 to 28 (median: 20.71) in Group 2, with no differences statistically significant (p=0.33).
The use of prostaglandin analogues did not increase conjunctival expression of HLA-DR compared to other topical antiglaucomatous agents.
Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia 10/2012; 27(10):732-5. · 0.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer remains persistently the second most common malignancies among women worldwide, responsible for 500,000 new cases annually. Only in Brazil, the estimate is for 18,430 new cases in 2011. Several types of molecular markers have been studied in carcinogenesis including proteins associated with apoptosis such as BAG-1 and PARP-1. This study aims to demonstrate the expression of BAG-1 and PARP-1 in patients with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the uterine cervix and to verify a possible association with HPV infection. Fifty samples of LSILs, 50 samples of HSILs and 50 samples of invasive SCCs of the uterine cervix were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for BAG-1 and PARP-1 expression. PCR was performed to detect and type HPV DNA. BAG-1 expression levels were significantly different between LSILs and HSILs (p = 0,014) and between LSILs and SCCs (p = 0,014). In regards to PARP-1 expression, we found significant differences between the expression levels in HSILs and SCCs (p = 0,022). No association was found between BAG-1 expression and the presence of HPV. However, a significant association was found between PARP-1 expression and HPV positivity in the HSILs group (p = 0,021). In conclusion our research suggests that BAG-1 expression could contribute to the differentiation between LSIL and HSIL/SCC whereas PARP-1 could be useful to the differentiation between HSIL HPV-related and SCC. Further studies are needed to clarify the molecular aspects of the relationship between PARP-1 expression and HPV infection, with potential applications for cervical cancer prediction.
Pathology & Oncology Research 03/2012; 18(4):929-37. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms of the head and neck. In Brazil, laryngeal tumors represent 2% of all cancers and are associated with approximately 3,000 deaths annually. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been reported to play an important role in the etiology of laryngeal cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of p53, p27, and Mdm2 in laryngeal carcinomas. Sixty-three larynx biopsies were selected for the study, including 9 in situ laryngeal carcinomas, 27 laryngeal carcinomas without metastasis and 27 laryngeal carcinomas with metastasis. Twenty-seven cervical lymph nodes from patients with metastatic lesions were also evaluated. The expression levels of p53, p27, and Mdm2 were assessed by immunohistochemistry using a computer-assisted system. HPV detection and typing were performed using PCR, and the HPV types that were evaluated included HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33. Out of 63 patients, 53 (84.1%) were positive for β-globin (internal control), and 10 (15.9%) were β-globin negative and therefore excluded from the evaluation. Thus, 7 (13.2%) out of 53 patients were HPV positive, and 46 (86.8%) out of 53 patients were HPV negative. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in Mdm2 expression levels were observed in the in situ laryngeal carcinoma samples compared with the laryngeal carcinoma samples with metastasis. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in either p53 or p27 expression levels were detected. These findings suggest that Mdm2 may be associated with the invasiveness and aggressiveness of laryngeal carcinomas.
Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 02/2012; 269(7):1795-804. · 1.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HLA-G and HLA-E are two nonclassical class I molecules, which have been well recognized as modulators of innate and adaptive immune responses, and the expression of these molecules in virus infected cells has been associated with subversion of the immune response. Objective: In this study we performed a cross-sectional study, systematically comparing the expression of HLA-G and HLA-E in benign, pre-malignant and malignant laryngeal lesions, correlating with demographic and clinical variables and with the presence of high-risk and low-risk HPV types.
Laryngeal lesions were collected from 109 patients and stratified into 27 laryngeal papillomas, 17 dysplasias, 10 in situ laryngeal carcinomas, 27 laryngeal carcinomas without metastases, 28 laryngeal carcinomas with metastasis along with their respective draining cervical lymph nodes, and 10 normal larynx specimens. The expression of HLA-G and HLA-E molecules was determined by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA detection and typing was performed using generic and specific primers.
