[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently showed that in biotin starvation in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and rat Rattus norvegicus, despite abundant glucose provision, the expression of genes for glucose utilization and lipogenesis were lowered, and for fatty acid β-oxidation and gluconeogenesis were raised, and glycolytic/fermentative flow was reduced. This work explored the mechanisms of these results. We show that they are associated with ATP deficit and activation of the energy stress sensor AMP kinase (AMPK; Snf1 in yeast). Analysis of microarray results revealed extensive changes of transcripts for signal transduction pathways and transcription factors AMPK, SREBP-1c, ChREBP, NAMPT, PGC-1α, mTORC1 in rat, and their homologs in worm. In yeast the altered factor transcripts were Adr1, Cat8, Sip4, Mig1, HXK2, and Rgt1. The insulin pathway was negatively enriched (in rat and worm), whereas the adiponectins and JAK/STAT pathways were increased (present only in the rat; they activate AMPK). Together, all these changes explain the effects of biotin starvation on glucose utilization, energy status and carbon metabolism gene expression in a coherent manner across three phylogenetically distant eukaryotes and may have clinical significance in humans, since the effects are reminiscent of insulin resistance. We propose a general model for integrating these results in regulatory circuitries, according to the biology of each species, based on impaired anaplerosis due to pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, that have a basic underlying logic. In a preliminary test in yeast, aspartate corrects all the alterations produced by biotin starvation.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 01/2011; 102(1):69-77. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biotin affects the genetic expression of several glucose metabolism enzymes, besides being a cofactor of carboxylases. To explore how extensively biotin affects the expression of carbon metabolism genes, we studied the effects of biotin starvation and replenishment in 3 distantly related eukaryotes: yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and rat Rattus norvegicus.
Biotin starvation was produced in Wistar rats, in C. elegans N2 and S. cerevisiae W303A fed with abundant glucose. High-density oligonucleotide microarrays were used to find gene expression changes. Glucose consumption, lactate and ethanol were measured by conventional tests.
In spite of abundant glucose provision, the expression of fatty oxidation and gluconeogenic genes was augmented, and the transcripts for glucose utilization and lipogenesis were diminished in biotin starvation. These results were associated with diminished glucose consumption and glycolysis products (lactate and ethanol in yeast), which was consistent across 3 very different eukaryotes.
The results point toward a strongly selected role of biotin in the control of carbon metabolism, and in adaptations to variable availability of carbon, conceivably mediated by signal transduction including soluble guanylate cyclase, cGMP and a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and/or biotin-dependent processes.
Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics 01/2010; 3(1):18-30. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hexokinase-catalyzed glucose phosphorylation is the first and crucial step for glucose utilization. Although there are reported studies on glucose metabolism in commercial species, knowledge on it is almost nil in zebrafish (Danio rerio), an important model organism for biological research. We have searched these fish hexokinase genes by BLAST analysis; determined their expression in liver, muscle, brain and heart; measured their response to fasting and glucose administration; and performed homology sequences studies to glimpse their evolutionary history. We have confirmed by RT-qPCR studies that the six DNA sequences annotated as possible hexokinases in the NCBI GenBank are transcribed. The organ distribution of the HXK genes is similar in zebrafish as in mammals, to which they are distantly related. Of these, DrGLK and DrSHXK1 are expressed in the fish liver, DrHXK1 in brain and heart, and DrHXK2 in muscle. The only gene responsive to glucose was liver DrGLK. Its expression is induced approximately 1 h after glucose intraperitoneal injection, but not after saline solution injection. The comparison of the fish sequences and the corresponding mammalian ones imply that in both taxa the main muscle and brain isoforms are fusion products of the ancestral gene, their amino halves having separated before than their carboxy ones, followed by the fusion event, whereas fish and mammalian glucokinase genes remained unduplicated.
Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 01/2009; 152(2):189-95. · 1.61 Impact Factor