[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Observational and clinical studies suggest different responses upon sex hormone replacement therapy in ischaemic heart disease. Few studies, however, have examined the impact of oestrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms on the extent of injury after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, we set out to evaluate the effect of oestrogen (E2) replacement on infarct size and remodelling, and the respective role of the oestrogen receptors (ER)alpha and -beta in this process, using ERalpha- and ERbeta-deficient mice.
Wild type (WT) (ERalpha(+/+) and ERbeta(+/+)), ERalpha-deficient (ERalpha(-/-)) and ERbeta-deficient (ERbeta(-/-)) mice were ovariectomized and subsequently supplemented with E2 or placebo using subcutaneous 60-day release pellets. MI was induced by left coronary artery ligation. Two weeks following MI, haemodynamic function was assessed and infarct size was determined.
There was no significant difference in infarct size between E2- or placebo-treated WT (ERalpha(+/+) and ERbeta(+/+)) mice. Surprisingly, E2 treatment did result in smaller infarct sizes in ERalpha(-/-) mice, but increased the infarct size in ERbeta(-/-) mice. Increase of the left ventricular mass post-MI was significantly larger in the E2-treated ERalpha(-/-) animals compared with placebo-treated animals. E2 treatment also significantly increased post-MI mortality in ERalpha(+/+), ERbeta(+/+) and ERalpha(-/-) animals, but not in ERbeta(-/-) mice.
Although E2 modulates the infarct size in ERalpha(-/-), it also appears to be responsible for the higher mortality following MI. ERbeta appears to be the receptor involved in the modulating effects of E2 in the infarcted heart.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) displays significant gender-based differences. 17beta-estradiol (E2) plays an important role in this process because it can attenuate pressure overload hypertrophy via 2 distinct estrogen receptors (ERs): ERalpha and ERbeta. However, which ER is critically involved in the modulation of LVH is poorly understood. We therefore used ERalpha-deficient (ERalpha-/-) and ERbeta-deficient (ERbeta-/-) mice to analyze the respective ER-mediated effects.
Respective ER-deficient female mice were ovariectomized and were given E2 or placebo subcutaneously using 60-day release pellets. After 2 weeks, they underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation. In ERalpha-/- animals, TAC led to a significant increase in ventricular mass compared with sham operation. E2 treatment reduced TAC induced cardiac hypertrophy significantly in wild-type (WT) and ERalpha-/- mice but not in ERbeta-/- mice. Biochemical analysis showed that E2 blocked the increased phosphorylation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase observed in TAC-treated ERalpha-/- mice. Moreover, E2 led to an increase of ventricular atrial natriuretic factor expression in WT and ERalpha-/- mice.
These findings demonstrate that E2, through ERbeta-mediated mechanisms, protects the murine heart against LVH.