HLA nonclassical molecules showed a distinct distribution pattern, according to the larynx lesion grade. HLA-G expression increased in benign and premalignant lesions, and gradually decreased in invasive carcinomas and in respective draining cervical lymph nodes. Conversely, HLA-E expression increased as far as lesion grade increased, including increased molecule expression in the draining lymph nodes of malignant lesions. Only 17 (15.6%) patients were HPV DNA positive.
Overexpression of HLA-E and underexpression of HLA-G appear to be good markers for malignant larynx lesion.
Histology and histopathology 12/2011; 26(12):1487-97. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional treatment of tuberculosis (TB) demands a long course therapy (6 months), known to originate multiple drug resistant strains (MDR-TB), which emphasizes the urgent need for new antituberculous drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate a novel treatment for TB meant to improve patient compliance by reducing drug dosage frequency. Polymeric microparticles containing the synthetic analogue of neolignan, 1-phenyl-2-phenoxiethanone (LS-2), were obtained by a method of emulsification and solvent evaporation and chemically characterized. Only representative LS-2-loaded microparticles were considered for further studies involving experimental murine TB induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294. The LS-2-loaded microparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth wall and showed an encapsulation efficiency of 93% in addition to displaying sustained release. Chemotherapeutic potential of LS-2 entrapped in microparticles was comparable to control groups. These findings are encouraging and indicate that LS-2-loaded microparticles are a potential alternative to conventional chemotherapy of TB.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 08/2011; 38(3):259-63. · 1.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids on the immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis in mice. Balb/c mice were infected with S. venezuelensis and treated with Dexamethasone (Dexa) or vehicle. Dexa treatment increased circulating blood neutrophil numbers and inhibited eosinophil and mononuclear cell accumulation in the blood, bronchoalveolar, and peritoneal fluid compared with control animals. Moreover, Dexa decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-12 production in the lungs and circulating immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, and IgE antibody levels while increasing the overall parasite burden in the feces and intestine. Dexa treatment enhanced the fertility of female nematodes relative to untreated and infected mice. In summary, the alterations in the immune response induced by Dexa resulted in a blunted, aberrant immune response associated with increased parasite burden. This phenomenon is similar to that observed in S. stercoralis-infected humans who are taking immunosuppressive or antiinflammatory drugs, including corticosteroids.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 06/2011; 84(6):957-66. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of the hundreds of new tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates, some have therapeutic value in addition to their prophylactic properties. This is the case for the DNA vaccine encoding heat-shock protein 65 (DNAhsp65) from Mycobacterium leprae. However, there are concerns about the use of DNA vaccines in certain populations such as newborns and pregnant women. Thus, the optimization of vaccination strategies that circumvent this limitation is a priority. This study evaluated the efficacy of a single dose subunit vaccine based on recombinant Hsp65 protein against infection with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The Hsp65 protein in this study was either associated or not with immunostimulants, and was encapsulated in biodegradable PLGA microspheres. Our results demonstrate that the protein was entrapped in microspheres of adequate diameter to be engulfed by phagocytes. Mice vaccinated with a single dose of Hsp65-microspheres or Hsp65+CpG-microspheres developed both humoral and cellular-specific immune responses. However, they did not protect mice against challenge with M. tuberculosis. By contrast, Hsp65+KLK-microspheres induced specific immune responses that reduced bacilli loads and minimized lung parenchyma damage. These data suggest that a subunit vaccine based on recombinant protein Hsp65 is feasible.
Human vaccines 12/2010; 6(12):1047-53. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABH and Lewis antigen expression has been associated with cancer development and prognosis, tumor differentiation, and metastasis. Considering that invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) presents multiple molecular alterations, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the polymorphism of ABO, Lewis, and Secretor genes, as well as ABO phenotyping, could be associated with tumor differentiation and lymph nodes metastasis. Seventy-six women with IDC and 78 healthy female blood donors were submitted to ABO phenotyping/genotyping and Lewis and Secretor genotyping. Phenotyping was performed by hemagglutination and genotyping by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. ABO, Lewis, and Secretor genes were classified by individual single nucleotide polymorphism at sites 59, 1067, 202, and 314 of the Lewis gene, 428 of the Secretor gene, and 261 (O1 allele), 526 (O2 and B allele), and 703 (B allele). No association was found between breast cancer and ABO antigen expression (P = 0.9323) or genotype (P = 0.9356). Lewis-negative genotype was associated with IDC (P = 0.0126) but not with anatomoclinical parameters. Nonsecretor genotype was associated with axillary lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0149). In conclusion, Lewis and Secretor genotyping could be useful to predict respectively breast cancer susceptibility and axillary lymph nodes metastasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a nonclassic class I molecule that acts as a modulator of immune responses, and the expression of these molecules in virus-infected cells has been associated with subversion of the immune response.
In this study, we performed a cross-sectional study, systematically comparing the expression of the HLA-G in benign, premalignant, and malignant oral lesions and correlating it with the presence of high-risk and low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. SPECIMENS AND METHODS: Oral biopsies were collected from 51 patients and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using anti-HLA-G antibody. Human papillomavirus detection and typing from oral biopsies were obtained by polymerase chain reaction using GP5+/GP6+ and specific primers.
The 51 biopsies were stratified into 3 groups according to lesion grade: oral benign lesions (oral hyperplasia and papilloma, n = 16), oral premalignant lesions (oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and lichen planus, n = 17), and malignant lesions (oral squamous cell carcinoma, n = 18). Human leukocyte antigen-G overexpression was mainly observed in benign and premalignant oral lesions but was not related to HPV infection (P > .05). On the other hand, HPV DNA was detected in 24 (47%) oral lesions, mainly in benign and premalignant lesions, with the most frequent type detected being high-risk HPV type.
The HLA-G molecule was expressed in a significant number of benign oral lesions and was not correlated with HPV infection or oral cancer.
American journal of otolaryngology 10/2010; 33(2):193-8. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nonclassical human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G molecule has been well recognized as a tolerogenic molecule and few studies have evaluated the role of the molecule in inflammatory cutaneous autoimmune diseases.
To evaluate the expression of HLA-G in skin specimens of patients with psoriasis and to analyse its correlation with epidemiological and clinical variables.
Thirty untreated patients with psoriasis and 32 healthy individuals were enrolled. Immunohistochemistry was applied to identify HLA-G expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cutaneous skin biopsies.
Soluble and membrane-bound HLA-G expression was detected in 30 (90%) of the skin specimens from patients presenting clinical and histopathological features of psoriasis. Although infiltrating lymphomononuclear cells of the dermis exhibited HLA-G expression, the epidermis was primarily targeted. HLA-G expression was also observed in 27% (three of 11) of the specimens that exhibited no clinical and histopathological features of psoriasis (nonaffected areas). In contrast, skin specimens obtained from healthy individuals exhibited no HLA-G expression (P < 0·0001). The intensity of HLA-G expression was not associated with type I/II psoriasis, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score or clinical forms.
As the HLA-G molecule was consistently expressed in affected and, to a lesser extent, in nonaffected areas of untreated patients with psoriasis, irrespective of the severity of the clinical variants, one may hypothesize that the presence of HLA-G may be responsible, at least in part, for the regulation of autoimmune effector cells.
British Journal of Dermatology 10/2010; 163(4):769-75. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common head and neck cancer. Only in Brazil, the estimate is for 14,160 new cases in 2009. HPV is associated with increasing risk of oral cancer, but its role in carcinogenesis is still controversial. BUBR1, an important protein in the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), has been associated with some virus-encoded proteins and cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of BUBR1 in non-malignant oral lesions and OSCC with and without metastasis associated with HPV infection. We performed immunohistochemistry for BUBR1 in 70 OSCC biopsies divided into three groups (in situ tumors, invasive tumors without metastasis and invasive tumors with metastasis) with their respective lymph nodes from samples with metastasis and in 16 non-malignant oral lesions. PCR was performed in order to detect HPV DNA. Significantly higher BUBR1 expression associated with shorter survival (p=0.0479) was observed in malignant lesions. There was also a significant correlation (r=1.000) with BUBR1 expression in lesions with metastasis and their lymph nodes. Ninety percent of OSCC and 100% of benign lesions were HPV positive. HPV16 and HVP18 were present in 13 and 24% of HPV-positive OSCC samples, respectively. HPV was more prevalent (76%) in samples with a high BUBR1 expression and the absence of viral DNA had no influence on BUBR1 expression. These findings suggest that HPV could be associated with overexpression of BUBR1 in OSCC, but not in benign oral lesions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental models of infection are good tools for establishing immunological parameters that have an effect on the host-pathogen relationship and also for designing new vaccines and immune therapies. In this work, we evaluated the evolution of experimental tuberculosis in mice infected with increasing bacterial doses or via distinct routes. We showed that mice infected with low bacterial doses by the intratracheal route were able to develop a progressive infection that was proportional to the inoculum size. In the initial phase of disease, mice developed a specific Th1-driven immune response independent of inoculum concentration. However, in the late phase, mice infected with higher concentrations exhibited a mixed Th1/Th2 response, while mice infected with lower concentrations sustained the Th1 pattern. Significant IL-10 concentrations and a more preeminent T regulatory cell recruitment were also detected at 70 days post-infection with high bacterial doses. These results suggest that mice infected with higher concentrations of bacilli developed an immune response similar to the pattern described for human tuberculosis wherein patients with progressive tuberculosis exhibit a down modulation of IFN-gamma production accompanied by increased levels of IL-4. Thus, these data indicate that the experimental model is important in evaluating the protective efficacy of new vaccines and therapies against tuberculosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histoplasmosis is a pulmonary disease characterised by chronic granulomatous and suppurative inflammatory reactions caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. Regarding new therapies to control fungal infections, the aim of this study was to investigate whether pulmonary administration of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4))-loaded microspheres (MS) could confer protection to 5-lipoxygenase knockout (5-LO(-/-)) mice infected by H. capsulatum. In this study, MS containing LTB(4) were administered intranasally to mice infected by H. capsulatum. On Day 14 after the infection, fungal recovery from the lungs and histology were evaluated and inflammatory cytokines were measured. Pulmonary administration of LTB(4)-loaded MS was able to reduce fungal recovery from infected lungs. Production of important inflammatory cytokines related to host defence was augmented following MS administration to the lungs. Lung histology also showed that infected mice presented a clear reduction in the fungal burden following the pulmonary release of LTB(4) from MS. Our study provides evidence that the proposed biodegradable microparticulate system, which can release LTB(4) to the lungs, can be employed as therapy, enhancing the antimicrobial activity of host cells during histoplasmosis.
International journal of antimicrobial agents 11/2009; 34(4):365-9. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in oral carcinogenesis is still unclear, the purpose of this study was to verify the association between the expression of p27, mdm2 and cathepsin B and by HPV-related oral lesions. Fifty-five oral biopsies were studied and HPV detection and typing (6/11, 16, 18, 31 and 33) were performed using polymerase chain reaction techniques. The distribution p27, mdm2 and cathepsin B was determined by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-one (38%) out of the 55 oral lesions tested positive for HPV, of which 6 (33%) were HPV 6/11, 1 (5%) was HPV 16, 14 (72%) were HPV 18 and none was HPV 33/31. Among the 55 biopsies, immunopositivity for p27, mdm2 and cathepsin B was observed in 17 (30.9%), 37 (67.2%) and 37 (67.2%), respectively. Among 21 HPV-positive oral lesions, immunopositivity of mdm2, p27 and cathepsin B was found, respectively, in 6 (33%) out of 18 benign lesions (BL), 4 (22%) out of 18 potential malignant epithelial lesions (PMEL) and 11 (57.9%) out of 19 malignant lesions (ML). High-risk HPV types may be associated with oral carcinoma, by cell-cycle control dysregulation, contributing to oral carcinogenesis and the overexpression of mdm2, p27 and cathepsin B.